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EYMP 5. 1 A child’s development and their use of speech, language and communication are crucial in their current and future learning’s. In these early stages allot of their teaching is delivered verbally. Good communication skills enable children to make friends, participate in group activities and develop advanced thinking skills. Building solid foundations at this stage is key as the inability to master speech, language and communication often results in children developing literacy and numeracy difficulties later on in their infant and preschool life. Children’s later achievements are dependent on their ability to communicate effectively.
That’s why it is vitally that all caregivers and parents make every effort to help all children to become confident and skilful communicators. Speech The dictionary describes speech as; the expression of or the ability to express thoughts and feelings by articulate sounds; a person’s style of speaking. Speech refers to the sound system of a language as well as how sounds are made in the mouth to form spoken words. All languages have different sound systems, the English language alone has 40 different sounds or phonemes that a child will need to familiarize themselves with.
Speech refers to: • Saying sounds accurately and in the right places in words • The sounds people use to communicate words • Speaking fluently, without hesitating, or prolonging or repeating words or sounds • Speaking with expression with a clear voice, using pitch, volume and intonation to support meaning. Language The dictionary describes language as; the method of human communication, either spoken or written, consisting of the use of words in a structured and conventional way; any nonverbal method of expressional or communication “a language of gesture and facial expression”
Language refers to speaking and understanding language; using words to build up sentences, sentences to build up conversations and longer stretches of spoken language, understanding and making sense of what people say. Language is the structure in which words are used. The language system consists of: • Grammar • vocabulary and semantics • pragmatics Grammar is the way in which one or more words can be used to make sentences, it also used to indicate things such determining a tense- past or present.
For example I’m dancing changed to’ I danced’. vocabulary and semantics describes a set of words that are used – children’s earliest words are often labels for familiar people, objects and animals, their surroundings; as their language develops they begin to understand that words can have different and wider meanings and can be used in many different ways (semantics); Pragmatics is about appropriate use of language in different situations, for example beginning to understand what a question is and that it requires an answer.
These skills are used in both the understanding and the production of words and sentences, and children may have difficulties in any of these areas. Communication The dictionary describes communication as; the imparting or exchanging of information or news; a letter or message containing such information or news. Language is used to represent concepts and thoughts. Using language in different ways; to question, clarify, describe etc. Non-verbal rules of communication; good listening, looking at people Communication describes the different methods that humans can use to pass on messages to other people.
Although there are many methods of communication these are categorized into two methods verbal and nonverbal communication. Which in simple terms means it can be spoken or written. Verbal communication is ‘spoken’ with verbal communication you can also have spoken and written communication examples include: • Writing a letter • Making a poster • Having a telephone call • Group discussion • Television • Radio Non verbal communication is unspoken and can include: • the use of using pictures or symbols • gestures (waving goodbye or nodding in agreement) A signing system. • Body language • Voice quality • Eye contact • Gestures • Facial expression • Rhythm Speech, language and communication needs. Speech, language and communication needs describe children who: • Have difficulties communicating with others • find it hard to express themselves effectively • find it difficult understanding what is being said to them • their unconventional behavior makes it difficult for caregivers to understand there way of communicating This will of course affect children differently according to the severity of he problem, if their environment is supportive and nurturing of their additional needs and what subconscious coping mechanism if any they have developed to help them. SLCN (Speech, Language and Communication Needs) as it is widely known may affect children in all or some of the following areas • Social and emotional development • Making and sustaining friendships • Learning appropriate behavioral skills • Accessing play and learning opportunities • Natural progression of language skills • Development of literacy, numeracy, ICT and other EYFS curriculum areas
Children and young people may have difficulties across one or many of the different elements of speech, language and communication resulting in a communication breakdown. SLCN is often known as a ‘hidden disability’, it is not always easily recognised and children can become quite proficient at hiding the true nature of their difficulties. There are many different terms used to describe difficulties with communication, which can be confusing. SLCN is used to describe the whole group of children who have difficulty with some aspect or aspects of communicating.
This may be minor and temporary, or it may be complex and long-term. In severe cases to promote good communication skills some children may use electronic aids or signing systems to communicate, as they may be unable to make themselves understood through speech. 5-7% of children starting school, have SLCN in the absence of any other difficulty. They do not have a general learning difficulty, or any physical or sensory impairment. This is often referred to as specific language impairment (SLI). A child with SLI may have difficulty in only one, or a combination of language areas.
