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Management and Page Ref Essays

Organizational Behavior, 14e (Robbins/Judge) Chapter 1 What Is Organizational Behavior? 1) Which of the following is not a reason why business schools have begun to include classes on organizational behavior? A) to increase manager effectiveness in organizations B) to help organizations attract top quality employees C) to expand organizations’ consulting needs D) to improve retention of quality workers E) to help increase organizations’ profits Answer: C Explanation: Understanding human behavior plays an important role in determining a manager’s effectiveness.
Developing managers’ interpersonal skills helps organizations attract and keep high-performing employees. Positive social relationships are associated with lower stress at work and lower turnover. Finally, companies with reputations as good places to work have been found to generate superior financial performance. Expanding a company’s consulting needs is not a positive reason to teach organizational behavior. Diff: 2Page Ref: 4 Topic: Importance of Interpersonal Skills Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Interpersonal Skills Quest. Category: Application LO: 1 ) Which of the following is most likely to be a belief held by a successful manager? A) Technical knowledge is all that is needed for success. B) It is not essential to have sound interpersonal skills. C) Technical skills are necessary, but insufficient alone for success. D) Effectiveness is not impacted by human behavior. E) Technical skills do not influence efficiency. Answer: C Explanation: Understanding human behavior plays an important role in determining a manager’s effectiveness. Developing managers’ interpersonal skills helps organizations attract and keep high-performing employees, and create a positive work environment.
Diff: 2Page Ref: 4 Topic: Importance of Interpersonal Skills Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Interpersonal Skills Quest. Category: Application LO: 1 3) Which of the following would not be considered an organization? A) a church B) a university C) a military unit D) all adults in a given community E) an elementary school Answer: D Explanation: An organization is a consciously coordinated social unit, composed of two or more people, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals. The adults in a community are not representative of an organization.
Diff: 2Page Ref: 5 Topic: What Managers Do Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Organization Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 2 4) Which of the following is least likely to be considered a manager? A) an administrator in charge of fund-raising activities in a non-profit organization B) a lieutenant leading an infantry platoon C) a doctor who acts as head of the physiotherapy department at a public hospital D) the mayor of a large city E) an IT technician who enables communication between all of a company’s employees Answer: E Explanation: Managers get things done through other people.
They make decisions, allocate resources, and direct the activities of others to attain goals. An IT technician is not using other people to get his job done, and therefore is not a manager. Diff: 2Page Ref: 5 Topic: What Managers Do Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Managers Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 2 5) Which of the following is not one of the four primary management functions? A) controlling B) planning C) staffing D) organizing E) leading Answer: C Explanation: Today, managers are considered to perform four primary functions: planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.
Although staffing can be a management duty, it would fall under the function of organizing. Diff: 2Page Ref: 5-6 Topic: What Managers Do Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Management Functions Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 2 6) Which of a manager’s primary functions requires the manager to define an organization’s goals, establish an overall strategy for achieving these goals and develop a comprehensive hierarchy of plans to integrate and coordinate activities? A) controlling B) planning C) staffing D) coordinating E) leading Answer: B
Explanation: The planning function encompasses defining an organization’s goals, establishing an overall strategy for achieving those goals, and developing a comprehensive set of plans to integrate and coordinate those activities. Evidence indicates this function increases the most as managers move from lower-level to mid-level management. Diff: 2Page Ref: 6 Topic: What Managers Do Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Management Functions Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 2 7) Designing an organization’s structure, such as who reports to whom, defines the ________ function.
A) planning B) leading C) controlling D) organizing E) contemplating Answer: D Explanation: Managers are also responsible for designing an organization’s structure, or organizing. Organizing includes determining what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made. Diff: 2Page Ref: 6 Topic: What Managers Do Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Management Functions Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 2 8) As a manager, one of Joe’s duties is to present awards to outstanding employees within his department.
Which Mintzberg managerial role is Joe acting in when he does this? A) leadership role B) liaison role C) monitor role D) figurehead role E) spokesperson role Answer: D Explanation: Managers are required to perform duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature. When a factory supervisor gives a group of high school students a tour of the plant, he or she is acting in a figurehead role. The same figurehead role is played by Joe in handing out awards. Diff: 2Page Ref: 6 Topic: What Managers Do Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Interpersonal Roles Quest. Category: Application
LO: 2 9) Which of the following is not an interpersonal role of management according to Mintzberg? A) a high school principal handing out graduation diplomas B) a department head relocating the department after a fire C) a manager interviewing potential employees D) a shift foreman reprimanding a worker that arrived late E) a project manager listening to a team presentation Answer: B Explanation: Taking corrective action in response to unforeseen problems, such as moving the department after a fire, is considered by Mintzberg to be a decisional role in which the manager handles a disturbance.
All of the other activities are considered interpersonal roles of a manager. Diff: 2Page Ref: 6 Topic: What Managers Do Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Interpersonal Roles Quest. Category: Application LO: 2 10) According to Mintzberg, when a manager searches the organization and its environment for opportunities and initiates projects to bring about change, the manager is acting in which role? A) negotiator B) entrepreneur C) monitor D) resource allocator E) reflective analyst Answer: B Explanation: Mintzberg identified four roles that require making choices.
These are called decisional roles. In the entrepreneur role, managers initiate and oversee new projects that will improve their organization’s performance. Diff: 2Page Ref: 6 Topic: What Managers Do Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Decisional Roles Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 2 11) Managers need to have three essential skills in order to reach their goals. What are these skills? A) technical, decisional and interpersonal B) technical, human, and conceptual C) interpersonal, informational and decisional D) conceptual, communication and networking
E) human, informational and communication Answer: B Explanation: Researchers have identified a number of skills that differentiate effective from ineffective managers. Technical skills encompass the ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise. Human skills are the ability to understand, communicate with, motivate, and support other people. Conceptual skills are the mental ability of a manager to analyze and diagnose complex situations. Diff: 2Page Ref: 7-8 Topic: What Managers Do Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Management Skills Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 2 2) Jill is valued by her colleagues for her ability to perform effective break-even analysis on upcoming ventures. In this case, her colleagues value her for competencies that fall within which essential management skills categories? A) technical B) communication C) human D) conceptual E) education Answer: A Explanation: Technical skills encompass the ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise. Skills of professionals such as civil engineers or oral surgeons, are technical skills learned usually through extensive formal education. Jill is applying her technical skills. Diff: 2Page Ref: 7-8 Topic: What Managers Do
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Technical Skills Quest. Category: Application LO: 2 13) Technical skills encompass the ability to ________. A) analyze and diagnose complex situations B) exchange information and control complex situations C) apply specialized knowledge or expertise D) initiate and oversee complex projects E) communicate effectively with others Answer: C Explanation: Technical skills encompass the ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise. Skills of professionals such as civil engineers or oral surgeons, are technical skills learned usually through extensive formal education.
