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Cyber Violance Essays

“The saying, if sticks and stones will break my bones, but words will never hurt me was ever true, it sure isn’t true today”(Bazelon, 2013). Cyber violence has great negative impacts especially on young teenagers, such as posting offensive messages on Facebook or on cellular phones by teenagers. This paper is based on Facebook Scope and its outcome, due to other perspectives on Facebook and internet usage, for instance parents V school in children’s responsibility and should we ban Facebook or allow open accesses?
However the new generation are extremely dependent on using technology and often involves everyday use. And due to the new technology kids are able to accesses internet easier and without parent’s supervision; this increases the risk of awful behaviour during internet usage, such as exposure to violence, pornography, cyber bullying and also drugs. A form of this kind of violence as an example can be based on verbal threats and this can cause a psychological effect due to cyber bullying and cyber victimization.
According to a recent research made by professor Donna Cross 1 in 10 teenagers have been affected by cyber bullying in Australia, this includes posting embarrassing photos, sending upsetting messages, spreading cruel rumours, making fake profiles, stealing password accounts and many other forms of bullying mainly through social networking sites, for example a high level of Cyber bullying found on “Facebook” and via mobile phones.
As Professor Cross stated that most Cyber bullying began amongst high school teenagers via internet and mobile phone usage and the type of cyber bullying is really dependant on the age group of those bullying and those who are affected (Perren et al. , 2010, Courier, 2012). The question for number one perspective is that: Should we ban Facebook for people under 18 to prevent cyber bullying? The registration for Facebook account is designed for people 13 and over, but there is no identification of prove of age it needed to be Facebook member, and due to the researchers and existing dangerous stories we are hearing everyday.
It seems to be that there are many fake Facebook accounts in regard to their date of birth, and this can be risky for our youngsters. Most bullies are anonymous and post comments on Facebook. So many parents are complaining about their kids using Facebook and this is because Facebook is an open access to join in, so they wanted some regulation that can be put in place to ban Facebook at least for under 13 years of age or increase the age of users. However the average age was found in cyber abuse are 14 (Ripley, C 2012).
The second perspective is seen as a directly opposite view of banning Facebook, So it is seen as in this is an overblown problem and we should allow open access to the internet, however from billions of internet users 22% of them are spending their time on Facebook and they mostly adolescents . Facebook has been very popular particularly in today everyday life, it has a positive result more than its negative, people are using it to communicate, to do business, study, religious reasons and sharing many other things, so social media seems to have more positives than negatives.
For that reason internet should be open access to everyone in anytime. Also in relation to cyber bullying this is an over blown problem and it is hard to overcome by banning Facebook, this is impossible because many people won’t agree with such a thing. However there are features in Facebook for preventing cyber bullying, it really depends on the users, they can block the other account or ignoring comments and also can report it in anytime. In addition there are some evidence of adolescents were talking about their experiences and they were in such a position and they overcame it by blocking and not receiving any other comments since then.
There are tools for parents and others to report underage usage or any cyber bulling. However Facebook is developing a system especially for parents to monitor and also can control the choice of Friends for their children’s account and they thinking of changing the age access to allow under 13 years of age to avoid lying of age. They are saying that it’s not discrimination based on age, also if they ban Facebook for children then must ban all internet for children because it’s not just Facebook that can be dangerous (Christofides et al. 2012),(Facebook,2013)(Aydin, 2012). “Research suggests that perception of risk does influence adolescents’ disclosure behaviour” (Christofides et al. , 2012, pp 715), so they say that social network sites should be privacy protected or a limit in sharing information with others in such a social media web pages, to help in reducing cyber bullying. Facebook has agreement sign up form before becoming a member, this is to control information that has been shared and to avoid violation of privacy and it’s called numerous privacy controls.
Also if internet is open access then parents and school can monitor their children, for example accessing through Facebook, to see what they are up to, and what are they doing from what they are posting. Today the easiest way to find information about someone is accessing Facebook. So in general more people are saying allow open access to the internet (Christofides et al. , 2012). So in terms of those two perspectives, school and parents were the most involved in the result of those agreements and had different views towards banning Facebook or open access to the internet.
