Professor Delano suggests that because people are especially attracted to those who are good-looking, handsome men will be more successful than average-looking men in securing employment. The professor’s prediction regarding employment success exemplifies:
a hypothesis.
Theories are defined as:
principles that help to organize, predict, and explain facts.
You decide to test your belief that men drink more soft drinks than women by finding out whether more soft drinks are consumed per day in the men’s dorm than in the women’s dorm. Your belief is a(n) ________, and your research prediction is a(n) ________.
theory; hypothesis
In order to understand the unusual behavior of an adult client, a clinical psychologist has carefully investigated the client’s current life situation and his physical, social-cultural, and educational history. Which research method has the psychologist employed?
the case study
The biggest danger of relying on case-study evidence is that it:
may be unrepresentative of what is generally true.
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People often fail to make accurate generalizations because they are unduly influenced by ________ cases.
The sight of large, enthusiastic crowds at all of his political rallies led Governor Donovan to become overconfident about his chances of winning the upcoming election. In this instance, the governor needs to be alerted to the value of:
random sampling.
Surveys are most likely to indicate that reckless behavior and self-control are:
negatively correlated.
A researcher was interested in determining whether her students’ test performance could be predicted from their proximity to the front of the classroom. So she matched her students’ scores on a math test with their seating position. This study is an example of:
correlational research.
Surveys are most likely to indicate that reckless behavior and self-control are:
negatively correlated.
If the correlation between the physical weight and reading ability of elementary school students is +0.85, this would indicate that:
better reading ability is associated with greater physical weight among elementary school students.
Professor Carter observes and records the behavior of grocery shoppers as they select items to purchase. Which type of research is Professor Carter employing?
naturalistic observation
Psychologists who carefully watch the behavior of chimpanzee societies in the jungle are using a research method known as:
naturalistic observation.
John Watson is to Wilhelm Wundt as ________ is to ________.
observable behavior; inner sensations
Cognitive neuroscience studies relationships between:
thought processes and brain functions.
Introspection was the basic research tool used by ________ in order to study people’s inner sensations and mental images.
Wilhelm Wundt
Psychology is defined as the “scientific study of behavior and mental processes.” Wilhelm Wundt would have omitted which of the following words from this definition?
behavior and
Which perspective would suggest that the facial expressions associated with the emotions of lust and rage are inherited?
Which perspective is most relevant to understanding the impact of strokes and brain diseases on memory?
Alicia insists that Dr. Phillip’s theory of aggression be checked against observable evidence. She is demonstrating the scientific attitude of:
Which technique involves repeating the essence of an earlier research study with different participants and in different circumstances?
A specification of how a researcher measures a research variable is known as a(n):
operational definition.
Every twenty-fifth person who ordered a subscription to a weekly news magazine was contacted by market researchers to complete a survey of opinions regarding the magazine’s contents. The researchers were most clearly employing a technique known as:
random sampling.
After noting that a majority of professional basketball players are African-American, Ervin concluded that African-Americans are better athletes than members of other racial groups. Ervin’s conclusion best illustrates the danger of:
generalizing from vivid cases.
In which type of research is a representative random sample of people asked to answer questions about their behaviors or attitudes?
the survey
If psychologists discovered that intelligent parents have smarter children than unintelligent parents, this would demonstrate that:
the intelligence of parents and children is positively correlated.
If psychologists discovered that wealthy people are less satisfied with their marriages than poor people are, this would indicate that wealth and marital satisfaction are:
negatively correlated.
A correlation between physical attractiveness and dating frequency of +0.60 would indicate that:
less frequent dating is associated with lower levels of physical attractiveness.
Professor Ober carefully monitors and records the behaviors of children in their classrooms in order to track the development of their social and intellectual skills. Professor Ober is most clearly engaged in:
naturalistic observation.
A researcher would be most likely to discover a positive correlation between:
intelligence and academic success.
Who would be most likely to agree with the statement, “Psychology is the science of mental life”?
Wilhelm Wundt
Contemporary psychology is best defined as the scientific study of:
behavior and mental processes.