Diff: 2Page Ref: 7-8 Topic: What Managers Do Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Technical Skills Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 2 14) Which one of the following would not be considered a human skill of a manager? A) decision making. B) communicating C) resolving conflicts D) working as part of a team E) listening to others Answer: A Explanation: Decision making requires managers to identify problems, develop alternative solutions to correct those problems, evaluate those alternative solutions, and select the best one.
Therefore, decision making is considered a conceptual skill, not a human skill. The other answer choices are human skills. Diff: 2Page Ref: 8 Topic: What Managers Do Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Human Skills Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 2 15) Fred Luthans wanted to look at management from a different perspective. He wanted to see what management qualities are needed ________. A) to produce quality work B) to attain quality employees C) to attain high pay D) to be quickly promoted E) to show economic returns Answer: D
Explanation: Fred Luthans and his associates asked, “Do managers who move up the quickest in an organization do the same activities and with the same emphasis as managers who do the best job? ” They wanted to know what it takes for a manager to quickly rise in the corporate ranks. Diff: 2Page Ref: 8 Topic: What Managers Do Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Successful Managerial Activities Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 2 16) According to Luthans’ research, successful managers, meaning those that were quickly promoted, spent more of their time on ________ than on any other activity.
A) traditional management B) human resource management C) networking D) communicating E) hiring and firing Answer: C Explanation: Among managers who were successful (defined in terms of speed of promotion within their organization), networking made the largest relative contribution to success. Diff: 2Page Ref: 8 Topic: What Managers Do Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Networking Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 2 17) ________ is the study of the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations.
A) Conceptual skills B) Leadership C) Human skills D) Decisional roles E) Organizational behavior Answer: E Explanation: Organizational behavior, or “people skills,” is the field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization’s effectiveness. Diff: 2Page Ref: 9 Topic: Defining Organizational Behavior Skill: AACSB: Communication Objective: Organizational Behavior Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 3 8) Which of the following is not a topic or concern related to OB? A) turnover B) leader behavior C) productivity D) management E) family behavior Answer: E Explanation: OB is concerned specifically with employment-related situations such as jobs, work, absenteeism, employment turnover, productivity, human performance, and management. OB includes the core topics of motivation, leader behavior and power, interpersonal communication, group structure and processes, learning, attitude development and perception, change processes, conflict, work design, and work stress.
Diff: 2Page Ref: 10 Topic: Defining Organizational Behavior Skill: AACSB: Communication Objective: Organizational Behavior Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 3 19) On which of the following problems would an OB study be least likely to focus ? A) an increase in absenteeism at a certain company B) a fall in productivity in one shift of a manufacturing plant C) a decrease in sales due to growing foreign competition D) an increase in theft by employees at a retail store E) excessive turnover in volunteer workers at a non-profit organization Answer: C
Explanation: OB is concerned specifically with employment-related situations such as jobs, work, absenteeism, employment turnover, productivity, human performance, and management. A study of foreign competition would not enter into an OB research project. Diff: 2Page Ref: 9-10 Topic: Defining Organizational Behavior Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Organizational Behavior Quest. Category: Application LO: 3 20) What are the three primary behavior determinants of organizational behavior? A) profit structure, organizational complexity, job satisfaction B) individuals, profit structure, and job satisfaction
C) individuals, groups, and job satisfaction D) groups, structure, and profit structure E) individuals, groups, and structure Answer: E Explanation: OB investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations. Diff: 2Page Ref: 9 Topic: Defining Organizational Behavior Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Organizational Behavior Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 3 21) Which of the following is not a core topic of organizational behavior? A) motivation B) attitude development C) conflict D) resource allocation E) work design Answer: D
Explanation: OB includes the core topics of motivation, leader behavior and power, interpersonal communication, group structure and processes, learning, attitude development and perception, change processes, conflict, work design, and work stress. It does not include resource allocation. Diff: 2Page Ref: 10 Topic: Defining Organizational Behavior Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Organizational Behavior Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 3 22) In order to predict human behavior, it is best to supplement your intuitive opinions with information derived in what fashion?
A) common sense B) direct observation C) systematic study D) speculation E) organizational theory Answer: C Explanation: To make good OB decisions it is important to use evidence as much as possible to inform intuition and experience. Evidence should come through systematic study, which is looking at relationships, attempting to attribute causes and effects, and basing conclusions on scientific evidence, that is, on data gathered under controlled conditions and measured and interpreted in a reasonably rigorous manner. Diff: 2Page Ref: 11 Topic: Complementing Intuition with Systematic Study
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Systematic Study Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 4 23) Janet needs to assign a very important advertising account to one of her writers. First she reviewed each writers work load, then she studied the sales data of the products for the last three campaigns of each writer, then she reviewed each writer’s annual review to familiarize herself with their goals. Finally, she gave the account to Paula, a very creative, efficient, writer who has had high sales results with her last three clients’ products. Janet’s management style is based on ________.
A) intuition or “gut feeling” B) organizational behavioral studies C) substantive evidence approach D) preconceived notions E) systematic study Answer: E Explanation: Systematic study means looking at relationships, attempting to attribute causes and effects, and basing our conclusions on scientific evidence, that is, on data gathered under controlled conditions and measured and interpreted in a reasonably rigorous manner. Diff: 2Page Ref: 10-11 Topic: Complementing Intuition with Systematic Study Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Evidence Based Management Quest. Category: Application
LO: 4 24) Basing managerial decisions on the best available scientific evidence is called ________. A) intuition B) systematic study C) organizational behavior D) evidence-based management E) conceptual management Answer: D Explanation: Evidence-based management (EBM) complements systematic study (which includes looking at relationships, not merely studying scientific evidence), by basing managerial decisions on the best available scientific evidence. Diff: 2Page Ref: 11 Topic: Complementing Intuition with Systematic Study Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Systematic Study Quest.
Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 4 25) Analyzing relationships, determining causes and effects, and basing conclusions on scientific evidence all constitute aspects of ________ study. A) organizational B) intuitive C) theoretical D) systematic E) case-based Answer: D Explanation: Systematic study means looking at relationships, attempting to attribute causes and effects, and basing our conclusions on scientific evidence, that is, on data gathered under controlled conditions and measured and interpreted in a reasonably rigorous manner. Diff: 2Page Ref: 11 Topic: Complementing Intuition with Systematic Study
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Systematic Study Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 4 26) What do the authors of the textbook advise? A) Disregard your intuition because it’s usually wrong and will lead to incorrect assumptions . B) Use evidence as much as possible to inform your intuition and experience . C) Rely on research since it is almost always right and researchers don’t make mistakes . D) Make predictions of individuals’ behaviors based on others’ actions . E) Don’t trust preconceived notions unless you have substantive evidence to back them up . Answer: B
Explanation: The authors do not advise against intuition, or business press. Nor do they argue that research is always right. However, they advise managers to use evidence as much as possible to inform intuition and experience, which is the foundation of OB. Diff: 2Page Ref: 12 Topic: Complementing Intuition with Systematic Study Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Systematic Study Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 4 27) Organizational behavior is constructed from all of the following disciplines except ________. A) physics B) psychology C) anthropology D) sociology E) social psychology Answer: A
Explanation: Organizational behavior is an applied behavioral science built on contributions from a number of behavioral disciplines, mainly psychology and social psychology, sociology, and anthropology. Physics does not form a part of OB studies. Diff: 2Page Ref: 12 Topic: Disciplines That Contribute to the OB Field Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Behavioral Sciences Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 5 28) Psychology’s major contributions to the field of organizational behavior have been primarily at what level of analysis? A) the level of the group B) the level of the individual C) the level of the organization
D) the level of the culture E) the level of interacting groups Answer: B Explanation: The unit of analysis through which psychologists determine their findings is the individual. Through study of the individual they contribute and add to the knowledge of OB. Diff: 2Page Ref: 13 Topic: Disciplines That Contribute to the OB Field Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Psychology Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 5 29) The science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals is known as ________. A) psychiatry B) psychology C) sociology D) political science
E) organizational behavior Answer: B Explanation: Psychology is defined as the science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals through study of the individual. Contributions include learning, perception, personality, emotions, training, leadership effectiveness, and more. Diff: 2Page Ref: 12 Topic: Disciplines That Contribute to the OB Field Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Psychology Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 5 30) ________ blends concepts from psychology and sociology and focuses on the influence people have on one another. A) Corporate strategy
B) Anthropology C) Political science D) Social psychology E) Archaeology Answer: D Explanation: Social psychology, generally considered a branch of psychology, blends concepts from both psychology and sociology to focus on peoples’ influence on one another. One major study area is change, how to implement it and how to reduce barriers to its acceptance. Diff: 2Page Ref: 12 Topic: Disciplines That Contribute to the OB Field Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Social Psychology Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 5 31) Austin is a graduate student helping to organize a study about individual job satisfaction.
The study focuses on the top five reasons that a person is satisfied or dissatisfied in his current job. His department is surveying 200 individuals in 100 different types of organizations. Austin is most likely a graduate student in the department of ________. A) psychology B) anthropology C) political science D) social psychology E) archaeology Answer: A Explanation: Because Austin’s study focuses on work conditions of the individual, he is most likely conducting the study through the department of sociology, which seeks to explain individual human behavior. Diff: 2Page Ref: 12 Topic: Disciplines That Contribute to the OB Field
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Psychology Quest. Category: Application LO: 5 32) Group behavior, power, and conflict are central areas of study for ________. A) archaeologists B) sociologists C) anthropologists D) social psychologists E) operations analysts Answer: D Explanation: By identifying behavioral change and other factors, social psychologists have made important contributions to the study of group behavior, power, and conflict. Diff: 2Page Ref: 13 Topic: Disciplines That Contribute to the OB Field Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Social Psychology Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 5 33) ________ focuses on the study of people in relation to their social environment. A) Psychology B) Sociology C) Corporate strategy D) Political science E) Operations management Answer: B Explanation: Sociology studies people in relation to their social environment or culture. Sociologists have contributed to OB through their study of group behavior in organizations, particularly formal and complex organizations. Diff: 2Page Ref: 13 Topic: Disciplines That Contribute to the OB Field Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Sociology Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 5 4) Which field of study has contributed to OB through its research on organizational culture and formal organization theory and structure? A) psychology B) operations management C) corporate strategy D) political science E) sociology Answer: E Explanation: Perhaps most important to the field of sociology is the study of organizational culture, formal organization theory and structure, organizational technology, communications, power, and conflict, which all contribute widely to OB. Diff: 2Page Ref: 13-14 Topic: Disciplines That Contribute to the OB Field Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Sociology
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 5 35) Which of the following fields has most helped us understand differences in fundamental values, attitudes, and behavior among people in different countries? A) anthropology B) psychology C) political science D) operations research E) psycholinguistics Answer: A Explanation: Anthropology is the study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities. Anthropologists’ work on cultures and environments has helped us understand differences in fundamental values, attitudes, and behavior between people in different countries and within different organizations.
Diff: 2Page Ref: 14 Topic: Disciplines That Contribute to the OB Field Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Anthropology Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 5 36) Myriam is analyzing the gender roles of men and women in management in the United States compared to those of management in Japan. She is surveying fifty men and fifty women managers in each country to compare their daily behavior. Myriam’s study exemplifies how ________ contributes to OB. A) anthropology B) psychology C) social psychology D) political science E) corporate strategy Answer: A Explanation: Myriam is an anthropologist.
