Looking for a good sample?

Let us find the best one for you! What is your topic?

Over 850,000 documents to help brainstorm your essay topic

Haven't found the Essay You Want?
GET YOUR CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE
For Only $13/page
2 views

Study Guide Essays

Religion 111 Chapter 6 Questions 1. Choose a small section of the narrative of the plaques in Exodus 7-12, and identify the parts of the passage that you would attribute to J, E, and P. What characteristic phrases and themes of each source occur in the passage? The passage that best illustrates the account of the plagues in Egypt in Exodus 7. The J account tells of the hardening of Pharaoh’s heart, of Yahweh’s threat to befoul the waters of the Nile and kill the fish, and of the execution of this threat (Exod. 7:14-15a, 16-17a, 18, 21a, 23-25).
The E writer added the rod of the wonder-worker and Moses’ threat to strike the water and turn the Nile to blood – a threat which he fulfills (Exod. 7:15, 17b, 20b). The P author added Aaron, not Moses, is the wonder-worker, and it is Aaron who waves the rod over not only the Nile but also other rivers, canals, ponds and pools, and all waters are turned to blood, including water stored in containers. The P writer explains that this terrible plague did not change Pharaoh’s mind, for Pharaoh’s priests can perform the same miracle.
The important change is that Aaron, the symbol of the high priesthood in Israel, acts as the priest-magician-agent of God, performing the divine will. 3. The description of the first Passover in Exodus 12 probably reflects the way the feast was celebrated during the monarchy. What earlier elements can be isolated in this chapter? How can the union of originally distinct agricultural and pastoral rituals be explained? As earlier in the P narrative with the legislation concerning the blood prohibition (Gen. . 4-6) and circumcision (Gen 17), the Passover is integrally related to the plot in which it is imbedded. The Passover appear to be two distinct springtime rituals: one agricultural in origin, called the “festival of unleavened bread,” and another probably pastoral in origin, of the sacrifice of the firstborn lamb. The Festival of Unleavened Bread shows it was originally a distinct ritual. It occurred at the time of the barley harvest, in the early spring.
In this ritual, farmers would offer to their deity bread made from the new harvest, with the flour unadulterated by “leaven,”, that is sourdough from flour made from a previous harvest. The sacrifice of the newly born lamb, also occurring in the spring, would have been the Shepards’ expression of gratitude to their deity for the fertility of their flocks, as well as a petition for continued fertility. Historicized the ritual became linked with the defining experience of the Exodus. ? 4. Compare Exodus 14 and 15. How do the prose and poetic accounts of the event at the Re(e)d Sea differ?
In Exodus 14, the event at the sea is the most detailed and the most dramatic, it features the sea divided as Moses lifted his staff: “The Israelites went into the sea on dry ground, the waters forming a wall for them on their right and on their left” (14. 22). This event at the sea implies a new creation. As in the accounts creation (Gen 1. 2, 9) and its renewal after the Flood (Gen 8. 1, 14), the wind blew, the waters were divided, and the dry land appeared (Ex 14. 21). The Egyptians followed, and when the Israelites reached the other side, Moses lifted his staff again, and the returning waters engulfed the Egyptians.
Yet a third version of the event found in Exodus 15, one of the oldest poems in the Bible. It relates how when Yahweh blew his nostrils, the sea became churned up, and ?Pharaoh’s chariots and his army he cast into the sea; ?his picked officers were sunk in the Reed Sea. ?The floods covered them; they went down into the depths like a stone… ?You blew with your wind, the sea covered them; they sank like lead in the mighty ? waters. (Ex 15. 4-5, 10) According to this account, the Egyptians, apparently in ships or barges, were swamped by a storm at sea and sank to the sea’s bottom. . What are the issues involved in determining the historicity and the date of the Exodus? As with the ancestral narratives in Genesis 12-50, there are problems determining the date the exodus is supposed to have occurred. The dates mentioned above would give a date for the exodus in the 15th or 16th century BCE, depending on whether one Kings 6:1 is followed or the other periods mentioned are added up. This lack of correlation has led some scholars to be skeptical that anything like the Exodus ever occurred.