Complementary accounts of the same behavior that can supplement one another represent different:
levels of analysis.
An integrated understanding of the explanations provided by the neuroscience, cognitive, social-cultural, and other perspectives in psychology is most clearly provided by:
a biopsychosocial approach.
Two basic characteristics of the scientific attitude are:
skepticism and humility.
Psychological theories:
do all of the alternatives.
A hypothesis is a(n):
testable prediction that gives direction to research.
Which of the following scientific procedures is most useful for helping survey researchers avoid false generalizations?
random sampling
In order to assess reactions to a proposed tuition hike at her college, Ariana sent a questionnaire to every fifteenth person in the college registrar’s alphabetical listing of all currently enrolled students. Ariana employed the technique of:
random sampling.
Surveys indicate that people are much less likely to support “welfare” than “aid to the needy.” These somewhat paradoxical survey results best illustrate the importance of:
wording effects.
Correlational research is most useful for purposes of:
Compared with Wilhelm Wundt, early behaviorists were much less likely to focus on the study of:
Who would be most likely to agree with the statement, “Psychology should investigate only behaviors that can be observed”?
John B. Watson
Today, psychology is defined as the:
scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
When you question whether anecdotal evidence can be generalized to all people, you are applying:
critical thinking.
Professor Saxton was skeptical about the accuracy of recently reported research on sleep deprivation. Which process would best enable her to assess the reliability of these findings?
Which of the following is true, according to the text?
No psychological theory can be considered a good one until it produces testable predictions.
Stacey suggests that because children are more impulsive than adults, they will have more difficulty controlling their anger. Stacey’s prediction regarding anger management exemplifies:
a hypothesis.
Your roommate is conducting a survey to learn how many hours the typical college student studies each day. She plans to pass out her questionnaire to the members of her sorority. You point out that her findings will be flawed because:
the sample will probably not be representative of the population of interest.
In a survey, psychologists select a random sample of research participants in order to ensure that:
the participants are representative of the population they are interested in studying.
A negative correlation between people’s physical health and their marital happiness would indicate that:
higher levels of marital happiness are associated with lower levels of physical health.
Which type of research would allow you to determine whether students’ college grades accurately predict later income?
Who was the American philosopher who authored a textbook in 1890 for the emerging discipline of psychology?
Humanistic psychologists focused attention on the importance of people’s:
potential for healthy growth.
Understanding why the fear of darkness may have contributed to the survival of our human ancestors is most relevant to the ________ perspective.
The biopsychosocial approach emphasizes the importance of:
different levels of analysis in exploring behavior and mental processes.
Assessing whether conclusions are warranted by the existing evidence best illustrates:
critical thinking.
In order to focus on inner sensations, images, and feelings, Wilhelm Wundt used a research tool known as:
Wilhelm Wundt’s laboratory work involved experimental studies of:
reactions to sensory stimulation.
Which perspective is most relevant to understanding the linkages between hormone levels and sexual motivation?
Correlation refers to the extent to which two variables:
vary together.
Professor Lopez believes that severe depression results primarily from an imbalanced diet and abnormal brain chemistry. Professor Lopez favors a ________ perspective on depression.
The self-examination of one’s own emotional and mental processes is called:
Researchers use experiments rather than other research methods in order to distinguish between:
causes and effects.
Joe believes that his basketball game is always best when he wears his old gray athletic socks. Joe is a victim of the phenomenon called:
illusory correlation.
Which of the following correlation coefficients indicates the strongest relationship between two variables?
If the points on a scatterplot are clustered in a pattern that extends from the upper left to the lower right, this would suggest that the two variables depicted are:
negatively correlated.
Illusory correlation refers to:
the perception of a relationship between two unrelated variables.
How would you describe a scatterplot depicting a perfect correlation between two sets of scores?
All the points fall on a straight line.
Research participants are randomly assigned to different groups in an experiment in order to:
reduce the likelihood of any preexisting differences between groups of participants.