Much of our current understanding of organizational culture, organizational environments, and differences among national cultures is a result of the work of anthropologists or those using their methods. Diff: 2Page Ref: 14 Topic: Disciplines That Contribute to the OB Field Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Anthropology Quest. Category: Application LO: 5 37) Which of the following statements best describes contingency variables? A) They are scientific factors based on universal truths. B) They are factors that moderate the relationship between two or more events or situations.
C) There is general consensus among OB researchers that they can be controlled. D) They are the cause-effect principles that tend to apply to all situations that have been discovered. E) They are simple and universal principles that explain organizational behavior. Answer: B Explanation: Contingency variables are variables that moderate the relationship between two or more variables. For example, an OB study can say x leads to y, but only under conditions specified in z. Because humans are somewhat unpredictable, all OB studies must have contingency variables. Diff: 2Page Ref: 14
Topic: There are Few Absolutes in OB Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Contingency Variables Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 6 38) There are ________ simple and universal principles that explain organizational behavior. A) an infinity of B) absolutely no C) a confusing array of D) fourteen E) few if any Answer: E Explanation: Human beings are complex, and few, if any, simple and universal principles explain organizational behavior. Because we are not alike, our ability to make simple, accurate, and sweeping generalizations is limited. Diff: 2Page Ref: 14
Topic: There are Few Absolutes in OB Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Observational Behavior Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 6 39) Raymond is completing a study on discrimination in which he has noted that saleswomen who wear skirt suits make more sales than saleswomen who only wear pant suits . However, Raymond determined that his findings only pertained to those industries in which the purchasing decision maker is traditionally masculine. For example, the sales results were the same for all women selling to medical office managers, a female dominated field.
Raymond used ________ variables to more accurately explain his results. A) global B) general C) dependent D) non-reactive E) contingency Answer: E Explanation: Contingency variables are variables that moderate the relationship between two or more variables. For example, an OB study can say x leads to y, but only under conditions specified in z. Because humans are somewhat unpredictable, all OB studies must have contingency variables. By limiting his results to only male-oriented industries, Raymond is able to make a generalization. Diff: 2Page Ref: 14 Topic: There are Few Absolutes in OB
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Contingency Variables Quest. Category: Application LO: 6 40) Which of the following is not a reason why OB is extremely relevant today? A) an aging workforce B) a diverse workforce C) changing employee practices D) globalization E) global warming Answer: E Explanation: The dramatic changes in organizations such as aging employees; more women and people of color in the workplace; corporate downsizing and the heavy use of temporary workers severing the bonds of company loyalty; and global competition all make OB relevant. Global warming does not figure into OB studies.
Diff: 2Page Ref: 14-15 Topic: Challenges and Opportunities for OB Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Organizational Behavior Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 7 41) ________ is an effect of increasing globalization. A) More expensive consumer goods B) An increase in manufacturing jobs in developed nations C) An ever increasingly homogeneous workforce D) Shared economic values among all cultures E) Jobs moving to nations with low-cost labor Answer: E Explanation: In a global economy, jobs tend to flow where lower costs give businesses a comparative advantage.
Because of this consumer goods remain affordable, but manufacturing jobs flow to less developed nations and the workforce is increasingly diverse physically and psychologically. Diff: 2Page Ref: 17 Topic: Challenges and Opportunities for OB Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Responding to Globalization Quest. Category: Application LO: 7 42) ________ is a measure of how organizations are becoming more heterogeneous in terms of gender, race, and ethnicity. A) Globalization B) Workforce diversity C) Affirmative action D) Organizational culture E) Operational homogeneity Answer: B
Explanation: Workforce diversity acknowledges a workforce of women and men; many racial and ethnic groups; individuals with a variety of physical or psychological abilities; and people who differ in age and sexual orientation. Diff: 2Page Ref: 17-18 Topic: Challenges and Opportunities for OB Skill: AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity Objective: Workforce Diversity Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 7 43) Which of the following statements is not true about workforce diversity? A) Workforce diversity is a global concern. B) Managing workforce diversity presents many challenges.
C) Workforce diversity focuses on differences within a country. D) Sexual orientation is a part of workforce diversity. E) Workforce diversity is a concern only in the U. S. Answer: E Explanation: Managing workforce diversity is a global concern. Most European countries have experienced dramatic growth in immigration from the Middle East; Argentina and Venezuela host a significant number of migrants from other South American countries; and nations from India to Iraq to Indonesia find great cultural diversity within their borders. Diff: 2Page Ref: 17-18 Topic: Challenges and Opportunities for OB
Skill: AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity Objective: Workforce Diversity Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 7 44) What was the most significant change in the U. S. labor force during the last half of the twentieth century? A) substantial decreases in the number of workers who are under 55 B) increases in the percentage of U. S. citizens of Hispanic origin C) increasing numbers of African-Americans at all levels within the workforce D) the steady increase in the percentage of workers that are men E) the rapid increase in the percentage of workers that are women Answer: E
Explanation: The most significant change in the U. S. labor force during the last half of the twentieth century was the rapid increase in the number of female workers. In 1950, for instance, only 29. 6 percent of the workforce was female. By 2008, it was 46. 5 percent. Diff: 2Page Ref: 17 Topic: Challenges and Opportunities for OB Skill: AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity Objective: Workforce Diversity Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 7 45) Which of the following statements is not an implication of increased workplace diversity?
A) Managers should recognize differences between workers. B) Diversity training should be provided. C) Employee benefits should be revamped to accommodate the different needs of different employees. D) It is critical that all workers be treated alike. E) Innovation and creativity in organizations is likely to increase. Answer: D Explanation: Because of workforce diversity it will be important that managers learn to adapt to the different needs of the workforce. Diff: 2Page Ref: 17-18 Topic: Challenges and Opportunities for OB Skill: AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity
Objective: Workforce Diversity Quest. Category: Application LO: 7 46) Eighty percent of the U. S. workforce today is made up of ________ jobs. A) textile B) technology C) automobile D) restaurant E) service Answer: E Explanation: Today, the majority of employees in developed countries work in service jobs, including 80 percent in the United States. Diff: 2Page Ref: 18 Topic: Challenges and Opportunities for OB Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Customer Service Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 7 47) Approximately ________ % of the U.