The view is that the biblical traditions, although containing anachronisms and signs of later editing, so preserve authentic historical memory. 6. How did the biblical writers make use of ancient Near Eastern mythology in their accounts of the Exodus? The writers of the Old Testament, however, borrowed motifs and allusions from the myths of Mesopotamia and Canaan as means of describing the significance of God’s acts in the world. They never borrowed the mythological materials unchanged, but always transformed them into ways of describing the actions of the one God of the world.
Chapter 7 1. What is the vocabulary connected with the concept of covenant in the Bible? The treaty analogue sheds light on some biblical phraseology used in covenant contexts. The relationship of the suzerain to the vassal is often expressed as a father – son relationship. The references to Israel as Yahweh’s son is illuminated by this characteristic idiom: The father – son metaphor informs another idiom: In treaties and diplomatic correspondence, the relationship between the two parties is one of “love. ” 2.
How does the suzerainty treaty form provide a useful model for understanding biblical traditions about covenant and covenant making? What differences are there, and what is there significance? The suzerainty treaty, which was drawn up by a superior power and imposed upon an inferior. The treaty contain at the minimum certain clauses including a preamble, an historical prologue, the list of stipulations, the witnesses, the curses and blessings, and provision for deposit and public reading of the covenant text.
The major difference, of course, was that the superior party in the suzerainty treaty coerced the vassal into acceptance of the fidelity to the covenant terms while he himself had no such obligations except as he voluntarily subscribed to his own stipulations. The significance of all this to biblical studies is the fact that biblical covenant form resembles almost exactly Hittite treaty form, specifically the suzerainty treaty type. 3. Discuss the original audience and meaning of the Ten Commandments and the values that they incorporate. The audience of the Decalogue is limited to the Israelites gathered at the base of Mount Sinai.
The commandments are phrased in the second – person masculine singular. They are specifically addressed to individual Israelite males, as the wording of the commandments about the Sabbath (“you, your son, or your daughter, your male or female slave”) and about property (“your neighbor’s wife”) also makes clear. The first several commandments have to do with the relationship between Yahweh and Israel. The remaining commandments have to do with intercommunity relationships: A man’s life, his marriage, his person, his reputation, and his property.
Chapter 8 1. What are some similarities and differences between ancient Near Eastern laws and Israelite laws? What is their significance? The Israelite laws contain many purely religious injunctions and ritual regulations. The Code of Hammurapi is civil. However, the priestly laws of Leviticus contain many points of contact with corresponding priestly ritual and practice in Western Asia, whether in Canaan and Phoenicia or in Mesopotamia. However, the divine institution on Israelite ritual practice made direct borrowing unnecessary.
The similar practice among surrounding people were given to Israel and at the same time invested with special significance for the worship of Yahweh. 2. What are the different types of laws found in the book of Exodus? What subjects do they deal with? Apodictic law is the kind of law that we have in the Ten Commandments for example. It is not conditioned on anything. When it says, “You shall have no other gods before me,” that is it. It does not say, “If you are between the ages of 20 and 65, have no other gods before me,” or “If you are not otherwise worshiping. No, it just says, “Have no other Gods before me. ” It is unconditional, it is general, it is unlimited, it may be expressed in the positive or the negative, but the “you shall not laws” are among the things that keep people out of trouble. The Casuistic laws, on the other hand, are what might be called case law, where an instance of something is cited. In effect, an example or sample is cited, so these are conditional. These do not usually apply absolutely to everyone. They apply only when the conditions described in the law are met. They are very specific as guidelines rather than being universal.
Therefore, you have a law that says, “If you knock out the tooth of a servant who works for you, that servant goes free from his seven year contract and you lose all the money you paid. ” 3. What were the functions of the Ark of the Covenant in different biblical sources? Judging from parallels in ancient depictions of royal thrones, the cherubim himself or herself formed the throne of the deity, described as “enthroned” (literally “sitting on”) the cherubim and the ark was his footstool. The ark also functioned as a container or safe deposit box for the text of the covenant, the contract between Yahweh and Israel. . What is the connection between the principal religious festivals in ancient Israel and the agricultural cycle? They were pilgrimage festivals, celebrated at a regional sanctuary and linked to the agricultural cycle. The harvest of the barley in the early spring, of the wheat in the late spring, and of fruits such as grapes and olives in the fall. One emphasis is that the worship of Yahweh is not to be corrupted by the practices of the Canaanites, and hence intermarriage is forbidden. 5. What are the religious and social dimensions of sacrifice?
