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Introduction to Tourism and Travel Essays

By definition Travel is an activity taken by individual(s) which involves the movement of people from one point to another for the purpose of personal work, business, and enjoyment. Tourism can be defined as the set of activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year and whose main purpose of travel is other than the exercise of an activity renumerated from within the place visited. While on the surface travel and tourism mean approximately the same things, they Represent two completely different ways of approaching a journey.
Here are the differences between travel and tourism, broken down by issues every person must consider when going to a new place. Travel versus Tourism: Destination The most obvious difference between travel and tourism is in the destination. Because travelers seek out experiences that are both educational and exciting, they tend to stray farther off the beaten path than tourists. Tourists, on the other hand, seek pleasure and comfort, so they will end up in places that cater to the tourist experience. . For example, a traveler and a tourist each go to Kilimanjaro for two weeks.
The traveler might choose to hike part of the Continental Divide Trail, while the tourist might stay at a popular Taos resort. Travel versus Tourism: Transportation Because immersion in local culture is important to the traveler, she will get around the way the locals get around. If that means taking a bus full of chickens or renting a rickety bicycle, the traveler considers it all a part of the experience. Tourists generally don’t need to do much thinking in terms of how to get around, because tourist destinations always have tour buses and cabs going to all the major attractions. Travel versus Tourism: Cost
Tourists generally spend a lot more money than travelers, because they expect convenience to be included in the prices of things. Sure, a chartered tour to the Coliseum might be more expensive, but it’s worth it to the tourist not to have to figure out how to take a local bus. Tourists also expect to pay more for things like food in nice restaurants and souvenirs. Travelers, on the other hand, don’t spend money on things like souvenir key chains or fancy night clubs. They are comfortable eating food from a cart on the street or hitting up a local farmer’s market for staple items Travel versus Tourism: Amenities
Tourists generally experience much nicer (and more standard) amenities than travelers Because they choose package deals or hotels based on what services are available, they are guaranteed good food and pleasant accommodations. If something goes wrong, a mild complaint usually fixes the issue right away. Travelers, conversely, often have to deal with discomfort when they choose destinations where tourists don’t usually frequent. The amenities in a remote fishing village along lake Victoria will not be anything like amenities offered to international tourists Serena hotel in Serengeti.
Travelers will sometimes choose to save money by staying in hostels or couch crashing with friends or acquaintances, where amenities simply do not exist Travel versus Tourism: Safety Travelers who stray far off the beaten path take far greater safety risks, but say the rewards of knowing a place intimately are worth it. Tourists don’t experience nearly as much genuine local culture, but they say it’s worth it to stay safe in an unfamiliar place. On the other hand, obvious tourists can become targets for petty criminals like pickpockets and scammers, while travelers do a better job of blending in.
History of tourism The earliest form of leisure tourism can be traced as far back as the Babylonian and Egyptian empires. A museum of historic antiquities was open to the public in Babylon. The Egyptians held many religious festivals that attracted the devout and many people who thronged to cities to see famous works of arts and buildings. In India, as elsewhere, kings traveled for empire building. The Brahmins and the common people traveled for religious purposes. Thousands of Brahmins and the common folk thronged Sarnath and Sravasti to be greeted by the inscrutable smile of the Enlightened One- the Buddha .
The invention of money by the Sumerians (Babylonians) and the development of trade beginning about 4000BC marked the beginnings of the modern era of travel. Not only were the Sumerians the first to grasp the idea of money and use it in business transactions, but they were also the first to invent cunning form writing and the wheel, also they should be credited as the founders of the travel business Five thousand years ago, cruises were organized and conducted from Egypt. Probably the first journey ever made for purposes of peace and tourism, was made by Queen Hatshepsut to the lands of Punt in 1480BC.
Beginning in 2700BC the pharaohs began to take advantage of the abundance of good building stone in the Nile valley to build their elaborate burial tombs. The earliest forms of leisure tourism can be traced as far back as the Babylonian and Egyptian empires. A museum of “historic antiquities” was open to the public in the sixth century BC in Babylon, while the Egyptians held many religious festivals attracting not only the devout, but many who came to see the famous buildings and works of art in the cities.