The nature and complexity of their difficulties can often be hidden due to skills they have in other areas. Very often there is no identified cause of SLI. Many more children and young people have SLCN as art of another condition. SLCN are a feature central to and common across most areas of disability. They represent the most prevalent type of special educational need (SEN) amongst pupils with statements of SEN. The following are examples of some of the conditions where children and young people are more likely to have SLCN: • General learning difficulty (mild, moderate, severe, profound) • Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Syndromes such as Down’s syndrome, Williams syndrome, Worcester-Drought syndrome, Fragile X • Sensory impairment (hearing, visual or multi-sensory) • Cerebral palsy. • Dyslexia • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) /Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) Explain how speech, language and communication skills support each of the following areas in children’s development: Learning Babies communicate from birth, and are eager and ready to further their communication skills by interacting with adults and familiar faces constantly.
From their first sounds, their first eye contact or their first attempts to copy mouth movements, babies and children are reaching out for some affirmation and encouragement from the people around them. Practitioners, leaders and managers need to ensure that they have a plan for the development of all children’s speech, language and communication skills: children with limited vocabularies need to be targeted early, as catching up later is very difficult. This approach should include details of how children who do not have well developed skills, or have speech, language and communication needs, are being identified and included.
Caregivers need to identify those children who have limited language experience and who struggle to communicate their needs and ideas or to make themselves understood. They need to ensure that these children are being included in regular structured language activities that particularly focus on developing vocabulary. This must not be left to chance: the early years of a child’s life will lay the foundations for their understanding of language and their later success in literacy.
Children are naturally active learners, and it is easier for them to understand words like ‘over’ and ‘under’ in real life situations such as when you give them opportunities to walk ‘over’ a bridge made from large wooden construction equipment and to crawl back ‘under’, while saying and emphasising the words. Children learn an object’s name easier when they themselves and an adult are jointly focused on the same object. Even babies as young as one year old will tune in to the adult’s focus of attention; they follow the adult’s gaze and assume that the adult is labelling what the adult is looking at.
Nouns (object names) are best learned when the adult speaks while pointing, whereas verbs (labelling an event) are better learned when the adult speaks before or after demonstrating the event – for example, ‘we’re going to bake the buns in the oven’ or ‘look, now the buns have been baked we can eat them! ’ It is important for caregivers to be clear about the words that they want to introduce or practise with the child/children, talking to them in ways that help them to develop their vocabulary, and give them opportunities to talk so that they can develop their understanding of how to use these new words in different situations.
Talking and giving a running commentary about the play children are involved in will support their learning too. By receiving an ongoing description of the activity, the child will hear the language that is associated with their play, but they won’t be distracted from it by having to answer lots of questions; they will be able to develop it as they wish, and will perhaps volunteer to join in a conversation with you about it. If practitioners are to support the development of children’s language comprehension, it is important to develop not only children’s vocabulary but also their language for thinking.
Books, stories, rhymes and songs all have an important part to play. Supporting these with actions or objects aids children’s understanding. ‘Heads and Shoulders, Knees and Toes’ is an easy example to think about: children are touching the appropriate parts of their body as they say the words. Consider how you could use objects and actions relating to other rhymes and songs: for example, a mouse finger- puppet for ‘Hickory, Dickory, Dock’. These objects can also be left out so that children can share the rhymes and songs with each other in their play.
Equipment such as karaoke machines and microphones give children opportunities to sing and perform to an audience independently. Reading and sharing books every day is a vital part of children’s early learning experiences. Research has shown that dialogic book reading is a powerful way of using books to support children’s language development (Wasik, Bond and Hindman, 2006). Dialogic book reading involves reading picture books and talking about what’s happening, with the adult asking questions, providing additional information, and encouraging children to describe scenes and events.
It is important to provide descriptions of unfamiliar vocabulary and to relate the book and the vocabulary to the children’s own experiences. It’s important to remember to use real objects to illustrate nouns and use actions to illustrate verbs and prepositions (such as over, under). Re-reading favourite stories, or setting up play activities related to a story, helps to repeat and reinforce new ideas and information, and is helpful to all children, but can be especially helpful to children experiencing difficulties.
Setting up play activities, with appropriate equipment linked to a story, gives children the opportunity to reinforce their learning in their play. For example, when reading the story of Goldilocks and the Three Bears, set up the role-play area as the bears’ house and take up the role of one of the characters. Practitioners should join the children in their role play. This gives the children the opportunity to re-enact the story, with the adult modelling the language and vocabulary.