Each had special view in relation to those perspectives. In general everyone especially parents expect the school to be a safe environment for their kids to learn, we know that Facebook is banned in schools in Australia but in some other countries such as United Stated it isn’t banned and parents are blaming schools when their children experience cyber bullying. However in Australia there still appears to be some violence but if anything happened in Facebook the school isn’t responsible for it because they would claim that they did what they could, such as banning Facebook so they are not responsible for it anymore.
If the child got abused or bullied from Facebook then it would be the parents responsibility to look after but off course they can ask for support from the school (Smith et al. , 2012, Shariff and Johnny, 2007). Using media technology is getting part of our everyday life and it is used everywhere by adults as well as children. Nearly every home, every school and workplace use media on a regular basis. Researchers have found that unfortunately technology has improved the level of cyber violence.
For example, in the past cyber violence was lower as the main source of social networking was via social sites on the net which could only be accessed by a computer or laptop, whereas currently social networking sites can be accessed where ever you are 24/7 via any smart phone with greater ease (Researchers, 2012, Perren et al. , 2010). According to Australian researchers cyber violence is increasing and has become a serious issue for the Australian government. This includes educational authorities, such as teachers as well as parents and their esponsibilities toward cyber violence at schools. They need to know how to be aware of it and deal with it correctly to minimise the harm caused to young teenagers. However the government has an important role in dealing with this issue such as providing more protection for school student by monitoring them and blocking some social websites such as Facebook and Twitter at school as previously mentioned. Also providing training or special compulsory classes about cyber violence, informing them of the risks that may affect them and how to deal with such a problem.
Also Australian Human Right Commission is in charge of developing acquired policies and practices to improve cyber safety and helps avoid cyber violence (Hanewald, Ria 2008,(Anonymous, 2010, Smith et al. , 2012, Martin and Rice, 2012). Depressive symptoms are found in many young Australian students, so cyber victimisation is another result of cyber violence. The high amounts of depressive symptoms are appearing from cyber bullying in schools and also involves adolescents. This study focuses on how cyber bullying verses traditional bullying resulting depressive symptoms.
Perren et al stated that “Adolescents who bully others are found to have more psychological and physical problems than their peers”, this can lead to higher risk of suicide and depression, which makes it more serious in tacking actions to avoid this from happening. According to Australian scale study, “that cyber- victimisation is associated with higher levels of stress symptoms” (Perren et al. , 2010,. p2), especially with adolescent also can lead to other bad behaviour such as smoking , drinking and low school grades.
So in relation to this research the outcome shows that there is a high number of high school students are engaging in such a problem the “cyber bullying” in school and this is mostly violence because as mobile phones and Facebook is ban on most Australian schools, but unfortunately cyber bullying still happening in some hidden ways and this where the risk of violence occurring (Perren et al. , 2010). A study was undertaken in few countries including Australia about “whether bullying in schools is increasing? ” Between 1990 to 2009.
The result shows that reporting traditional bullying is decreasing and there was no evidence of bullying being increased and the reason was because anti-bullying programs were running in most of the schools around the world and in average that reduced bullying up to %20, but on the other hand the shocking and the global matter was that cyber bullying was appearing and increasing and mostly in violence way. This is because of many cyber bullying wasn’t reported and also the development of cyber technology and the students’ everyday usage of internet and mobile phones by accessing social media such as Facebook.
This usage is engaging them in cyber bullying, and recently this was increasing. According to the Minister of Education in Australia, Julia Gillard, provided a media release in 2010 stating that “all of the research has found that the prevalence of bullying in our schools is on the rise”(Gillard 2010)” ( Rigby & Smith, 201,. Pp442), so in regard to the research of Australia and the survey that was taken in 1990s by Rigby (1998) from students aged 8-17 years and another one by Cross et al. 2009) aged 9-14 years, both results show that students where bullied minimum once a week (Rigby and Smith, 2011). So cyber bullying is getting the main common issue in Australia and mostly with junior’s high school in year eight to year ten students. However Many students were reporting that cyber bullying is more hurtful than face to face bullying. More than 80% of 12-18 and 20% 6-13 years old of young Australian youths and under age students own mobile phones , and due to the technology nearly all of them have Facebook accounts and can easily accesses it from there mobile phones.