The local towns accommodated tourists by providing services such as: vendors of Food and drink, guides, hawkers of souvenirs, touts and Prostitutes. With such a large number of tourists some damage did occur, such as graffiti. Evidence of this has been found dating back as far as 2000BC from around the same date, Greek tourists traveled to visit the sites of healing gods. Because the independent city-states of ancient Greece had no central authority to order the construction of roads, most of these tourists traveled by water, hence sea sports prospered. The Greeks also enjoyed their religious festivals that increasingly became a pursuit of pleasure. Athens had become an important site for travelers visiting the major sights such as the Parthenon. Inns were established in large towns and seaports to provide for travellers’ needs. Courtesans were the principal entertainment offered. The lands of the Mediterranean Sea produced a remarkable evolution in travel. People travel for trade, commerce, religious purposes, festivals, medical treatment, or education developed at an early date.
There were numerous references to caravans and traders in the Old Testament. Beginning in 776BC citizens of the city-states came together every four years to honor Zeus through athletic competition eventually, four of these national festivals emerged: the Olympic Games. Much of the information we know about travel and tourism in this period if due to the writings of Herodotus, who lived between 484 and 424 BC. He was an historian and an early traveler. In the Middle Ages Travel became difficult and dangerous as people traveled for business or for a sense of obligation and duty.
Adventurers sought fame and fortune through travel. The Europeans tried to discover a sea route to India for trade purposes and in this fashion discovered America and explored parts of Africa. Strolling players and minstrels made their living by performing as they traveled. Missionaries, saints, etc. traveled to spread the sacred word. Leisure travel in India was introduced by the Mughals. The Mughal kings built luxurious palaces and enchanting gardens at places of natural and scenic beauty (for example Jehangir traveled to Kashmir drawn by its beauty.
From the early seventeenth century, a new form of tourism was developed as a direct outcome of the Renaissance. Under the reign of Elizabeth 1, young men seeking positions at court were encouraged to travel to continent to finish their education. Later, it became customary for education of gentleman to be completed by a ‘Grand Tour’ accompanied by a tutor and lasting for three or more years. While ostensibly educational, the pleasure seeking men traveled to enjoy life and culture of Paris, Venice or Florence. By the end of eighteenth century, the custom had become institutionalized in the gentry.
Gradually pleasure travel displaced educational travel. The advent of Napoleonic wars inhibited travel for around 30 years and led to the decline of the custom of the Grand Tour. The spas grew in popularity in the seventeenth century in Britain and a little later in the European Continent as awareness about the therapeutic qualities of mineral water increased. Taking the cure in the spa rapidly acquired the nature of a status symbol. The resorts changed in character as pleasure became the motivation of visits. They became an important centre of social life for the high society.
In the nineteenth century they were gradually replaced by the seaside resort. The sea water became associated with health benefits. The earliest visitors therefore drank it and did not bathe in it. By the early eighteenth century, small fishing resorts sprung up in England for visitors who drank and immersed themselves in sea water. With the overcrowding of inland spas, the new sea side resorts grew in popularity. The introduction of steamboat services in 19th century introduced more resorts in the circuit. The seaside resort gradually became a social meeting point.
Tourism in the twentieth century: The First World War gave first hand experience of countries and aroused a sense of curiosity about international travel among less well off sector for the first time. The large scale of migration to the US meant a lot of travel across the Atlantic. Private motoring began to encourage domestic travel in Europe and the west. The sea side resort became annual family holiday destination in Britain and increased in popularity in other countries of the west. Hotels proliferated in these destinations.
The wars increased interest in international travel. This interest was given the shape of mass tourism by the aviation industry. The surplus of aircraft and growth of private airlines aided the expansion of air travel. The aircraft had become comfortable, faster and steadily cheaper for overseas travel. With the introduction of Boeing 707 jet in 1958, the age of air travel for the masses had arrived. The beginning of chartered flights boosted the package tour market and led to the establishment of organized mass tourism.
The Boeing 747, a 400 seat craft, brought the cost of travel down sharply. The seaside resorts in the Mediterranean, North Africa and the Caribbean were the initial hot spots of mass tourism. A corresponding growth in hotel industry led to the establishment of world-wide chains. Tourism also began to diversify as people began to flock alternative destinations in the 70s. Nepal and India received a throng of tourists lured by Hare Krishna movement and transcendental meditation. The beginning of individual travel in a significant volume only occurred in the 80s.
Air travel also led to a continuous growth in business travel especially with the emergence of the MNCs (Multi National Corporations) Today the tourism market has grown much in the world mainly due to globalization. That includes advancement in science and technology, improvement in infrastructures, social services etc. In conclusion Tourism continues to grow globally as days goes by, a lot of institutions are established to promote the growth of tourism hence people are aware of the importance of tourism sectors. By; ABDULAZAIZ D MGAWE BACAT 1 .

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