Handling and using the objects (such as the three bowls), and linking words to them (such as ‘big’, ‘bigger’, ‘small’ and ‘smallest’) helps to reinforce their understanding too. All areas of learning are interconnected, and a strategy for the development of speech, language and communication needs to recognise how these connections can happen in practice. Practitioners should not be planning to develop these skills in isolation from all the other areas of learning.
You should be considering the individual and the collective needs and interests of the children within your setting, and thinking about the experiences, both adult-led and child-initiated, that you can be providing to further their speech, language and communication skills across the whole range of learning areas. Take the three bears role play area as an example. This play opportunity aims to support children in re-enacting the story, but it also supports learning in other areas. As they develop the play, children may be involved in: Personal Social and Emotional Development – children will be learning through an activity that is interesting, exciting and motivating, and they will be making relationships with other children as they negotiate roles or share equipment; • Problem Solving, Reasoning and Numeracy – the relationships between numbers and amounts, putting out three bowls, shapes, and quantities (‘too much’, ‘too little’, ‘just right’); • Knowledge and Understanding of the World – some children might be learning how to solve problems, and how to carry three bowls at once without dropping one, while others could be making porridge to eat in their role play, noticing and discussing how it changes as it is cooked; • Physical Development – washing and drying the dishes after using them in their role play can lead to thoughts about hygiene, and will also help to develop physical skills, as they balance a bowl in one hand and a tea-towel in the other; • Creative Development – expressing and communicating thoughts and feelings, developing imagination, and imaginative play. Practitioners should be alert to the opportunities that are available to develop children’s speech, language and communication skills within all six areas of learning. As a setting working with children with speech, language and communication needs, its imperative to be thinking about what opportunities there are for promoting ‘sustained shared thinking’.
The EYFS gives the following explanation of what this is: • Adults are aware of the child’s interests and understandings, and the adult and child work together to develop an idea or skill. • In the most effective settings, practitioners support and challenge children’s thinking by getting involved in the thinking process with them. • There are positive, trusting relationships between adults and children. • The adults show genuine interest, offer encouragement, clarify ideas, and ask open questions, supporting and extending children’s thinking and helping them to make connections in learning. Sustained shared thinking has been identified as a key feature of learning and teaching in the early years.
A great deal of learning in the early years comes from the social interactions and shared activities that children take part in with both adults and children. Adults can ensure that these interactions become valuable learning opportunities by becoming really involved in children’s ideas and working with them to develop an idea or a skill. Games are a great way that allows to children can play and indirectly work on speech and language. Learning language does not have to be done just in a structured environment. When children are playing games practitioners need to let them focus on speech and language. Play includes also working on social skills, turn-taking, observing, listening and attention, so it’s a win win situation. Toys Toys are fun and great for involving children.
The type of toys that are beneficial to children will obviously be associated with their age, but even with the simplest toys practitioners can create fun activities and provide lots of situations for learning and developing speech and language. Imagine building a tower with wooden blocks – a simple game, but with loads of opportunities: Building a tower Speech and Language opportunities – adjectives (higher, up), verbs (fall down, build), prepositions (on-top), nouns (colours, numbers) Social skills – turntaking, joint focus, sharing Listening, attending, observing this demonstrates that even a simple game with wooden blocks involves all sorts of language and play skills. Look at books Books are great for having a shared focus and for learning new words.
Books can also play a key part in developing speech and literacy skills later on. As with language games and games with toys, there are many ways to use books and the pictures to focus on language. Carers can focus on books with symbolic sounds for early speech or storybooks to focus on language. Books are a great way to work on lots of skills and children love them. Role play Dressing up is great fun and playing different roles will expand your child’s imagination. In fact you do not even have to dress up to do role play. Games involving different characters will allow you to introduce lots of new related language and stretch your child’s creative play skills.
For instance, if you pretended to be firemen putting out a fire, think how many related words you could use” fire, fireman, fire engine, ladder, water, hose, burning, building, driving, climbing, up, down, smoke, hat, boots, jackets, save, squirt, bucket, fire out, hero, etc etc etc. Role play is great for expanding your child’s imagination and introducing new vocabulary. Music Music is also a great way to involve your child and can be used in many ways to enhance speech and language. Music is good for getting your child to listen, and experiencing a shared focus. You can read books and follow music singing the songs as you point to the pictures. Songs also focus on intonation and stress and have a beat to them which helps with aspects of speech development. These are skills we all use when talking and syllable awareness is important when learning to talk.