However in regard to Australian law it’s illegal to own mobile phone for under age of 18 without parents’ permission and Facebook is from 13 years and above But unfortunately there is still illegal usage under age are found and it’s happening nearly every day and this is all violence, and when things come serious there isn’t much we can do or it might be too late. So at this stage parent’s role in regard to their children’s are very important before anything else to protect them particularly from cyber violence. Parents must understand that this is a very serious matter that may cause in losing or harming their child.
However some parents were complying about increasing the age of Facebook access, but others didn’t agree with this because they were saying if the children want to accesses they can by faking their age, and at this stage can be worse by unknowing the majority of age usage and it can be more violence (Sakellariou et al. , 2012), (Ripley, C 2012(Drennan et al. , 2011). As a consequence of cyber bullying the victim may feel a sense of insecurity at school and be discouraged to attend school and get involved in schooling activities which can affect the student’s education.
The statistics in regards to this issue showed that almost a quarter of the children in Australia have been reported to be cyber bullied especially those in the age group of 14-17 years (Brown, 2013). Cyber bullying is a type of violence that can affect the victim emotionally; therefore it can produce physical as well as mental health problems. This may include staying hurt for long periods, depression, high level of suicide, loss of self-esteem and many more other serious impacts that affect the overall wellbeing (Perren et al. 2010, Drennan et al. , 2011). To avoid or decrease cyber violence we need to inform all parents about the risks involved in regards to this issue and how to become aware of it and deal with it in the right manner. Off course they can’t just prevent their kids from using the internet; it’s like telling someone not to drive while they need to. Internet has become part of their everyday life and daily routine; even if we were to prevent them from using social networking they can get access from other places easily.
There are other ways that can help them avoid cyber bullying, for example parents’ responsibilities play important roles in this matter, such as by being close and open to their children, so they can be informed about what is happening to their children. Another important role is the schools responsibilities in regards to cyber bullying, for example blocking social web sites, offering Training/activities for parents, informing students as well as parents about the risks involved and most importantly provide punishments for bullies.
Also as it’s mentioned earlier, the government is in charge of developing policies and procedure in relation to cyber bullying (Keith and Martin, 2005, Perren et al. , 2010, Australia, 2013). Keith and Martin (2005, p1), suggest that “new technologies have made it easier for bullies to gain access to their victims” and for that reason it’s more difficult for both parents and school to control and administrate their kids, because they can communicate from internet in many unknown ways.
So in this stage adult need to be more knowledgeable especially with the new technology, also they must be aware at all times and try to join programs about cyber violence because sometimes what they see or hear from their kids can be meaningless to them and they might ignore it but it really means to the child and it might hurt them. The closest people to the affected child must be the parents and should understand them. However children hardly ever report any bullying to adults and seek help as they may be threatened or embarrassed and feel weak if they seek help.
So that’s why at the first level before school parents are in charge of taking care and being responsible before anyone else even school, they need to understand their feelings by being close to them. As Dr Gwenn O’Keeffe States that “Parents need to take responsibility for their children and stop trying to blame the media. ” (O’Keeffe, G 2011,. P2). So it’s really got to do with the parent’s reaction and response towards their kids (Keith and Martin, 2005, O’Keeffe, 2011).
It is evident that people can say more bad things online rather than saying it face to face as their identity isn’t known at most cases. In addition it is difficult to measure the exact statistics of those affected by cyber bullying due to the great number of unreported incidents. In conclusion, the outcomes provide proof that technology and internet has advantages and disadvantages, and the greatest disadvantage appears to be cyber violence. However cyber bullying is happening to many children on a regular basis from the ease of access to social networking and the increase of technology. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (United Nations Children’s Fund, 1998) identified adults as responsible for protecting children from all forms of physical and mental violence, injury, or abuse. ” So first parents then teachers must recognise and address the risk of cyber violence and it’s very important to protect the youth from this and all the negative impacts. There should be programs to educate parents of how to inform their children safety and beware of the risky behaviours of cyber bullying (Mishna et al. , 2009).