S. labor force is employed in service industries. A) 10 B) 25 C) 40 D) 60 E) 80 Answer: E Explanation: Today, the majority of employees in developed countries work in service jobs, including 80 percent in the United States. Diff: 2Page Ref: 21 Topic: Challenges and Opportunities for OB Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Customer Service Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 7 48) Service industry jobs include all of the following except ________. A) fast good counter worker B) sales clerk C) waiter D) nurse E) production line worker Answer: E
Explanation: Service jobs include technical support representatives, fast-food counter workers, sales clerks, waiters and waitresses, nurses, automobile repair technicians, and flight attendants. The common characteristic of these jobs is substantial interaction with an organization’s customers. Diff: 2Page Ref: 18 Topic: Challenges and Opportunities for OB Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Customer Service Quest. Category: Application LO: 7 49) Which of the following factors makes it imperative that organizations be fast and flexible? A) temporariness B) corporate excess
C) truncated capacity D) advances in corporate strategy E) globalization Answer: E Explanation: Globalization, expanded capacity, and advances in technology have required organizations to be fast and flexible if they are to survive. The result is that most managers and employees today work in a climate best characterized as “temporary. ” Diff: 2Page Ref: 19-20 Topic: Challenges and Opportunities for OB Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Temporariness Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 7 50) Given the climate of “temporariness” in modern organizations, employees must ________.
A) continually update their knowledge and skills B) be prepared to stay in the same position for longer periods of time C) make closer connections to their peers D) foster friendship within the work environment E) limit their mobility if they hope to compete Answer: A Explanation: Workers must continually update their knowledge and skills to perform new job requirements. Workplace predictability has been replaced by temporary work groups, with members from different departments, and the increased use of employee rotation to fill constantly changing work assignments.
Therefore, employees must be able to cope with increasing knowledge demands. Diff: 2Page Ref: 20 Topic: Challenges and Opportunities for OB Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Temporariness Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 7 51) Which of the following is the major challenge to managers in a fully networked organization? A) eliminating the need for paper communication by relying entirely on e-mail, file transfers and the like B) retaining team members who can easily move to another employer when demand for their services changes C) managing contract and temporary workers
D) maintaining a “virtual office” through the use of computers, interoffice networks and the Internet E) managing people who work together but are geographically separated Answer: E Explanation: Networked organizations allow people to communicate and work together even though they may be thousands of miles apart. Motivating and managing people online requires different techniques than when individuals are physically present in a single location. Diff: 2Page Ref: 20 Topic: Challenges and Opportunities for OB Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Networked Organizations
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 7 52) ________ allow(s) people to communicate and work together even though they may be thousands of miles apart. A) Flexible cubicles B) Stratified work environments C) Cyber-empowerment machines D) Widespread use of computers E) Networked organizations Answer: E Explanation: Networked organizations allow people to communicate and work together even though they may be thousands of miles apart. Motivating and managing people online requires different techniques than when individuals are physically present in a single location.
Diff: 2Page Ref: 20 Topic: Challenges and Opportunities for OB Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Networked Organizations Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 7 53) Which of the following has not contributed to blurring the lines between employees’ work life and personal life? A) the creation of global organizations B) communications technology allowing employees to work any time and from any place C) organizations asking employees to put in longer hours D) creation of flexible teams E) the increase in dual career households Answer: D
Explanation: Work-life conflicts are created for the following reasons: first, the creation of global organizations means the world never sleeps; second, communication technology allows many technical and professional employees to do their work at home; third, organizations are asking employees to put in longer hours; finally, the rise of the dual-career couple makes it difficult for married employees to find time to fulfill commitments to home, spouse, children, parents, and friends. Diff: 2Page Ref: 20 Topic: Challenges and Opportunities for OB Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Balance Work-Life Conflicts Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 7 54) What growth area in OB research concerns how organizations develop human strengths, foster vitality and resilience, and unlock potential? A) positive organizational scholarship B) ethical behavioral research C) balancing work-life conflict D) networked organizational research E) temporariness studies Answer: A Explanation: Positive organizational scholarship is an area of OB research that studies how organizations develop human growth and strength, create and foster vitality and resilience, and unlock potential.
Diff: 2Page Ref: 21-22 Topic: Challenges and Opportunities for OB Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Positive Organizational Scholarship Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 7 55) Situations where an individual is required to define right and wrong conduct are termed ________. A) diversity issues B) human resource problems C) ethical dilemmas D) loyalty situations E) social puzzles Answer: C Explanation: Ethical dilemmas and ethical choices are situations in which individuals are required to define right and wrong conduct.
For example, if an employee has to decide to uncover illegal activities in the company, even if it means losing his job, he has an ethical dilemma. Diff: 2Page Ref: 22-23 Topic: Challenges and Opportunities for OB Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Ethical Dilemma Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 7 56) A model is a(n) ________. A) abstraction of reality B) someone held in high esteem C) independent variable D) real-world scenario E) dependent variable Answer: A Explanation: A model is an abstraction of reality, or a simplified representation of some real-world phenomenon.
Diff: 2Page Ref: 23-24 Topic: Coming Attractions: Developing an OB Model Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Model Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 8 57) Which of the following has only recently been considered a primary dependent variable in organizational behavior? A) productivity B) absenteeism C) turnover D) job satisfaction E) organizational citizenship behavior Answer: E Explanation: A dependent variable is the key factor used to explain or predict. It is affected by some other factor. For example, scholars have emphasized productivity, absenteeism, turnover, and job satisfaction.
More recently, deviant workplace behavior and organizational citizenship behavior have been added. Diff: 2Page Ref: 24 Topic: Coming Attractions: Developing an OB Model Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Dependent Variables Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 8 58) At its root, productivity involves concern for both ________. A) dependence and independence B) diversity and homogeneity C) motivation and distraction D) absenteeism and motivation E) effectiveness and efficiency Answer: E Explanation: An organization is productive if it achieves its goals by transforming inputs into outputs at the lowest cost.