The primary religious rituals of Israelite religion involved sacrifices and offerings. The ritual system within the Israelite cult evolved around gifts and offerings that were presented before Yahweh. Sacrifices symbolized an acknowledgement of guilt and a need for divine grace and forgiveness. Sacrifice within the social context can be transgressed into two aspects, one relating to the offender, and the other being the offended one, God. 6. Discuss some theories that help explain the concepts of purity and impurity. Health: Some animals may not have been eaten because they were recognized as carriers of diseases.
It may have been observed that people whose diet-included pork or shellfish became ill frequently. Some types of bodily emissions also made a person impure. Therefore, an impure or unclean person was not only prohibited from participating in rituals, but also sometimes quarantined. Cultural differentiation: Cultures distinguish themselves from others cultures are diet. Animals such as cow, horse, dog, and cat are part of the diet, for others, they are taboo and are never eaten. A sense of order: Impure and pure is based on theoretical order in which distinct categories must be kept separate to be pure.
Relationship to sex and death: A person became impure by contact with a corpse or a dead animal that was not to be eaten, by skin disease, which may be understood as mimicking the decay that occurs after death. The loss of fluids considered essential to life, such as semen and blood, especially menstrual blood. 7. What is the primary meaning of holiness? How does the concept of holiness apply to person, places, and time? The primary meaning of the Hebrew word translated “holiness” is separation. With regard to persons, in the center is Yahweh himself, who is holy.
The space, the holy of holies is in the center of the sanctuary and is where the divine presence dwells. At the center of time is the Sabbath. Chapter 9 1. Compare the narratives of Israel’s wilderness sojourn in Numbers with the summary presentations in Psalms 78 and 106. Psalms 78-The people disobeyed god and questioned his power. He parted the sea, during the day he lead them with a cloud. During the night, he led them with a lightning bolt. He made streams come out of rock, yet the people still sinned. They tested god in asking for food they craved.
This made the Lord full of rage and he killed them. Psalms 106- give thanks to the lord for the love is steadfast and enduring forever. They were thankful for all that, God provided for them and their ancestors. The major differences are gratitude over rebellion. 2. How does the Documentary Hypothesis help explain the complicated geography and accounts of rebellions in Numbers? To what extent does the book of Numbers preserve traditions earlier than J, E, and P? Moses sent 12 spies, one from each tribe see if the land of Canaan could be entered directly from the south.
The spies went as far as Hebron and returns with grapes, pomegranates, and figs. It was a bountiful land. However, the reports were mixed among the spies. Some wanted to invade and the other thought it was too dangerous because the Israelites were to strong. The Israelites had been a rebellious community and the divinely imposed punishment for that act of rebellion. Only three individuals that experienced the rebellion are still alive the rest was forced to wander the desert until they died. Chapter 10 1. What is the relationship of the book of Deuteronomy to the preceding four books of the Pentateuch?
What is its relationship to the books that follow? Deuteronomy is the fifth and final book of the Torah/Pentateuch; it name, which is Greek in origins means “second law “a succinctly summarizes its contents. Deuteronomy concludes the Pentateuch, in which later Jewish will enumerate 613 commandments given by God through Moses, the traditional author of the Pentateuch. Obedience to these commandments will form the essence of Jewish tradition, the way of the Torah. In addition, the remaining four books of the Pentateuch, Exodus through Deuteronomy, are essentially one long journey home.
God’s love of Israel, expressed in covenant and proven through history, will continue as long as the people are faithful to the teaching of Moses. This dominant theme is one that Deuteronomists will use to organize the historical narrative. This follows in the books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings. 2. How do the laws in Deuteronomy differ from those found earlier in the Pentateuch? How can these differences be explained? The laws that is to be read, however, differs in an important way from that given at Mount Sinai, found earlier in the Pentateuch in the books of Exodus, Leviticus, and Numbers.
At Sinai, God spoke. In the book Deuteronomy, Moses speaks. Deuteronomy is an early stage in the continuing process of interpretation. 3. What are the core messages of the book of Deuteronomy? The core message in Deuteronomy is one of obedience, not rebellion, exile, return, and faithfulness. Maintain its core message of fidelity to the teaching of Moses, and adapted it to changing circumstances. Religion 111 Chapter 6 Questions 1. Choose a small section of the narrative of the plaques in Exodus 7-12, and identify the parts of the passage that you would attribute to J, E, and P.