Due to the researches in this paper, the technology cannot be controlled. Technology is involved in everyday life for adult and children, however in relation of banning Facebook for under 18, the negatives are shown more than the positives. So there would still be violence and ways to use it even if it’s banned, and can lead to more fake identity access. In addition to have open internet accesses, and this is what the majority of people want, there are more positives such as parents can have more chance of getting close to their children, this can help in controlling cyber violence (Perren et al. , 2010).
“The saying, if sticks and stones will break my bones, but words will never hurt me was ever true, it sure isn’t true today”(Bazelon, 2013). Cyber violence has great negative impacts especially on young teenagers, such as posting offensive messages on Facebook or on cellular phones by teenagers. This paper is based on Facebook Scope and its outcome, due to other perspectives on Facebook and internet usage, for instance parents V school in children’s responsibility and should we ban Facebook or allow open accesses?
However the new generation are extremely dependent on using technology and often involves everyday use. And due to the new technology kids are able to accesses internet easier and without parent’s supervision; this increases the risk of awful behaviour during internet usage, such as exposure to violence, pornography, cyber bullying and also drugs. A form of this kind of violence as an example can be based on verbal threats and this can cause a psychological effect due to cyber bullying and cyber victimization.
According to a recent research made by professor Donna Cross 1 in 10 teenagers have been affected by cyber bullying in Australia, this includes posting embarrassing photos, sending upsetting messages, spreading cruel rumours, making fake profiles, stealing password accounts and many other forms of bullying mainly through social networking sites, for example a high level of Cyber bullying found on “Facebook” and via mobile phones.
As Professor Cross stated that most Cyber bullying began amongst high school teenagers via internet and mobile phone usage and the type of cyber bullying is really dependant on the age group of those bullying and those who are affected (Perren et al. , 2010, Courier, 2012). The question for number one perspective is that: Should we ban Facebook for people under 18 to prevent cyber bullying? The registration for Facebook account is designed for people 13 and over, but there is no identification of prove of age it needed to be Facebook member, and due to the researchers and existing dangerous stories we are hearing everyday.
It seems to be that there are many fake Facebook accounts in regard to their date of birth, and this can be risky for our youngsters. Most bullies are anonymous and post comments on Facebook. So many parents are complaining about their kids using Facebook and this is because Facebook is an open access to join in, so they wanted some regulation that can be put in place to ban Facebook at least for under 13 years of age or increase the age of users. However the average age was found in cyber abuse are 14 (Ripley, C 2012).
The second perspective is seen as a directly opposite view of banning Facebook, So it is seen as in this is an overblown problem and we should allow open access to the internet, however from billions of internet users 22% of them are spending their time on Facebook and they mostly adolescents . Facebook has been very popular particularly in today everyday life, it has a positive result more than its negative, people are using it to communicate, to do business, study, religious reasons and sharing many other things, so social media seems to have more positives than negatives.
For that reason internet should be open access to everyone in anytime. Also in relation to cyber bullying this is an over blown problem and it is hard to overcome by banning Facebook, this is impossible because many people won’t agree with such a thing. However there are features in Facebook for preventing cyber bullying, it really depends on the users, they can block the other account or ignoring comments and also can report it in anytime. In addition there are some evidence of adolescents were talking about their experiences and they were in such a position and they overcame it by blocking and not receiving any other comments since then.
There are tools for parents and others to report underage usage or any cyber bulling. However Facebook is developing a system especially for parents to monitor and also can control the choice of Friends for their children’s account and they thinking of changing the age access to allow under 13 years of age to avoid lying of age. They are saying that it’s not discrimination based on age, also if they ban Facebook for children then must ban all internet for children because it’s not just Facebook that can be dangerous (Christofides et al. 2012),(Facebook,2013)(Aydin, 2012). “Research suggests that perception of risk does influence adolescents’ disclosure behaviour” (Christofides et al. , 2012, pp 715), so they say that social network sites should be privacy protected or a limit in sharing information with others in such a social media web pages, to help in reducing cyber bullying. Facebook has agreement sign up form before becoming a member, this is to control information that has been shared and to avoid violation of privacy and it’s called numerous privacy controls.