The most foolproof way of testing the true effectiveness of a newly introduced method of psychological therapy is by means of:
experimental research.
In drug-treatment studies, double-blind procedures minimize outcome differences between experimental and control conditions that could be attributed to:
placebo effects.
Which of the following procedures is an example of the use of a placebo?
In a test of the effects of a drug on memory, a participant is led to believe that a harmless pill actually contains an active drug.
Martina believes that high doses of caffeine slow a person’s reaction time. In order to test this belief, she has five friends each drink three 8-ounce cups of coffee and then measures their reaction time on a learning task. What is wrong with Martina’s research strategy?
There is no control condition.
Karen erroneously believes that her test grades are negatively correlated with the amount of time she studies for her tests. Research on illusory correlation suggests that she is especially likely to notice instances in which:
poor grades follow lengthy study and good grades follow brief study.
Six of the children in Mr. Myer’s second-grade classroom were born on exactly the same day. This strikes him as astonishing and improbable. In this instance, he should be reminded that:
random sequences of events often don't look random.
On a series of coin tosses, Oleg has correctly predicted heads or tails seven times in a row. In this instance, it is reasonable to conclude that Oleg’s predictive accuracy:
is a random and coincidental occurrence.
In an experiment to determine the effects of exercise on motivation, exercise is the:
independent variable.
In order to study the effects of lighting on mood, Dr. Cooper had students fill out questionnaires in brightly lit or dimly lit rooms. In this study, the independent variable consisted of:
the room lighting.
The symmetrical bellshaped figure used to represent the distribution of many physical and psychological characteristics is called a:
normal curve.
The mean of a distribution of scores is the:
arithmetic average of all the scores.
Which measure of variation is affected most by a few extreme scores?
Researchers use experiments rather than other research methods in order to distinguish between:
causes and effects.
The most accurate way of assessing the impact of breast-milk feedings on the intellectual development of children is by means of:
Gamblers who blow on their dice “for luck” are victims of:
the illusion of control.
If a positive correlation between two sets of scores is displayed as a scatterplot, the points are clustered in a pattern that:
extends from the lower left to the upper right of the graph.
Regression toward the mean is the:
tendency for unusual scores to fall back toward a distribution's average.
To prevent the possibility that a placebo effect or researchers’ expectations will influence a study’s results, scientists employ:
the double-blind procedure.
Which of the following is true for those assigned to a control group?
The experimental treatment is absent.
In order to determine the effects of a new drug on memory, one group of people is given a pill that contains the drug. A second group is given a sugar pill that does not contain the drug. This second group constitutes the:
control group.
In order to test the potential effect of hunger on taste sensitivity, groups of research participants are deprived of food for differing lengths of time before they engage in a taste-sensitivity test. This research is an example of:
an experiment.
Participants in an experiment are said to be blind if they are uninformed about:
which experimental treatment, if any, they are receiving.
Illusory correlation refers to:
the perception of a relationship between two variables that does not exist.
The strength of the relationship between two vivid events will most likely be:
The concept of control is important in psychological research because:
experimental control allows researchers to study the influence of one or two independent variables on a dependent variable while holding other potential influences constant.
In an experimental study of the effects of dieting on weight loss, dieting would be the:
independent variable.
Approximately 95 percent of the cases represented by the normal curve fall within ________ standard deviation(s) from the mean.
In a group of five individuals, two report annual incomes of $10,000, and the other three report incomes of $14,000, $15,000, and $31,000, respectively. The mode of this group’s distribution of annual incomes is:
What is the mode of the following distribution: 8, 2, 1, 1, 3, 7, 6, 2, 0, 2?
Which method offers the most reliable way of assessing whether athletic performance is boosted by caffeine consumption?
the experiment
Which of the following methods is most helpful for revealing cause-effect relationships?
the experiment
A correlation coefficient:
does all of the alternatives.
If height and body weight are positively correlated, which of the following is true?
Knowing a person’s height, one can predict his or her weight.
When people’s symptoms of emotional distress are at their worst, whatever they do to try to alleviate the condition is likely to be followed by improvement rather than further deterioration. This is best explained in terms of:
regression toward the mean.