Music can be used to enhance language and some songs can be sung involving actions and thus creating the link between words and actions. Explain how speech, language and communication skills support each of the following areas in children’s development: Emotional If a child or young person does not receive the right help in combating their communication disabilities in a timely manner, the risks of that disability having a long-term effect on their future lives is greatly increased. SLCNs can, if left untreated, lead to lower education attainment, behavioural problems, emotional and psychological difficulties, poorer employment prospects, challenges to mental health, and in some cases, a descent into criminality.
Equally, for those who are already experiencing any of these issues, appropriate therapy provision is essential to mitigate the effects of the SLCN and provide a way out. Its good practice for Practitioners to develop their skills to promote sustained shared thinking, and children also need to feel confident in this process. They need to know that the practitioner genuinely respects their thoughts and ideas and values them (see ‘Positive relationships’). It may take a while to establish the practice of sustained shared thinking in a setting because it means that adults need to reflect on and change their practice. Children need to feel that they have ‘permission’ to have this two-way interaction.
Much of the communication in settings is directed and led by adults; often children are not asked for their opinions and ideas, but they need to feel confident and trust the adults to respect their views. Caregivers need to remember that it may be more difficult to read the expressions and responses of a child who has speech, language and communication needs. It is the responsibility of the practitioner to make the interaction work. The team should discuss the child’s needs and plan how that child can be supported to become involved in sustained shared thinking. The aim of the strategy should be that all children in the setting be supported to become confident, skilful communicators. It is important to spend time as a team discussing your approach to the development of speech, language and communication skills.
Plan the steps, and the progress each child should be making, and when children develop more slowly, or have specific needs, support their learning by breaking down those steps into smaller, achievable ones. A strategy should include how you are going to record and analyse children’s progress and achievements in speech, language and communication. Settings need to be sure that children are making progress. This means that there must be good systems in place to record achievements. Analysing those achievements is vital. If individual children, or the whole group, are not making the progress that you would expect, the staff team, with leaders and managers, will need to reflect on why this is happening, identify the barriers to progress, and plan to overcome them. The impact of SLCN can seriously affect the outcome of children’s learning.
It is often a daily challenge for children with SLCN to make their thoughts and needs known and to make themselves understood; just listening to the amount of language in school can be an overwhelming task in itself. Literacy Well-developed language and subsequent literacy skills are crucial factors in ensuring access to the whole of the curriculum, later academic success, positive self-esteem and improved life chances. The link between speech, language and literacy skills has been well documented in the literature. There is research evidence which highlights a clear link between spoken language and speech difficulties with subsequent literacy difficulties. All children with a SLCN are at risk of having difficulty with some aspect of learning to read and write.
Difficulties may be compounded if children are exposed to teaching of reading and written language before their spoken language skills are developed enough to access this teaching. Social development Friendships are extremely important for children and young people. The ability to socialise with peers, negotiate disagreements and be part of a friendship group is paramount. For children with SLCN, making and maintaining friendships can be a real challenge. It becomes particularly difficult as children progress through primary school, when there needs to be an increased understanding of reciprocity and awareness of motives, thoughts and feelings of others.
Many children with SLCN show withdrawn social interaction styles, which means they are less likely to initiate conversation, they play alone more and are less liked by others in their class. Others display significant behaviour difficulties, which can equally alienate their peers. Children with SLCN perceive they are at risk of being the target of bullies at school. It has been found that if a child has good communication skills and is able express feelings through facial expression they tend to be more popular. SLCN can have a devastating effect on interpersonal relationships, within the family, with peers and in the longer term. Emotional development and behaviour
Language and emotional development occur together in children and affect each other powerfully. This shared development is evident with very young children as they learn about different emotions through play. In the early stages of primary school, children learn to share their feelings in words, consider the effects of their actions, reflect on and plan what they feel, do and say. All of this requires an appreciation of the emotions and thoughts of other people, and the language to put this into words. There are opportunities in daycare settings toplay and interact through language, which allows children to develop skills in managing their emotions and behaviour appropriately.
With developed language skills, children can negotiate their roles in play situations, organise activities, clarify their thoughts to others and make it clear when they are unhappy with a situation. For primary school children, these skills are necessary for team games and group activities within the classroom. Children with SLCN often do not have these skills and abilities, resulting at times in frustration and behaviour that is seen as poor, in reaction to situations that could be easily resolved through language. Unfortunately, often the behaviour of children is seen as the difficulty and the underlying language difficulties can seem less important or can be missed completely. Self-esteem Feeling self confident is vitally important for children.