Also if internet is open access then parents and school can monitor their children, for example accessing through Facebook, to see what they are up to, and what are they doing from what they are posting. Today the easiest way to find information about someone is accessing Facebook. So in general more people are saying allow open access to the internet (Christofides et al. , 2012). So in terms of those two perspectives, school and parents were the most involved in the result of those agreements and had different views towards banning Facebook or open access to the internet.
Each had special view in relation to those perspectives. In general everyone especially parents expect the school to be a safe environment for their kids to learn, we know that Facebook is banned in schools in Australia but in some other countries such as United Stated it isn’t banned and parents are blaming schools when their children experience cyber bullying. However in Australia there still appears to be some violence but if anything happened in Facebook the school isn’t responsible for it because they would claim that they did what they could, such as banning Facebook so they are not responsible for it anymore.
If the child got abused or bullied from Facebook then it would be the parents responsibility to look after but off course they can ask for support from the school (Smith et al. , 2012, Shariff and Johnny, 2007). Using media technology is getting part of our everyday life and it is used everywhere by adults as well as children. Nearly every home, every school and workplace use media on a regular basis. Researchers have found that unfortunately technology has improved the level of cyber violence.
For example, in the past cyber violence was lower as the main source of social networking was via social sites on the net which could only be accessed by a computer or laptop, whereas currently social networking sites can be accessed where ever you are 24/7 via any smart phone with greater ease (Researchers, 2012, Perren et al. , 2010). According to Australian researchers cyber violence is increasing and has become a serious issue for the Australian government. This includes educational authorities, such as teachers as well as parents and their esponsibilities toward cyber violence at schools. They need to know how to be aware of it and deal with it correctly to minimise the harm caused to young teenagers. However the government has an important role in dealing with this issue such as providing more protection for school student by monitoring them and blocking some social websites such as Facebook and Twitter at school as previously mentioned. Also providing training or special compulsory classes about cyber violence, informing them of the risks that may affect them and how to deal with such a problem.
Also Australian Human Right Commission is in charge of developing acquired policies and practices to improve cyber safety and helps avoid cyber violence (Hanewald, Ria 2008,(Anonymous, 2010, Smith et al. , 2012, Martin and Rice, 2012). Depressive symptoms are found in many young Australian students, so cyber victimisation is another result of cyber violence. The high amounts of depressive symptoms are appearing from cyber bullying in schools and also involves adolescents. This study focuses on how cyber bullying verses traditional bullying resulting depressive symptoms.
Perren et al stated that “Adolescents who bully others are found to have more psychological and physical problems than their peers”, this can lead to higher risk of suicide and depression, which makes it more serious in tacking actions to avoid this from happening. According to Australian scale study, “that cyber- victimisation is associated with higher levels of stress symptoms” (Perren et al. , 2010,. p2), especially with adolescent also can lead to other bad behaviour such as smoking , drinking and low school grades.
So in relation to this research the outcome shows that there is a high number of high school students are engaging in such a problem the “cyber bullying” in school and this is mostly violence because as mobile phones and Facebook is ban on most Australian schools, but unfortunately cyber bullying still happening in some hidden ways and this where the risk of violence occurring (Perren et al. , 2010). A study was undertaken in few countries including Australia about “whether bullying in schools is increasing? ” Between 1990 to 2009.
The result shows that reporting traditional bullying is decreasing and there was no evidence of bullying being increased and the reason was because anti-bullying programs were running in most of the schools around the world and in average that reduced bullying up to %20, but on the other hand the shocking and the global matter was that cyber bullying was appearing and increasing and mostly in violence way. This is because of many cyber bullying wasn’t reported and also the development of cyber technology and the students’ everyday usage of internet and mobile phones by accessing social media such as Facebook.
This usage is engaging them in cyber bullying, and recently this was increasing. According to the Minister of Education in Australia, Julia Gillard, provided a media release in 2010 stating that “all of the research has found that the prevalence of bullying in our schools is on the rise”(Gillard 2010)” ( Rigby & Smith, 201,. Pp442), so in regard to the research of Australia and the survey that was taken in 1990s by Rigby (1998) from students aged 8-17 years and another one by Cross et al. 2009) aged 9-14 years, both results show that students where bullied minimum once a week (Rigby and Smith, 2011). So cyber bullying is getting the main common issue in Australia and mostly with junior’s high school in year eight to year ten students. However Many students were reporting that cyber bullying is more hurtful than face to face bullying. More than 80% of 12-18 and 20% 6-13 years old of young Australian youths and under age students own mobile phones , and due to the technology nearly all of them have Facebook accounts and can easily accesses it from there mobile phones.