If there is no relationship between two sets of scores, the correlation coefficient equals:
An inert substance that may be administered instead of a drug to see if it produces any of the same effects as the drug is called a:
To minimize the extent to which outcome differences between experimental and control groups can be attributed to placebo effects, researchers make use of:
the double-blind procedure.
Adelle dreamed that a handsome young man she had met the previous day asked her for a date. When he actually did call for a date several days later, Adelle concluded that dreams accurately predict future events. Her belief best illustrates:
illusory correlation.
Approximately what percentage of the cases represented by the normal curve fall between -1 and +1 standard deviations from the mean?
When Mr. Adams calculated his students’ algebra test scores, he noticed that two students had extremely low scores. Which measure of central tendency is affected most by the scores of these two students?
Ahmed has five sisters who are 3, 3, 5, 9, and 10 years of age. The number “5” represents the ________ of the sisters’ ages.
Which research method provides the best way of assessing whether cigarette smoking boosts mental alertness?
the experiment
Gamblers often throw dice gently for low numbers and hard for high numbers. This most directly illustrates:
an illusion of control.
The illusion that uncontrollable events are correlated with our actions is facilitated by a statistical phenomenon known as:
regression toward the mean.
Which of the following correlation coefficients expresses the weakest degree of relationship between two variables?
Which of the following statistical measures is most helpful for indicating the extent to which IQ scores can be used to predict grades in school?
correlation coefficient
In a study of the effects of alcohol consumption, some participants drank a nonalcoholic beverage that actually smelled and tasted like alcohol. This nonalcoholic drink was a:
In order to study the potential effects of social interaction on problem solving, some research participants were instructed to solve problems working together; other participants were instructed to solve problems working alone. Those who worked alone were assigned to the ________ group.
In an experimental study, men with impotence received either Viagra or a placebo. Those who received Viagra were assigned to the ________ group.
In order to assess whether sense of humor is affected by sexual stimulation, researchers exposed married couples to either sexually stimulating or to sexually nonstimulating movie scenes prior to watching a comedy skit. In this research, the independent variable consisted of:
level of sexual stimulation.
The symmetrical, bell-shaped distribution in which most scores are near the mean and fewer near the extremes forms a:
normal curve.
The most frequently occurring score in a distribution is the:
When you read a bar graph, it is most important for you to:
note the range and size of the scale values.
Jane usually averages 175 in bowling. One night her three-game average is 215. What will probably happen to her bowling average over the next several weeks of bowling?
It will return to about the level of her average.
Both the researchers and the participants in a memory study are ignorant about which participants have actually received a potentially memory-enhancing drug and which have received a placebo. This investigation involves the use of:
the double-blind procedure.
In a test of the effects of air pollution, groups of students performed a reaction-time task in a polluted or an unpolluted room. To what condition were students in the unpolluted room exposed?
In order to study the potential effects of social interaction on problem solving, some research participants were instructed to solve problems working together; other participants were instructed to solve problems working alone. Those who worked alone were assigned to the ________ group.
To accurately infer cause and effect, experimenters should use:
random assignment.
Which of the following would be best for determining whether alcohol impairs memory?
Mr. Brown has gathered evidence that the self-esteem of students is negatively correlated with their typical levels of anxiety. Before he uses this evidence to conclude that self-esteem reduces anxiety, Mr. Brown should first be reminded that:
correlation does not prove causation.
What is the median of the following distribution of scores: 1, 3, 7, 7, 2, 8, 4?
In which type of research would an investigator manipulate one factor in order to observe its effect on some behavior or mental process?
The relief of pain following the ingestion of an inert substance that is presumed to have medicinal benefits illustrates:
the placebo effect.
Our tendency to notice and remember instances in which a premonition of an unlikely phone call is actually followed by the call most clearly contributes to:
an illusory correlation.
The maximum height of a normal curve corresponds to the ________ of a normal distribution.
The most frequently occurring score in a distribution of scores is the:
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