However, there is evidence that older children with SLCN perceive themselves more negatively in scholastic competence, social acceptance and behavioural conduct than children with typical language development, although this low self-esteem is not so apparent in younger children. Implications of these studies suggest that with prolonged language difficulties, children’s underlying self-esteem and self worth suffers, which can have a huge impact on their future lives and development. Explain how speech, language and communication skills support each of the following areas in children’s development: Behavour Often children who have difficulties communicating will speak and display aggressive, uncooperative frustrated behavior. As they cannot convey what it is they want to say.
Socially these children become isolated from others and shy away from integrating activities. And unless this is identified and the necessary help is given. Children often become more reclusive and disruptive as they age. Speech, language and communication difficulties can have a profound and lasting effect on children’s lives. For a small percentage of children their disability cannot be prevented, but early intervention is just as vital as for those with less severe difficulties to help give a child the best possible support that they need. The impact of these difficulties will vary according to the severity of the problem, the support the child receives, the child’s confidence and the demands of the child’s environment. General
Young children with speech and language impairments are at risk for continued communication problems, as well as for associated cognitive, academic, behavioural, social and psychiatric difficulties (Bashir & Scavuzzo, 1992). The initial pattern of speech and/or language deficits is related to overall prognosis. Children whose impairments involve only articulation/phonology generally fare better than those whose impairments involve language [processing] (Beitchman et al. , 1994) Social and behavioural problems Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have been reported to experience concurrent difficulties in the area of social and behavioural development (Redmond & Rice, 1998). This has often been thought to arise from such factors as frustration, peer rejection, and lack of confidence in the face of poor linguistic skills.
Studies have shown that substantial proportions of children with SLI experience social and behavioural problems as they reach high school age and that these problems increase over time (Redmond & Rice, 2002). Withdrawn behaviour Many children with SLI appear to show withdrawn social interaction styles. This may include being less likely to initiate conversation, playing alone, and being liked less by others in the class (Coster, Goorhuis-Brouwer, Nakken, & Spelberg, 1999). Paul and Kellogg (1997) found that children with slow expressive development at 2 years of age were rated as shyer and less outgoing than peers when followed up at 6 years of age.
Poor interaction and increased withdrawal may also lead to poor self-esteem, as some studies have found this to be a feature of older but not younger children with language difficulties (Jerome, Fujiki, Brinton, & James, 2002). Children with early language impairment have significantly higher rates of anxiety disorder in young adulthood compared with non-impaired children. The majority of participants with anxiety disorders had a diagnosis of social phobia (Beitchman et al, 2001). Aggressive behaviour Behavioural difficulties of an aggressive nature have been reported as showing increased prevalence in young children with speech and language impairment (Carson, Klee, Perry, Muskina, & Donaghy, 1998).
In the epidemiological study by Beitchman and colleagues (1996), nearly half of the 5-year-old speech-language-impaired group was found to have behavioural disorders, of which attention-hyperactivity difficulties were the main source. Difficulty relating to others Even in a preschool setting, children with language difficulties are less likely than peers to be chosen as friendship partners (Gertner, Rice, and Hadley, 1994). Language impaired children are at risk of being the target of bullies at school (Conti-Ramsden and Botting, 2004). Learning difficulties Comprehension difficulties make children very vulnerable in relation to education (Hooper et al 2003) Early language impairment (rather than speech impairment) is clearly associated with continued academic difficulties into adulthood. Young et al, 2002) Tomblin, Zhang, Buckwalter, and Catts (2000) found that children with language impairment were at risk of both reading and behavioural problems and, furthermore, that the behavioural difficulties were associated with the reading impairments. Levels of frustration, misunderstanding, and inability to access the curriculum could result in subsequent aggressive behaviour, as could failure to understand other children and adults. |“Literacy difficulties in adolescents tend to contribute to language disorders as adolescents get a lot of higher language | |development input from what they read: if they read little, they also tend to not develop language as fast as their more | |literate peers.
Consequently, even children who appear to have normal language development can have literacy difficulties and | |develop language impairments as they grow older. ” | |- Helen Stringer, School of Education, Communication & Language Sciences, Newcastle University | Crime High levels of speech, language and communication difficulties are found among the young offender population (Bryan, 2004). Low education and speech and literacy difficulties are risk factors for offending (Tomblin, 2000). |“There are thousands of children and young people effectively disabled by speech, language and communication impairments. | |There’s a progression between this “hidden disability”, exclusion from school and young adults ending up in trouble, and it | |starts early.
