How far were divisions among its opponents responsible for the survival of tsarist rule in the years 1881 to 1905? - Military Essay Example
How far were divisions among its opponents responsible for the survival of tsarist rule in the years 1881 to 1905?
The divisions of its opponents were a major factor in the survival of tsarist state however; it is not the only factor as there are others - How far were divisions among its opponents responsible for the survival of tsarist rule in the years 1881 to 1905? introduction? The divisions are big in helping survival but the ruthless use of repression by Alexander the third and Nicolas the second were also very helpful to the autocracy in ensuring continuance. Another major factor involved is the support of the Tsar by three main groups who use their power and influence to help the success of Tsarism. These are elites, the Orthodox Church and the Military. These factors helped the endurance of Tsarist state during these 24 years of chaos.
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One of the main factors for the survival of Tsarist state in 1881 to 1905 is the division of the groups. The groups were the SD, the SRs and the liberals who had very different views and methods to get their word across and these were very useful to the Tsar. The inability of these groups to unite together against Tsar as a powerful unit meant that the tsar was easily able to squish out any talk of revolution or reform. The people against those are could’ve worked together like army ants who are only powerful together but they isolated themselves which made any threat to the system an empty gesture. Most divisions were due to a lack of common ideas but their methods such as the SRs who would use violence, against the moral thought of the liberals who would be more peaceful and less threatening. This fact meant that the union between the groups was made impossible. This caused no problem for the Tsar and made his system impregnable.
Internal differences among its members in opposing groups also play part in helping the Tsar to stay in power. In 1905 the revolution by all parts of society was a big problem for the Autarch as his entire country was crumbling around him, completely made his look weak but he made one concession for the allowance of a Duma (state assembly) created divisions among groups internally. For example, the liberals were split in two by the October manifesto, as some of the liberals were happy with the concessions; these later became the Octobrists. The other Liberals were not happy with this small gesture fighters are became the cadets this split made it easier for the Tsar to regain control. The SDs also had split into Bolsheviks and Mensheviks due to different philosophical beliefs in the base of their group. These internal issues allowed the Tsar to pacify groups easily and squash other revolutionaries. The peasants were happy with the November manifesto and this allowed the Tsar to regain control-using repression. He took the sting out of the revolution.
Repression was a major theme in the rule of Alexander the third and Nicolas the second. They both use repression well to keep anti Tsarism down. Alexander the third used many policies to help with safekeeping of power. The Okhrana were used strategically by the Tsar to get to the heart of any revolt, as members of the secret police could be implanted into any anti-Tsar group. The member would pretend to be a part of the revolutionary group and when any action was needed they would arrest there are other members of the group. This meant fear of Okhrana stopped a lot of people from trying to hold meetings or any convention to oppose the Tsar. Russification was also used to turn people, who didn’t speak or follow Russian cultures, into forced Russians who were by law forced to speak Russian and to take part in the culture. This meant that they were taught the importance of the Tsar and how he is chosen by god to be leader of the country. Yet this was not very successful in keeping the people happy as most of the polish and Ukrainians were not happy to be a part of Russia and to be forced to just exacerbated any negative feeling to the Tsar. The implementation of State run courts in 1881 meant that juries were not required to persecute and even execute. This was left in the hands of the judge. This stopped any group from trying to rally support, as the penalty could be death.
No matter how weak the opposition, the Tsar would not have stayed in power very long if he did not have powerful and influencing supporters. There are three main groups and support tsar throughout and they were the elite, the military and the church. The nobles were loyal to the Tsar as he was good to them by giving them the peasant and workers they wanted and due to redemption payments, the nobles got richer which meant that they have more power and influence. This also goes to help the Tsar as the Nobles can help build support for the autocratic system. The military was also very loyal to the Tsar as they knew how to follow the chain of command and felt that they had a duty to him. The military were very useful to the Tsar when he needed to snuff out a revolt. They would go in and sort the situation, out of mere loyalty. Finally, the church was also very instrumental in drumming up support for the Tsar. They would use their deep held belief that God appointed the Tsar and this meant a lot to peasants who were deeply religious. This god given power helped to keep the peasants in control by fear and loyalty.
In conclusion, the support of loyal parties with the most important factor in the survival of the Tsarist state from 1881 to 1905 as they were supportive to their leader in times of need. The Tsar needed the army at the time of the 1905 revolution and they still stayed loyal to him and even helped quell the anger. The church was very helpful in keeping the peasants, who were 80% of the population, under control. Without the support of his loyal followers, the Tsars would not have kept power so easily.