However in regard to Australian law it’s illegal to own mobile phone for under age of 18 without parents’ permission and Facebook is from 13 years and above But unfortunately there is still illegal usage under age are found and it’s happening nearly every day and this is all violence, and when things come serious there isn’t much we can do or it might be too late. So at this stage parent’s role in regard to their children’s are very important before anything else to protect them particularly from cyber violence. Parents must understand that this is a very serious matter that may cause in losing or harming their child.
However some parents were complying about increasing the age of Facebook access, but others didn’t agree with this because they were saying if the children want to accesses they can by faking their age, and at this stage can be worse by unknowing the majority of age usage and it can be more violence (Sakellariou et al. , 2012), (Ripley, C 2012(Drennan et al. , 2011). As a consequence of cyber bullying the victim may feel a sense of insecurity at school and be discouraged to attend school and get involved in schooling activities which can affect the student’s education.
The statistics in regards to this issue showed that almost a quarter of the children in Australia have been reported to be cyber bullied especially those in the age group of 14-17 years (Brown, 2013). Cyber bullying is a type of violence that can affect the victim emotionally; therefore it can produce physical as well as mental health problems. This may include staying hurt for long periods, depression, high level of suicide, loss of self-esteem and many more other serious impacts that affect the overall wellbeing (Perren et al. 2010, Drennan et al. , 2011). To avoid or decrease cyber violence we need to inform all parents about the risks involved in regards to this issue and how to become aware of it and deal with it in the right manner. Off course they can’t just prevent their kids from using the internet; it’s like telling someone not to drive while they need to. Internet has become part of their everyday life and daily routine; even if we were to prevent them from using social networking they can get access from other places easily.
There are other ways that can help them avoid cyber bullying, for example parents’ responsibilities play important roles in this matter, such as by being close and open to their children, so they can be informed about what is happening to their children. Another important role is the schools responsibilities in regards to cyber bullying, for example blocking social web sites, offering Training/activities for parents, informing students as well as parents about the risks involved and most importantly provide punishments for bullies.
Also as it’s mentioned earlier, the government is in charge of developing policies and procedure in relation to cyber bullying (Keith and Martin, 2005, Perren et al. , 2010, Australia, 2013). Keith and Martin (2005, p1), suggest that “new technologies have made it easier for bullies to gain access to their victims” and for that reason it’s more difficult for both parents and school to control and administrate their kids, because they can communicate from internet in many unknown ways.
So in this stage adult need to be more knowledgeable especially with the new technology, also they must be aware at all times and try to join programs about cyber violence because sometimes what they see or hear from their kids can be meaningless to them and they might ignore it but it really means to the child and it might hurt them. The closest people to the affected child must be the parents and should understand them. However children hardly ever report any bullying to adults and seek help as they may be threatened or embarrassed and feel weak if they seek help.
So that’s why at the first level before school parents are in charge of taking care and being responsible before anyone else even school, they need to understand their feelings by being close to them. As Dr Gwenn O’Keeffe States that “Parents need to take responsibility for their children and stop trying to blame the media. ” (O’Keeffe, G 2011,. P2). So it’s really got to do with the parent’s reaction and response towards their kids (Keith and Martin, 2005, O’Keeffe, 2011).
It is evident that people can say more bad things online rather than saying it face to face as their identity isn’t known at most cases. In addition it is difficult to measure the exact statistics of those affected by cyber bullying due to the great number of unreported incidents. In conclusion, the outcomes provide proof that technology and internet has advantages and disadvantages, and the greatest disadvantage appears to be cyber violence. However cyber bullying is happening to many children on a regular basis from the ease of access to social networking and the increase of technology. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (United Nations Children’s Fund, 1998) identified adults as responsible for protecting children from all forms of physical and mental violence, injury, or abuse. ” So first parents then teachers must recognise and address the risk of cyber violence and it’s very important to protect the youth from this and all the negative impacts. There should be programs to educate parents of how to inform their children safety and beware of the risky behaviours of cyber bullying (Mishna et al. , 2009).