We need to spot and offer provision for these impairments as early as possible. ” | |- Linda Lascelles, Chief Executive, Afasic | Describe the potential impact of speech, language and communication difficulties on the overall development of a child, both currently and in the longer term Speech, language and communication difficulties can have a profound and lasting effect on children’s lives. For a small percentage of children their disability cannot be prevented, but early intervention is just as vital as for those with less severe difficulties to help give a child the best possible support that they need.
The impact of these difficulties will vary according to the severity of the problem, the support the child receives, the child’s confidence and the demands of the child’s environment. Speech and language impairment identified at age five has long-lasting effects. In one study more than 72% of children who had SLI at age 5 remained impaired at age 12. (Beitchman et al, 1994) Social and behavioral difficulties are not a short-term problem for children with speech and language impairment. To the contrary, social difficulties appear to increase. A large cohort of 242 children who had been attending infant language units at 7 years of age was followed up when the children were in their final year of primary school (aged 11).
More than half of the children were showing clinical-level difficulties. (Conti-Ramsden and Botting, 2004) A study of young adults who were initially identified as having SLI at age 5 and subsequently followed at ages 12 and 19 found: (a) high rates of continued communication difficulties in those with a history of impairment; (b) considerable stability in language performance over time; (c) better long-term outcomes for those with initial speech impairments than for those with language impairments; and (d) more favourable prognoses for those with specific language impairments than for those with impairments secondary to sensory, structural, neurological, or cognitive deficits (Johnson et al 1999). General
Young children with speech and language impairments are at risk for continued communication problems, as well as for associated cognitive, academic, behavioural, social and psychiatric difficulties (Bashir & Scavuzzo, 1992). The initial pattern of speech and/or language deficits is related to overall prognosis. Children whose impairments involve only articulation/phonology generally fare better than those whose impairments involve language (Beitchman 1994) Social and behavioural problems Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have been reported to experience concurrent difficulties in the area of social and behavioural development (Redmond & Rice, 1998). This has often been thought to arise from such factors as frustration, peer rejection, and lack of confidence in the face of poor linguistic skills.
Studies have shown that substantial proportions of children with SLI experience social and behavioural problems as they reach high school age and that these problems increase over time (Redmond & Rice, 2002). Withdrawn behaviour Many children with SLI appear to show withdrawn social interaction styles. This may include being less likely to initiate conversation, playing alone, and being liked less by others in the class (Coster, Goorhuis-Brouwer, Nakken, & Spelberg, 1999). Paul and Kellogg (1997) found that children with slow expressive development at 2 years of age were rated as shyer and less outgoing than peers when followed up at 6 years of age.
Poor interaction and increased withdrawal may also lead to poor self-esteem, as some studies have found this to be a feature of older but not younger children with language difficulties (Jerome, Fujiki, Brinton, & James, 2002). Children with early language impairment have significantly higher rates of anxiety disorder in young adulthood compared with non-impaired children. The majority of participants with anxiety disorders had a diagnosis of social phobia (Beitchman et al, 2001). Aggressive behaviour Behavioural difficulties of an aggressive nature have been reported as showing increased prevalence in young children with speech and language impairment (Carson, Klee, Perry, Muskina, & Donaghy, 1998).
