–Background of the study
–Aims and flow/structure (—will go back to introduction after the whole paper is finished,, I still need a lot of research and to have a better grasp of the whole thing… I hope you understand that this isn’t simple..)
If you have problems please highlight and send back to me… sorry this is a rough rough draft.. there are no dates on the books, because I haven’t been able to include them in my notes, but don’t worry I’ll find them soon, I have the book title anyway..
I am afraid to include the whole research problem in your proposal because it will tackle those that will be included in the LR.
I hope that this intro is fine.. Or am I being too rhetorical in the background?? Sorry, I sure hope you can provide a sample dissertation—but I guess my background is alright considering the organised crime and terrorism thru narcotics thesis— However, you tend to place a great emphasis on the Taliban instead of my perceived thesis—I wonder if you want to change the thesis.. If you do, please inform me asap.. Because if you are really focusing on how narcotics-taliban-al Quida works,, my introduction is a total disaster;( I figure it is a disaster already because there’s still a lot of things and connections that I have to understand ;(
Please be kind yet straightforward on the comments..
Thank you very much.
During World War II, terrorism was generally used as a form of psychological warfare. Generally, terrorism was an instrument of resistance that replaced the strategy of total warfare’ (Chaliand, et al. 2007). On the other hand, organised crime was conceived as an ‘organisation in the underworld that was able to plan and to execute several intricate and prolonged criminal activities’ (Kelly, et al ___). There was no connection that can be made between the two during World War II. However, towards its end and through the beginning of Cold War, the meaning and implication of these activities and/or organization changed predominantly due to their purpose and strategy.
Cold War promotes the spread of alliances and divided the world into two. Terrorism was used as a tool of national libertarians to shaken, to send a message or to prove the vulnerability of the current government. Both the democratic capitalist and the communist republic took all possible measure to maintain their respective supporters in the opposite side of their bloc. Guerrilla warfare that aims for political revolution sprung from smaller and weaker states. And support from United States and Russia for their respective followers in these weaker states rush in as soon as they were needed. As Cold War ended the support for the political groups and/or movements also ended. In this case, the political and/or religious groups devise other ways to gain funds and increase support. Some resort to petty crimes to be able to continue their existence and fund their terror acts.
The end of the Cold War has always been designated as a positive growth and triumph of Liberal Democracy along with Capitalism which is equated with global human development (Jordan, ___). Nonetheless, with closer scrutiny, many believe that the post Cold War era also brought with it dangers that involve a larger range of drug trafficking, corruption of government and wider reach of Organised Crime. Former provincial operation grew and expanded as they took advantage of the internationalism that opens global opportunity and a larger market. With the new technologies and closer cooperation between different states, the number of transnational capitalist and businessmen grew, as well as their interest to operate globally. Government corruption also tends to increase specially in the weak states as national conflicts and unstable economy took its toll.
Globalisation has always been reiterated as a prime factor for the current spread of terrorism and organized crime. National border diminished with the emergent of telecommunication and advancement of media. Travel from one nation to another became easier. Open markets started to gain popularity as capitalism strengthen. Nonetheless, in the weaker states, globalization creates greater opportunity for narcotic trades and other illicit transactions. The instability of the weak states made it vulnerable and an ideal haven for organized criminal groups and terrorist groups. Due to foreign debts and internal conflicts, these weak states weren’t able to resist the positive impact of planting and producing narcotics in their backyards. Corruption was also another factor that pulls down the weak states because it increase foreign debts and burdens the citizens. The advent of globalisation and the new strategies developed by organized crime groups led to wider market for narcotics –which means a larger consumer demand and thus more profit. According to David Jordan, in his book Drug Politics (_____), ‘the main economic engine of organized crime is narcotic trafficking, which generates liquidity for states and profits for transnational financial institutions’.
Terrorism and organised crime directly endanger the stability of states by targeting economic, political and social systems and that above all the links between these deserve considerable attention (Makarenko 2002). These links have recently received considerable attention, represented as a new and increasing phenomenon caused by the rapid developments in the past decade. This results in a situation where political and criminal motivated violence is often indistinct (Makarenko 2004).
Empirical studies from multiple regions, including the Western Europe, Latin American states of Peru and Colombia, Northern Ireland, Chechnya, Lebanon, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and the Philippines, suggest that transnational organised crime has been an important source of income for terrorist and insurgent groups. For example, the Columbian FARC guerrillas and the Peruvian Shining Path are known to have provided mercenary security support for narcotics production and trafficking lines in South America, while the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine – General Command (PFLP-GC) has reportedly ‘been using infrastructure in Lebanon to support drug trafficking’. Terrorist fundraising through crime has also received greater attention in Western Europe recently, although the problem is not new. In some cases, terrorist organisations and criminal syndicates have co-operated. The Italian Red Brigades formed a short-term co-operative relationship with the Naples Camorra, the most organised Mafia group on mainland Italy, in the early 1980s, consisting of ‘contractual or one-spot arrangements’ such as support in jailbreaks, the killing of police chiefs, and the support of extortion practices.
The link between organized crime and terrorism are already established as a possibility as the above circumstances imply. Makarenko further anticipated that a convergence of the two might happen or is already happening. Nonetheless, the author would like evaluate the identified links between organized crime and terrorism to determine its impact on the narcotics trade. The theoretical assumption is that narcotics trade has been a dominant factor that links Organised Crime to Terrorism and vise versa.
The author would provide a short clarification of the terms that will be used throughout the paper, followed by a detailed presentation of the different theories about organized crime, terrorism and what links them together, highlighting the role of narcotics. In the methodology part, the author would present two case studies, al Quida and FARC. Results and discussion would involved how terrorist profit from narcotics and what is the role of Organised Crime in the process. Then finally the paper will end with a conclusion and some recommendation for further studies.
Only 977, short of 223—It’s open to changes anyway..
I haven’t included the aims yet because I am unsure.. sorry..