What characteristic phrases and themes of each source occur in the passage? The passage that best illustrates the account of the plagues in Egypt in Exodus 7. The J account tells of the hardening of Pharaoh’s heart, of Yahweh’s threat to befoul the waters of the Nile and kill the fish, and of the execution of this threat (Exod. 7:14-15a, 16-17a, 18, 21a, 23-25). The E writer added the rod of the wonder-worker and Moses’ threat to strike the water and turn the Nile to blood – a threat which he fulfills (Exod. 7:15, 17b, 20b).
The P author added Aaron, not Moses, is the wonder-worker, and it is Aaron who waves the rod over not only the Nile but also other rivers, canals, ponds and pools, and all waters are turned to blood, including water stored in containers. The P writer explains that this terrible plague did not change Pharaoh’s mind, for Pharaoh’s priests can perform the same miracle. The important change is that Aaron, the symbol of the high priesthood in Israel, acts as the priest-magician-agent of God, performing the divine will. 3. The description of the first Passover in Exodus 12 probably reflects the way the feast was celebrated during the monarchy.
What earlier elements can be isolated in this chapter? How can the union of originally distinct agricultural and pastoral rituals be explained? As earlier in the P narrative with the legislation concerning the blood prohibition (Gen. 9. 4-6) and circumcision (Gen 17), the Passover is integrally related to the plot in which it is imbedded. The Passover appear to be two distinct springtime rituals: one agricultural in origin, called the “festival of unleavened bread,” and another probably pastoral in origin, of the sacrifice of the firstborn lamb. The Festival of Unleavened Bread shows it was originally a distinct ritual.
It occurred at the time of the barley harvest, in the early spring. In this ritual, farmers would offer to their deity bread made from the new harvest, with the flour unadulterated by “leaven,”, that is sourdough from flour made from a previous harvest. The sacrifice of the newly born lamb, also occurring in the spring, would have been the Shepards’ expression of gratitude to their deity for the fertility of their flocks, as well as a petition for continued fertility. Historicized the ritual became linked with the defining experience of the Exodus. ? 4.
Compare Exodus 14 and 15. How do the prose and poetic accounts of the event at the Re(e)d Sea differ? In Exodus 14, the event at the sea is the most detailed and the most dramatic, it features the sea divided as Moses lifted his staff: “The Israelites went into the sea on dry ground, the waters forming a wall for them on their right and on their left” (14. 22). This event at the sea implies a new creation. As in the accounts creation (Gen 1. 2, 9) and its renewal after the Flood (Gen 8. 1, 14), the wind blew, the waters were divided, and the dry land appeared (Ex 14. 21).
The Egyptians followed, and when the Israelites reached the other side, Moses lifted his staff again, and the returning waters engulfed the Egyptians. Yet a third version of the event found in Exodus 15, one of the oldest poems in the Bible. It relates how when Yahweh blew his nostrils, the sea became churned up, and ?Pharaoh’s chariots and his army he cast into the sea; ?his picked officers were sunk in the Reed Sea. ?The floods covered them; they went down into the depths like a stone… ?You blew with your wind, the sea covered them; they sank like lead in the mighty ? waters. (Ex 15. 4-5, 10)
According to this account, the Egyptians, apparently in ships or barges, were swamped by a storm at sea and sank to the sea’s bottom. 5. What are the issues involved in determining the historicity and the date of the Exodus? As with the ancestral narratives in Genesis 12-50, there are problems determining the date the exodus is supposed to have occurred. The dates mentioned above would give a date for the exodus in the 15th or 16th century BCE, depending on whether one Kings 6:1 is followed or the other periods mentioned are added up. This lack of correlation has led some scholars to be skeptical that anything like the Exodus ever occurred.
The view is that the biblical traditions, although containing anachronisms and signs of later editing, so preserve authentic historical memory. 6. How did the biblical writers make use of ancient Near Eastern mythology in their accounts of the Exodus? The writers of the Old Testament, however, borrowed motifs and allusions from the myths of Mesopotamia and Canaan as means of describing the significance of God’s acts in the world. They never borrowed the mythological materials unchanged, but always transformed them into ways of describing the actions of the one God of the world. Chapter 7 1.