In the epidemiological study by Beitchman and colleagues (1996), nearly half of the 5-year-old speech-language-impaired group was found to have behavioural disorders, of which attention-hyperactivity difficulties were the main source. Difficulty relating to others Even in a preschool setting, children with language difficulties are less likely than peers to be chosen as friendship partners (Gertner, Rice, and Hadley, 1994). Language impaired children are at risk of being the target of bullies at school (Conti-Ramsden and Botting, 2004). Learning difficulties Comprehension difficulties make children very vulnerable in relation to education (Hooper et al 2003) Early language impairment (rather than speech impairment) is clearly associated with continued academic difficulties into adulthood. Young et al, 2002) Tomblin, Zhang, Buckwalter, and Catts (2000) found that children with language impairment were at risk of both reading and behavioural problems and, furthermore, that the behavioural difficulties were associated with the reading impairments. Levels of frustration, misunderstanding, and inability to access the curriculum could result in subsequent aggressive behaviour, as could failure to understand other children and adults. |“Literacy difficulties in adolescents tend to contribute to language disorders as adolescents get a lot of higher language | |development input from what they read: if they read little, they also tend to not develop language as fast as their more | |literate peers. Consequently, even children who appear to have normal language development can have literacy difficulties and | |develop language impairments as they grow older. | |- Helen Stringer, School of Education, Communication & Language Sciences, Newcastle University | Crime High levels of speech, language and communication difficulties are found among the young offender population (Bryan, 2004). Low education and speech and literacy difficulties are risk factors for offending (Tomblin, 2000). |“There are thousands of children and young people effectively disabled by speech, language and communication impairments. | |There’s a progression between this “hidden disability”, exclusion from school and young adults ending up in trouble, and it | |starts early. We need to spot and offer provision for these impairments as early as possible. | |- Linda Lascelles, Chief Executive, Afasic | Lasting impact Speech and language impairment identified at age five has long-lasting effects. In one study more than 72% of children who had SLI at age 5 remained impaired at age 12. (Beitchman et al, 1994) Social and behavioral difficulties are not a short-term problem for children with speech and language impairment. To the contrary, social difficulties appear to increase. A large cohort of 242 children who had been attending infant language units at 7 years of age was followed up when the children were in their final year of primary school (aged 11). More than half of the children ere showing clinical-level difficulties. (Conti-Ramsden and Botting, 2004) A study of young adults who were initially identified as having SLI at age 5 and subsequently followed at ages 12 and 19 found: (a) high rates of continued communication difficulties in those with a history of impairment; (b) considerable stability in language performance over time; (c) better long-term outcomes for those with initial speech impairments than for those with language impairments; and (d) more favourable prognoses for those with specific language impairments than for those with impairments secondary to sensory, structural, neurological, or cognitive deficits (Johnson et al 1999).
Explain the ways in which adults can effectively support and extend the speech, language and communication development of children during the early years. It is imperative for adults and caregivers to understand the ways in which babies and young children communicate; by using body language, vocalising sounds and words and taking every opportunity to support these children and encourage their development. This can be done in a variety of ways and the success will depend on the individual child and the SLCN and their degree of severity. • Encouraging parents and showing them opportunities where they can also help their child with the development • Identifying the level and style of language needed • Asking Questions Presenting rhetorical questions • Asking Closed questions • Asking Open questions • Using questions • Encouraging conversations and interactions • Providing opportunities for Interaction with babies and toddlers • Conversations with children • Information and activities Explain the relevant positive effects of adult support for the children and their carers. When babies and children are supported in planned and well executed daily activities the child’s progress is evident. There is clear: • Progress in speech, language and communication skills • Greater social interaction with caregivers and other children • Positive behaviors Helps children emotional development • Good professional, open relationships with parents allow regular discussions about child’s progress suggesting things parents can further develop at home Explain how levels of speech and language development vary between children entering early years provision and need to be taken into account during settling in and planning. It’s important to remember that each child’s journey towards being a skilful communicator will be different. Children will attend a care setting with very different previous experiences; some will have well developed communication and language skills while others may already be experiencing some difficulties or delay.
Some will start out with only limited language experiences. As a dedicated caregiver it’s my responsibility to make the best possible provision to meet the children’s differing speech, language and communication needs. Its important that care givers are able to accurately describe the stage a child’s speech, language and communication development has reached, track their progress, and identify any arising issues. A solid understanding of the types of interaction, encouragement and learning opportunities that are appropriate for babies and children at different stages in their development. We need to remember that young children are active learners, and that all areas of learning and development are nterconnected and all play a part in the development of communication and language skills. When practitioners have a good picture of each child’s level of speech, language and communication skills, they can then reflect on whether the environment and the curriculum are meeting their needs. Having a thorough knowledge of speech, language and communication development, and using that alongside your knowledge of child development, your observations and the information you receive from parents, will help you to recognise, for example, the difference between a child who is shy or reserved and a child who is experiencing some difficulties or delay in their development.
When planning activities, consider what communication and language skills a child needs in order to benefit from them. There are a number of approaches that can be introduced that will enrich the environment this can be done by; • Grouping children sensitively and carefully to allow interaction with other children • Well planned and differentiated activities • Choosing activities that will promote a child’s speech, language and communication skills • Best use made of the physical environment Bibliography Books, websites and PDFs Bashir, Anthony S. , & Scavuzzo, Annebelle. (1992). Children with language disorders: Natural history and academic success. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 25 (1), 53-65. Beitchman, J. H. , Brownlie, E.