Thus, productivity requires both effectiveness and efficiency. Diff: 2Page Ref: 24 Topic: Coming Attractions: Developing an OB Model Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Productivity Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 8 59) Which of the following is an example of being an efficient company? A) operating at the lowest possible cost while yielding a higher output B) creating the highest customer satisfaction ratings C) meeting the production schedule D) obtaining the highest market share E) maximizing diversity at high cost Answer: A
Explanation: Efficiency describes the ratio of effective output to the input required to achieve it. Therefore, a company operating at the lowest possible cost while still making a high profit, is considered efficient. Diff: 2Page Ref: 24-25 Topic: Coming Attractions: Developing an OB Model Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Productivity Quest. Category: Application LO: 8 60) What term is used to describe voluntary and involuntary permanent withdrawal from an organization? A) absenteeism B) turnover C) downsizing D) truancy E) social atrophy
Answer: B Explanation: Turnover is defined as voluntary or involuntary permanent withdrawal from an organization. Basically, employees quitting their jobs or being fired from their jobs to never return results as the company’s turnover. Diff: 2Page Ref: 25 Topic: Coming Attractions: Developing an OB Model Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Turnover Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 8 61) ________ is discretionary behavior that is not part of an employee’s formal job requirement, but that promotes the effective functioning of the organization.
A) Productivity B) Motivation C) Organizational citizenship D) Organizational behavior E) Corporate strategy Answer: C Explanation: Employees who engage in “good citizenship” behaviors, such as helping others on their team, volunteering for extra work, avoiding unnecessary conflicts, respecting the spirit as well as the letter of rules and regulations, and gracefully tolerating occasional work-related impositions and nuisances are demonstrating organizational citizenship, which isn’t a formal job requirement. Diff: 2Page Ref: 26-27
Topic: Coming Attractions: Developing an OB Model Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Organizational Citizenship Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 8 62) Individual-level independent variables include all of the following except ________. A) leadership B) learning C) perception D) motivation E) decision-making Answer: A Explanation: Individual-level independent variables are personal or biographical characteristics such as ability, values, attitudes, personality, emotions, perception, individual decision making, learning, and motivation.
Leadership is not considered an individual-level independent variable. Diff: 2Page Ref: 28 Topic: Coming Attractions: Developing an OB Model Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Individual-Level Variables Quest. Category: Application LO: 8 63) The six key dependent variables relevant to OB on the contingency model to help explain the complexities of organizational behavior are ________. A) productivity, absence, turnover, deviant workplace behavior, citizenship, and satisfaction B) human resources, turnover, structure, culture, eadership, and trust C) decision making, stress, citizenship, conflict, teams, and politics D) biography, personality, emotions, perception, motivation, and ability E) input, values, emotions, perception, attitude, and decision-making Answer: A Explanation: Although there are many variables on the contingency model, the six key dependent variables remain consistent: productivity, absence, turnover, deviant workplace behavior, citizenship, and satisfaction. Diff: 2Page Ref: 24 Topic: Coming Attractions: Developing an OB Model Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Contingency Models
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 8 64) Although managers must be technically competent, technical knowledge is often not enough for success. Answer: TRUE Explanation: Managers may get by on their technical and quantitative skills the first couple of years out of school. But soon, leadership and communication skills become important to success. Diff: 1Page Ref: 4 Topic: Importance of Interpersonal Skills Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Interpersonal Skills Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 1 65) Managers get things done through other people. Answer: TRUE
Explanation: A manager is an individual who achieves goals through other people. Diff: 1Page Ref: 5 Topic: What Managers Do Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Managers Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 2 66) Modern theorists have condensed Fayol’s five management functions down to four: planning, organizing, commanding, and controlling. Answer: FALSE Explanation: The management functions have been condensed to four: planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Diff: 1Page Ref: 5-6 Topic: What Managers Do Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Management Functions Quest.
Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 2 67) Monitoring, comparing, and correcting activities are all included in the controlling function. Answer: TRUE Explanation: To ensure things are going as they should, management must monitor the organization’s performance and compare it with previously set goals. If there are any significant deviations, it is management’s job to get the organization back on track. This monitoring, comparing, and potential correcting is the controlling function. Diff: 1Page Ref: 6 Topic: What Managers Do Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Management Functions Quest.
Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 2 68) When managers initiate and oversee new projects that will improve their organization’s performance, they are acting in the capacity of an entrepreneur, which is an example of an informational role. Answer: FALSE Explanation: When managers initiate and oversee new projects that will improve their organization’s performance, they are acting in the capacity of an entrepreneur, which is an example of a decisional role. Diff: 1Page Ref: 6 Topic: What Managers Do Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Decisional Roles Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 2 69) Research conducted by Luthans supports the belief that promotions are based on performance. Answer: FALSE Explanation: A study of 410 U. S. managers indicates those who seek information from colleagues and employees, even if it’s negative, and who explain their decisions, are the most successful. This illustrates the importance of networking and political skills in getting ahead in organizations. Diff: 2Page Ref: 8-9 Topic: What Managers Do Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Successful Managerial Activities Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 2 0) Many people’s views on human behavior are based on intuition. Answer: TRUE Explanation: Intuition is a gut feeling not necessarily supported by research. Many people rely on intuition. Diff: 1Page Ref: 11-12 Topic: Complementing Intuition with Systematic Study Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Intuition Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 4 71) Conflict and power have been major topics of concern to social psychologists. Answer: TRUE Explanation: Social psychologists have made important contributions to our study of group behavior, power, and conflict. Diff: 1Page Ref: 12-13
Topic: Disciplines That Contribute to the OB Field Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Social Psychology Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 5 72) Anthropology has helped us understand differences in values and attitudes between people in different countries. Answer: TRUE Explanation: Anthropology is the study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities. Anthropologists’ work on cultures and environments has helped us understand differences in fundamental values, attitudes, and behavior between people in different countries and within different organizations.