What is the vocabulary connected with the concept of covenant in the Bible? The treaty analogue sheds light on some biblical phraseology used in covenant contexts. The relationship of the suzerain to the vassal is often expressed as a father – son relationship. The references to Israel as Yahweh’s son is illuminated by this characteristic idiom: The father – son metaphor informs another idiom: In treaties and diplomatic correspondence, the relationship between the two parties is one of “love. ” 2. How does the suzerainty treaty form provide a useful model for understanding biblical traditions about covenant and covenant making?
What differences are there, and what is there significance? The suzerainty treaty, which was drawn up by a superior power and imposed upon an inferior. The treaty contain at the minimum certain clauses including a preamble, an historical prologue, the list of stipulations, the witnesses, the curses and blessings, and provision for deposit and public reading of the covenant text. The major difference, of course, was that the superior party in the suzerainty treaty coerced the vassal into acceptance of the fidelity to the covenant terms while he himself had no such obligations except as he voluntarily subscribed to his own stipulations.
The significance of all this to biblical studies is the fact that biblical covenant form resembles almost exactly Hittite treaty form, specifically the suzerainty treaty type. 3. Discuss the original audience and meaning of the Ten Commandments and the values that they incorporate. The audience of the Decalogue is limited to the Israelites gathered at the base of Mount Sinai. The commandments are phrased in the second – person masculine singular.
They are specifically addressed to individual Israelite males, as the wording of the commandments about the Sabbath (“you, your son, or your daughter, your male or female slave”) and about property (“your neighbor’s wife”) also makes clear. The first several commandments have to do with the relationship between Yahweh and Israel. The remaining commandments have to do with intercommunity relationships: A man’s life, his marriage, his person, his reputation, and his property. Chapter 8 1. What are some similarities and differences between ancient Near Eastern laws and Israelite laws? What is their significance?
The Israelite laws contain many purely religious injunctions and ritual regulations. The Code of Hammurapi is civil. However, the priestly laws of Leviticus contain many points of contact with corresponding priestly ritual and practice in Western Asia, whether in Canaan and Phoenicia or in Mesopotamia. However, the divine institution on Israelite ritual practice made direct borrowing unnecessary. The similar practice among surrounding people were given to Israel and at the same time invested with special significance for the worship of Yahweh. 2. What are the different types of laws found in the book of Exodus?
What subjects do they deal with? Apodictic law is the kind of law that we have in the Ten Commandments for example. It is not conditioned on anything. When it says, “You shall have no other gods before me,” that is it. It does not say, “If you are between the ages of 20 and 65, have no other gods before me,” or “If you are not otherwise worshiping. ” No, it just says, “Have no other Gods before me. ” It is unconditional, it is general, it is unlimited, it may be expressed in the positive or the negative, but the “you shall not laws” are among the things that keep people out of trouble.
The Casuistic laws, on the other hand, are what might be called case law, where an instance of something is cited. In effect, an example or sample is cited, so these are conditional. These do not usually apply absolutely to everyone. They apply only when the conditions described in the law are met. They are very specific as guidelines rather than being universal. Therefore, you have a law that says, “If you knock out the tooth of a servant who works for you, that servant goes free from his seven year contract and you lose all the money you paid. ” 3. What were the functions of the Ark of the Covenant in different biblical sources?
Judging from parallels in ancient depictions of royal thrones, the cherubim himself or herself formed the throne of the deity, described as “enthroned” (literally “sitting on”) the cherubim and the ark was his footstool. The ark also functioned as a container or safe deposit box for the text of the covenant, the contract between Yahweh and Israel. 4. What is the connection between the principal religious festivals in ancient Israel and the agricultural cycle? They were pilgrimage festivals, celebrated at a regional sanctuary and linked to the agricultural cycle.
The harvest of the barley in the early spring, of the wheat in the late spring, and of fruits such as grapes and olives in the fall. One emphasis is that the worship of Yahweh is not to be corrupted by the practices of the Canaanites, and hence intermarriage is forbidden. 5. What are the religious and social dimensions of sacrifice? The primary religious rituals of Israelite religion involved sacrifices and offerings. The ritual system within the Israelite cult evolved around gifts and offerings that were presented before Yahweh. Sacrifices symbolized an acknowledgement of guilt and a need for divine grace and forgiveness.