Due to the researches in this paper, the technology cannot be controlled. Technology is involved in everyday life for adult and children, however in relation of banning Facebook for under 18, the negatives are shown more than the positives. So there would still be violence and ways to use it even if it’s banned, and can lead to more fake identity access. In addition to have open internet accesses, and this is what the majority of people want, there are more positives such as parents can have more chance of getting close to their children, this can help in controlling cyber violence (Perren et al. , 2010).
References

AQATSTON, P., KOWALSKI, R., LIMBER, S 2007, ‘Students’ Perspectives on Cyber Bullying’, Journal of Adolescent Health, Vol. 41, no., (Suppl) S22-S30. http://www.jahonline.org/article/S1054-139X(07)00368-0/fulltext ANONYMOUS. 2010. Action on school cyber bullying THE Bligh Labor Government should… [Derived headline]. Daily News. AUSTRALIA, C. O. 2013. Cyber (Smart:) [Online]. Available: http://www.cybersmart.gov.au/ [Accessed 15, Feb 2013]. AYDIN, S. 2012. A review of research on Facebook as an educational environment. Educational Technology, Research and Development, 60, 1093-1106. BAZELON, E. 2013. Sticks and Stones: Defeating the Culture of Bullying and Rediscovering the power of character and Empathy, New York, Random House. BROWN, C. 2013. Cyber Bullying [Online]. Available: http://today.ninemsn.com.au/entertainment/840251/cyber-bullying [Accessed 11,March 2013]. CHRISTOFIDES, E., MUISE, A. & DESMARAIS, S. 2012. Risky Disclosures on Facebook: The Effect of Having a Bad Experience on Online Behavior. Journal of Adolescent Research, 27, 714-731. COURIER, P. N. G. P.-. 2012.
Facebook users becoming victims of cyber bullying. Papua New Guinea Post – Courier. DRENNAN, J., BROWN, M. R. & GILLIAN SULLIVAN, M. 2011. Phone bullying: impact on self-esteem and well-being. Young Consumers, 12, 295-309. KEITH, S. & MARTIN, M. E. 2005. Cyber-Bullying: Creating a Culture of Respect in a Cyber World. Reclaiming Children and Youth, 13, 224-228. MARTIN, N. & RICE, J. 2012. Children’s cyber-safety and protection in Australia: An analysis of community stakeholder views. Crime Prevention and Community Safety, 14, 165-181. MISHNA, F., MCLUCKIE, A. & SAINI, M. 2009. Real-World Dangers in an Online Reality: A Qualitative Study Examining Online Relationships and Cyber Abuse. Social Work Research, 33, 107-118. O’KEEFFE, G. 2011. Bullying; iPhone App Promoting Cyber-Bullying Reaches 3 Million Users. Psychology & Psychiatry Journal, 172. PERREN, S., DOOLEY, J., SHAW, T. & CROSS, D. 2010. Bullying in school and cyberspace: Associations with depressive symptoms in Swiss and Australian adolescents. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 4, 28.
RESEARCHERS 2012.

Bullying; Researchers from Macquarie University Detail New Studies and Findings in the Area of Bullying. Psychology & Psychiatry Journal, 201. RIGBY, K. & SMITH, P. K. 2011. Is school bullying really on the rise? Social Psychology of Education : An International Journal, 14, 441-455. SAKELLARIOU, T., CARROLL, A. & HOUGHTON, S. 2012. Rates of cyber victimization and bullying among male Australian primary and high school students. School Psychology International, 33, 533. SHARIFF, S. & JOHNNY, L. 2007. Cyber-Libel and Cyber-Bullying: Can Schools Protect Student Reputations and Free-Expression in Virtual Environments? Education Law Journal, 16, 307-342. SMITH, P. K., SALMIVALLI, C. & COWIE, H. 2012. Effectiveness of school-based programs to reduce bullying: a commentary. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 8, 433-441.

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