Diff: 1Page Ref: 14 Topic: Disciplines That Contribute to the OB Field Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Anthropology Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 5 73) OB researchers cannot offer reasonably accurate explanations of human behavior since people act very differently in similar situations. Answer: FALSE Explanation: To give accurate explanations OB concepts must reflect situational, or contingency, conditions. We can say x leads to y, but only under conditions specified in z, the contingency variables. Diff: 1Page Ref: 14 Topic: There are Few Absolutes in OB
Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Observational Behavior Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 6 74) Workforce diversity is a topic dealing with how organizations are becoming more homogeneous in terms of gender, race, and ethnicity. Answer: FALSE Explanation: Workforce diversity acknowledges a workforce of women and men; many racial and ethnic groups; individuals with a variety of physical or psychological abilities; and people who differ in age and sexual orientation. Diff: 1Page Ref: 17 Topic: Challenges and Opportunities for OB
Skill: AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity Objective: Workforce Diversity Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 7 75) Forty percent of the U. S. labor force is female. Answer: FALSE Explanation: The most significant change in the U. S. labor force during the last half of the twentieth century was the rapid increase in the number of female workers. By 2008, it was 46. 5 percent. Diff: 1Page Ref: 17 Topic: Challenges and Opportunities for OB Skill: AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity Objective: Workforce Diversity Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
LO: 7 76) Today’s managers and employees must learn to cope with temporariness; learning to live with flexibility, spontaneity, and unpredictability. Answer: TRUE Explanation: Globalization, expanded capacity, and advances in technology have required organizations to be fast and flexible if they are to survive. The result is that most managers and employees today work in a climate best characterized as “temporary. ” Diff: 2Page Ref: 19-20 Topic: Challenges and Opportunities for OB Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Temporariness Quest.
Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 7 77) There’s an increasing blurring between the work and nonwork time. Answer: TRUE Explanation: Employees are increasingly complaining that the line between work and nonwork time has become blurred, creating personal conflicts and stress. Diff: 1Page Ref: 20 Topic: Challenges and Opportunities for OB Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Balance Work-Life Conflicts Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 7 78) Organizational behavior models generally assume job satisfaction to be an independent variable. Answer: FALSE
Explanation: A dependent variable is the key factor that you want to explain or predict and that is affected by some other factor. The dependent variables in OB are productivity, absenteeism, turnover, and job satisfaction. Diff: 2Page Ref: 24 Topic: Coming Attractions: Developing an OB Model Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: OB Model Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 8 79) An organization that is productive must be both effective and efficient. Answer: TRUE Explanation: An organization is productive if it achieves its goals by transforming inputs into outputs at the lowest cost.
Thus, productivity requires both effectiveness and efficiency. Diff: 2Page Ref: 24 Topic: Coming Attractions: Developing an OB Model Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Dependent Variables Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 8 80) An organization is productive if it achieves its goals and does so by transferring inputs to outputs at the lowest cost. Answer: TRUE Explanation: Productivity is a performance measure that includes effectiveness and efficiency. An organization is productive if it achieves its goals by transforming inputs into outputs at the lowest cost. Diff: 1Page Ref: 24-25
Topic: Coming Attractions: Developing an OB Model Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Productivity Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 8 81) Reasonable levels of employee-initiated turnover facilitate organizational flexibility and employee independence. Answer: TRUE Explanation: In today’s changing world of work, reasonable levels of employee-initiated turnover improve organizational flexibility and employee independence, and they can lessen the need for management-initiated layoffs. Diff: 1Page Ref: 26 Topic: Coming Attractions: Developing an OB Model Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Turnover
Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 8 82) The difference between the amount of rewards workers receive and the amount they believe they should receive is termed job satisfaction. Answer: FALSE Explanation: Job satisfaction is defined as a positive feeling about one’s job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics. Diff: 1Page Ref: 27 Topic: Coming Attractions: Developing an OB Model Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Job Satisfaction Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional LO: 8 Imagine that Kristen McKay is a manager at a company specializing in bread and bread-baking paraphernalia.
Kristen performs all the normal management functions outlined in your textbook. Answer the following questions based on Henri Fayol’s work. 83) When Ms. McKay develops a strategy for achieving her department’s goals, she is performing the ________ function of management. A) planning Diff: 2Page Ref: 5-6 Topic: Application of What Managers Do Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Management Functions Quest. Category: Application LO: 2 84) When Ms. McKay determines which employees will do what tasks, she is performing the ________ function of management.
A) planning B) organizing C) leading D) controlling E) reacting Answer: B Explanation: French industrialist Henri Fayol wrote that all managers perform five management functions: planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling. Here Ms. McKay is performing the organizing function. When managers are also responsible for designing an organization’s structure it is called organizing. Diff: 2Page Ref: 5-6 Topic: Application of What Managers Do Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Management Functions Quest. Category: Application LO: 2 85) When Ms.
McKay motivates her employees and attempts to resolve conflicts among department members, she is performing the ________ function of management. A) planning B) organizing C) leading D) controlling E) reacting Answer: C Explanation: French industrialist Henri Fayol wrote that all managers perform five management functions: planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling. Here Ms. McKay is performing the leading function. Directing and coordinating people is the leading function. Diff: 2Page Ref: 5-6 Topic: Application of What Managers Do Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Management Functions Quest. Category: Application LO: 2 86) When Ms. McKay compares projected sales to actual sales in her department, she is performing the ________ function of management. A) planning B) organizing C) leading D) controlling E) reacting Answer: D Explanation: French industrialist Henri Fayol wrote that all managers perform five management functions: planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling. Here Ms. McKay is performing the controlling function. Monitoring, comparing, and potential correcting is the controlling function. Diff: 2Page Ref: 5-6
Topic: Application of What Managers Do Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Management Functions Quest. Category: Application LO: 2 Josef Nobles has been a manager at Mountain Chemicals for five years. Hired for his expertise in project accounting, he rose quickly through the ranks and is now the head of the accounting and finance department. Josef is viewed as the rising star in the organization by his superiors. 87) According to Katz, the skills that Mr. Nobles was hired for were what type of skill? A) human B) conceptual C) technical D) controlling E) directing Answer: C
Explanation: Mr. Nobles was hired for his expertise in project accounting, a technical skill. Technical skills are defined as the ability to offer and apply specialized knowledge or expertise. Diff: 2Page Ref: 7-8 Topic: Application of Management Skills & Effective versus Successful Managerial Activities Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Technical Skills Quest. Category: Application LO: 2 88) Given the information we have, Mr. Nobles would probably be categorized by Luthans as what type of manager? A) effective B) efficient C) successful D) productive E) type A Answer: C