Sacrifice within the social context can be transgressed into two aspects, one relating to the offender, and the other being the offended one, God. 6. Discuss some theories that help explain the concepts of purity and impurity. Health: Some animals may not have been eaten because they were recognized as carriers of diseases. It may have been observed that people whose diet-included pork or shellfish became ill frequently. Some types of bodily emissions also made a person impure. Therefore, an impure or unclean person was not only prohibited from participating in rituals, but also sometimes quarantined.
Cultural differentiation: Cultures distinguish themselves from others cultures are diet. Animals such as cow, horse, dog, and cat are part of the diet, for others, they are taboo and are never eaten. A sense of order: Impure and pure is based on theoretical order in which distinct categories must be kept separate to be pure. Relationship to sex and death: A person became impure by contact with a corpse or a dead animal that was not to be eaten, by skin disease, which may be understood as mimicking the decay that occurs after death. The loss of fluids considered essential to life, such as semen and blood, especially menstrual blood. . What is the primary meaning of holiness? How does the concept of holiness apply to person, places, and time? The primary meaning of the Hebrew word translated “holiness” is separation. With regard to persons, in the center is Yahweh himself, who is holy. The space, the holy of holies is in the center of the sanctuary and is where the divine presence dwells. At the center of time is the Sabbath. Chapter 9 1. Compare the narratives of Israel’s wilderness sojourn in Numbers with the summary presentations in Psalms 78 and 106. Psalms 78-The people disobeyed god and questioned his power.
He parted the sea, during the day he lead them with a cloud. During the night, he led them with a lightning bolt. He made streams come out of rock, yet the people still sinned. They tested god in asking for food they craved. This made the Lord full of rage and he killed them. Psalms 106- give thanks to the lord for the love is steadfast and enduring forever. They were thankful for all that, God provided for them and their ancestors. The major differences are gratitude over rebellion. 2. How does the Documentary Hypothesis help explain the complicated geography and accounts of rebellions in Numbers?
To what extent does the book of Numbers preserve traditions earlier than J, E, and P? Moses sent 12 spies, one from each tribe see if the land of Canaan could be entered directly from the south. The spies went as far as Hebron and returns with grapes, pomegranates, and figs. It was a bountiful land. However, the reports were mixed among the spies. Some wanted to invade and the other thought it was too dangerous because the Israelites were to strong. The Israelites had been a rebellious community and the divinely imposed punishment for that act of rebellion.
Only three individuals that experienced the rebellion are still alive the rest was forced to wander the desert until they died. Chapter 10 1. What is the relationship of the book of Deuteronomy to the preceding four books of the Pentateuch? What is its relationship to the books that follow? Deuteronomy is the fifth and final book of the Torah/Pentateuch; it name, which is Greek in origins means “second law “a succinctly summarizes its contents. Deuteronomy concludes the Pentateuch, in which later Jewish will enumerate 613 commandments given by God through Moses, the traditional author of the Pentateuch.
Obedience to these commandments will form the essence of Jewish tradition, the way of the Torah. In addition, the remaining four books of the Pentateuch, Exodus through Deuteronomy, are essentially one long journey home. God’s love of Israel, expressed in covenant and proven through history, will continue as long as the people are faithful to the teaching of Moses. This dominant theme is one that Deuteronomists will use to organize the historical narrative. This follows in the books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings. 2. How do the laws in Deuteronomy differ from those found earlier in the Pentateuch?
How can these differences be explained? The laws that is to be read, however, differs in an important way from that given at Mount Sinai, found earlier in the Pentateuch in the books of Exodus, Leviticus, and Numbers. At Sinai, God spoke. In the book Deuteronomy, Moses speaks. Deuteronomy is an early stage in the continuing process of interpretation. 3. What are the core messages of the book of Deuteronomy? The core message in Deuteronomy is one of obedience, not rebellion, exile, return, and faithfulness. Maintain its core message of fidelity to the teaching of Moses, and adapted it to changing circumstances.

Sorry, but copying text is forbidden on this website. If you need this or any other sample register now and get a free access to all papers, carefully proofread and edited by our experts.

Sign Up Login We can't stand spam as much as you do No, thanks. I prefer suffering on my own