B. , Inglis, A. , Wild, J. , Matthews, R. , Schachter, D. , et al. (1994). Seven-year follow-up of speech/language impaired and control children: Speech/language stability and outcome. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 33, 1322-1330. Beitchman, J. H. , Wilson, B. , Brownlie, E. B. , Walters, H. , Inglis, A. , & Lancee, W. (1996). Long-term consistency in speech/language profiles: II. behavioural, emotional and social outcomes. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35(6), 815-825. Beitchman, J. H. , Wilson, B. , Johnson, C. J. , Atkinson, L. , Young, A. , Adlaf, E. , et al. (2001).
Fourteen year follow-up of speech/language impaired children and control children: psychiatric outcome. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40(1), 75-82. Bryan, K. (2004) Preliminary study of the prelance of speech and language difficulties in young offenders. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders; 39:3, 391-400. Carson, D. K. , Klee, T. , Perry, C. K. , Muskina, G. , & Donaghy, T. (1998). Comparisons of children with delayed and normal language at 24 months of age on measures of behavioral difficulties, social and cognitive development. Infant Mental Health Journal, 19, 59-75. Conti-Ramsden, G. , & Botting, N. (2004).
Social difficulties and victimisation in children with SLI at 11 years of age. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 47(1), 145-172. Coster, F. W, Goorhuis-Brouwer, S. M, Nakken, H, Lutje Spelberg H. C. (1999) Specific Language Impairments and Behavioural Problems. Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica, 51:99-107. Gertner, B. L. , Rice, M. L. , & Hadley, P. A. (1994). Influence of communicative competence on peer preferences in a preschool classroom. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 37, 913-923. Hooper, S J, Roberts J E, Zeisel, SA, and Poe, M. (2003). Core language predictors of behavioural functioning in early elementary school children: Concurrent and longitudinal findings.
Behavioral Disorders, 29(1), 10-21. Ican – http://www. ican. org. uk/~/media/Ican2/Whats%20the%20Issue/Evidence/6%20Speech% 20%20Language%20and%20Communication%20Needs%20and%20Primary%20School%20aged%20Children. ashx Icommunicate speech and communication therapy – http://www. icommunicatetherapy. com/programme-options/child-information/normal-development/developmental-activites Jerome AC, Fujiki M, Brinton B, James SL. (2002). Self-esteem in children with specific language impairment, Journal of Speech Language and Hearing Research Aug; 45(4): 700-14. Johnson, C. , Beitchman, J. H. , Young, A. R. , Escobar, M. , Atkinson, L. , Wilson, B. , et al. (1999).
Fourteen-year follow-up of children with and without speech/language impairments: Speech/language stability and outcomes. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 42, 744-760. Newcastle JSNA – http://www. newcastlejsna. org. uk/node/1006 Paul, R. & Kellogg, L. Temperament in late talkers. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, (1997): 803-810. Redmond, S. M. & Rice M. L. (1998) The socio-emotional behaviours of children with Speech and Language Impairment: Social adaption or social deviance? Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 41, 688-700 Redmond, S. M. & Rice, M. L. (2002). Stability of behavioral ratings of children with specific language impairment. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 45, 190-201.
Talking-Point – http://www. talkingpoint. org. uk/en/EY-worker/Supporting-Children/Adapting-the-environment. aspx TALKING POINT – http://www. communicationhelppoint. org. uk/da/Glossary. aspx The Scout Association – http://scouts. org. uk/factsheets/FS250060. pdf Tassoni, Penny; Beith, K. ; Eldridge, H. and Gough, A. (2002). Diploma Child Care and Education. Heinemann Educational Publishers Tomblin, J. B. , Zhang, X. , Buckwalter, P. , & Catts, H. (2000). The association of reading disability, behavioural disorders and language impairment among second-grade children. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, 41(4), 473-482. Young, A. R. , Beitchman, J. H. Johnson, C. , Douglas, L. , Atkinson, L. , Escobar, M. , et al. (2002). Young adult academic outcomes in a longitudinal sample of early identified language impaired and control children. Journal ofChild Psychology and Psychiatry, 43(5), 635-645. Walker, Miranda (2011). Children & Young People’s Workforce. Early learning and childcare. Nelson Thornes, (418 – 426) Worcestershire county council – http://www. worcestershire. gov. uk/cms/pdf/201011%20Speech%20and%20Language%20Therapy. pdf ———————– Positive adult support Speech, Language and communication skills Emotional development Speech, Language and communication skills Behavior

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