Mobile Internet Protocol: Internet Mobility Issues
Mobile Internet Protocol: Internet Mobility Issues
This paper aims to present the background of mobile internet and the different types of mobility available in the world today. From the PowerPoint presentation prepared by the BWC Wireless Development Team headed by Greg Durgin, the topic in hand was synthesized from the said graphical lecture.
The main objectives of this module were: 1) to enumerate the different types of mobility in an internet connection and 2) to explain the issues regarding internet connection mobility and its impact to IP addresses.
This presentation tackled the internet and its evolution towards networking and wireless connection. A few important terms related to the use of internet and networking will be enumerated first. The term Wide Area Network, also known as WAN pertains to a network connection that reaches a wide span of area, such as a state, country or even from both ends of the world. The development of WAN is based on the increasing demand of computer networking. The use of copper cable or optical fibers for connectivity had been replaced with the use of bluetooth, wireless electromagnetic waves and infrared (Akbal & Ergen,2007) In contrast with WAN, Local Area Network or LAN pertains to a smaller area covered by the network, such as a small building, a school or an office. The letters IP stand for Internet Protocol, which is the standard conventional way for internet communication. Through IP, Datagram can be sent, and these are data packets that are sent via this network.
In order for numerous computers to be connected with each other through LAN, three components are needed. These are the host, bridge and router. First, the functions of each must be defined. The components of a network are divided into seven layers, with each layer performing its own function. Connection of various computers starts with the physical layer. This is the physics of sending ones and zeroes throughout the system. After the data had been sent, the ones and zeroes will then be organized and framed into packets to be transmitted in bulk. This is performed by the data link layer. The transport layer then organizes the streams of these packets framed by the data link layer. The network layer then routes the data packets into the right destinations. Service layer provides the service for reliably sending these streams of packets in higher layers. After this, the presentation layer converts these packets into real-world data to be sent throughout the network. The last layer, the application layer, transfers the converted information into its respective application.
All of these functions mentioned are performed by the three essential components in a network. The host performs all of the operating system, starting from the physical layer up to the application layer. Examples of a host can be desktop or laptop personal computers, printers, portable digital assistant or more commonly referred to as PDA, storage devices such as network hard drives, web servers and even wireless voice handsets. A router on the on the hand, performs physical, data link and network layers. The bridge repeats the functions of both the host and the router, since this only performs the data link and physical layer.
A network can be summarized into what is called as the Tree Diagram. This illustrates the network connectivity of the host, router and bridge. The host can be paralleled to a leaf on a tree, which is the final destination of the network range of the router. The router then links the nodes or hosts to one another, through the presence of the bridge. Together, these three completes the prerequisites for internet connectivity.
Wireless Networks and Mobile Internet
Through the advent of portable devices such as portable computers and PDA’s, mobile internet was born in the world of technology. Through this, mobile learning was made possible. The accessibility of the internet made learning available outside of conventional places for education, such as universities and the like. Students are now are able to choose their own venue for research that would be more conducive and comfortable for them (Bhaskar & Govindarajulu, 2008). Aside from this, the increasing network size and the demand for frequent travel with data needs also contributed to its development. Aesthetically, the presence of numerous wires added to the disadvantage of wired networking, compared to the wireless interface of mobile internet. The increase demand in surveillance cameras and microphones in public places also contributed to the birth of internet mobility and connectivity.
There are three kinds of wireless connection: wireless bridge, wireless router and wireless network. Wireless bridge is considered to be easiest wireless connection among the three when it comes to implementation. In this set-up, the bridge is not physically connected between the router and the hosts. In order to stay connected to the network, the host only needs to be in the range of the bridge. Features of this connectivity include a constant IP address and the freedom of movement. But when compared to its wired counterpart, a drop in the performance can be observed in a wireless bridge.
Wireless router also has a constant IP address. Mobility of the hosts is also possible as long as the hosts stay within the range of the router. In this set-up, a single router can be the sole source of connectivity for multiple users in the system.
Wireless network is considered the most advantageous and complicated wireless connection among the three. In this connection, the hosts can be connected whenever it is in the range of any compatible wireless routers. For the number of routers required in this type of wireless connection, there must be at least two or more in the system.
An innovation to these networking styles is MANET or Mobile Ad-Hoc Network. In this system, a large number of hosts are connected to one another through a common transmission medium. These computers may be geographically placed in different areas, but the connectivity is still maintained. A disadvantage of MANET is the transmission and receiving responsibilities of the nodes. Since both of these functions are to be performed by the node: a router and at the same time, a host (Charles et al., 2008), the transmission of datagram can be affected if a node is also receiving datagram at the same time (Madhavi & Babu, 2008).
Physical, Nomadicity and Network Mobility are three types of freedom movement in a network. With physical mobility, there is no cable connecting the host to the local network, thus, allowing movement of the former. In nomadicity, the host can change its LAN but only after restarting the system. In network mobility, the freedom of changing LAN without data interruption and host restart is possible. When compared with each other, network mobility is considered to be the best possible kind of wireless connection since a larger area can be used for internet connectivity without impeding the stream of data into the host.
Mobility and changing IP Addresses
Datagram are routed from the wireless area network to local area network. When the datagram travels, the specificity of its destination increases as it travels from the former to the latter. Each host has a specific IP address that is recognized by the network and the router. And in order for a datagram to be delivered to its specific node, the IP of that node must be identified first. The need for IP recognition hinders mobility of the host, as proximity plays an important role in internet connection. Thus, the role of IP mobility was conceived in order to solve this problem. Mobile IP requires the cooperation of the home network and the roaming network for connectivity and mobility. This was made possible by giving the node two IP addresses: one for identification purposes, as to be recognized by the datagram, and the other for routing to be connected to the internet even at the event of mobility (Nada, 2006). When compared to a changing IP address, it can be observed that an unstable IP address can be the cause of session interruptions, as the node tries to locate a new network connection from another location. Since the possibility of being geographically located away from the source of the network, internet connection of the node should first be established in a new, proximally available and compatible network. To link up with a new system would translate another connection attempt for the part of the node, thus, delaying the connectivity to the internet. Even if a new available network is identified, it cannot be immediately considered as a reliable source of connection. The compatibility of the node and the network must first be established. The connection time can also be affected once a new network is recognized. Connection cannot be expected to be immediate, as some form of delay may be observed.
The demand for a faster lifestyle had cause an increase for mobile internet services. Every day in the world market, the number of internet users subscribing to wireless internet increases tremendously, not only by the hundreds, but by the thousands (Nada, 2006). With this much of possible revenue available for communication and technology companies, the race for the best mobile connection that a customer can avail is up for grabs. Thus, the continuous evolution of internet connectivity is observed until the ultimate form of wireless internet is presented to the public. To date, various forms of wireless connections, such as MANET, preludes the birth of a better and more efficient system that internet users are eagerly waiting for.
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