Explanation: According to Luthans, managers who were successful were those that were rapidly promoted within their organization. Diff: 2Page Ref: 8 Topic: Application of Management Skills & Effective versus Successful Managerial Activities Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Successful Managerial Activities Quest. Category: Application LO: 2 You are bringing together faculty from different behavioral disciplines to author a new textbook in organizational behavior. Represented are professors from psychology, sociology, social psychology, anthropology, political science, and industrial engineering. 9) The faculty member from ________ should furnish information about personality, learning, and motivation. A) sociology B) psychology C) anthropology D) political science E) industrial engineering Answer: B Explanation: Psychology seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals. Psychology’s focus on the individual has led to contributions including learning, personality, emotions, motivational forces, and more. Diff: 2Page Ref: 12 Topic: Application of Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills
Objective: Psychology Quest. Category: Application LO: 5 90) Which professor out of this group would you expect to address issues of communication? A) the psychologist B) the anthropologist C) the political scientist D) the social psychologist E) the industrial engineer Answer: D Explanation: Social psychology focus on peoples’ influence on one another. Social psychologists contribute to identifying communication patterns and more. Diff: 2Page Ref: 12-13 Topic: Application of Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Social Psychology
Quest. Category: Application LO: 5 91) You should expect that the faculty member from ________ will probably contribute information about large-scale group behavior. A) sociology B) psychology C) social psychology D) anthropology E) industrial engineering Answer: A Explanation: Sociology studies people in relation to their social environment or culture. Sociologists have contributed to OB through their study of group behavior in organizations. Diff: 2Page Ref: 13-14 Topic: Application of Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Sociology
Quest. Category: Application LO: 5 The manager at a construction site observes that he is spending a great deal of time interviewing prospective employees. This is due to the large amount of absenteeism and turnover among his skilled workers. On questioning exiting employees he discovers that many of them quit because they feel the work place is too dangerous. In particular, several foremen have stated that the need to get the job done quickly is more important than a few rules, and have gone as far as to mock the courage of workers who question this attitude. 2) What is not a dependent variable that the manager wishes to resolve in this case? A) turnover B) absenteeism C) productivity D) job satisfaction E) the skill level of his workers Answer: E Explanation: The six key dependent variables remain consistent: productivity, absence, turnover, deviant workplace behavior, citizenship, and satisfaction. The manager is taking proactive steps to resolve his turnover, absenteeism, productivity and job satisfaction. Diff: 2Page Ref: 24 Topic: Application of Developing an OB Model Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Dependent Variables
Quest. Category: Application LO: 8 93) What is the best way for the manager to control the deviant behavior of the foremen? A) ordering the foremen to conform with the required safety standards B) finding out why the foremen place a greater importance on finishing the job than in safety C) firing the foremen and promoting new foremen from the current pool of workers D) taking over the work of the foremen himself E) instituting training classes for the foremen on the importance of safety Answer: B Explanation: Managers need to understand the source of workplace deviance so hey can avoid a chaotic work environment, and workplace deviance can also have a considerable financial impact. Diff: 3Page Ref: 26 Topic: Application of Developing an OB Model Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Deviant Workplace Behavior Quest. Category: Application LO: 8 94) Which of the following is an independent variable which is likely to be the root cause of the workplace deviant behavior the manager has observed? A) Foremen are paid significant bonuses if the workers they supervise complete their tasks quickly. B) Absenteeism is found to rise on those days when particularly hazardous work is being performed.
C) Several of the foremen are close personal friends who have very similar attitudes toward work and safety. D) The structure of the organization does not involve all workers in the decision making process. E) Penalties for ignoring safety standards are not heavy, amounting to the equivalent of only several hours’ pay. Answer: A Explanation: Earning more money is an independent variable that could act as a motivator to the foremen. Independent variables are the presumed cause of some change in a dependent variable, which in this case is productivity.
Diff: 3Page Ref: 26, 29 Topic: Application of Developing an OB Model Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Independent Variables Quest. Category: Application LO: 8 Allison and Gail both are studying for a final exam. Both have a goal of attaining a grade of 91 or better. Gail studied 6 hours and made a grade of 92. Allison studied for 9 hours and also made a grade of 92. 95) Which of the students was effective? A) only Gail B) only Allison C) neither Gail nor Allison D) both Gail and Allison E) insufficient information to judge Answer: D
Explanation: Effectiveness is the achievement of goals. Both girls made high scores on the exam so they were both effective. Diff: 2Page Ref: 24-25 Topic: Application of Developing an OB Model Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Effectiveness Quest. Category: Application LO: 8 96) Which of the following statements is true? A) Gail is more efficient than Allison. B) Allison is more efficient than Gail. C) Gail is more effective than Allison. D) Allison is more effective than Gail. E) Gail and Allison are equally efficient. Answer: A
Explanation: Efficiency describes the ratio of effective output to the input required to achieve a goal. Since Gail worked fewer hours to reach the same goal, she is more efficient than Allison. Diff: 2Page Ref: 24-25 Topic: Application of Developing an OB Model Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Effectiveness and Efficiency Quest. Category: Application LO: 8 97) Which of the students was more productive? A) Gail B) Allison C) Neither Gail nor Allison were productive. D) It is impossible to tell from the information given. E) They were equally productive. Answer: A
Explanation: Productivity is defined as achieving goals by transforming inputs into outputs at the lowest cost. Because Gail was more efficient, her cost was lower, and she was more productive. Diff: 2Page Ref: 24-25 Topic: Application of Developing an OB Model Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Productivity Quest. Category: Application LO: 8 98) Define and provide a workplace example for each of the four management functions described by Henri Fayol. Answer: The four management functions as described by Henri Fayol are planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.
The planning function encompasses defining an organization’s goals, establishing an overall strategy for achieving those goals, and developing a comprehensive hierarchy of plans to integrate and coordinate activities. Writing sales goals and quotas for a team of salespeople would be a workplace example of management planning. Organizing includes the determination of what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made. Assigning projects and project team leaders is an example of organizing.
The leading function involves motivating employees, directing the activities of others, selecting the most effective communication channels, and resolving conflicts among members. Leading weekly sales meetings on informational topics to motivate a sales team is an example of leading. Finally, controlling involves monitoring, comparing, and potential correcting to get the organization back on track. Reprimanding an employee who consistently arrives to work late is an example of controlling. Diff: 3Page Ref: 6 Topic: What Managers Do Skill: AACSB: Analytic Skills

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