23 March in Pakistan
It was 23rd March when a historic Resolution – widely known as ‘Lahore Resolution’ – was passed. The Resolution cast off the concept of United India and recommended the creation of an independent Muslim state consisting of Punjab, NWFP, Sindh and Baluchistan in the northwest, and Bengal and Assam in the northeast. The Resolution was seconded by Maulana Zafar Ali Khan from Punjab, Sardar Aurangzeb from the NWFP, Sir Abdullah Haroon from Sindh, and Qazi Esa from Baluchistan, along with many others.
It laid down only the principles, with the details left to be worked out at a future date. It was made a part of All India Muslim League’s constitution in 1941. More importantly, it was on the basis of this resolution that in 1946 the Muslim League decided to go for one “maverick” state for the Muslims, instead of two. Having passed the Pakistan Resolution, the Muslims of India altered their ultimate goal. They set out on a path whose destination was a separate homeland for the Muslims of India, in lieu of seeking union with the Hindu community.
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Khuda Kray K Meri Arz E Pak Pe Utray Wo Fasl E Gul, Jisay Andaisha E Zawal Na Ho. Different participating leaders of the session of All-India Muslim League held on March 23, 1940, including the Quaid-i-Azam, agreed that India was never united; rather it was split between Muslim India and Hindu India and it would remain so in the future. The entire outlooks, customs and traditions of civilizations of these two different nations were different anyway. They were different not only in their religious beliefs, but their entire mode of life bore a different imprint.
The words of the Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah in his presidential address to the session carried a far deeper impression on the oppressed and demoralised Muslims at the hands of ruthless and undemocratic Congress rule. Mr Jinnah said: “The Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religious philosophies, social customs and literature. They neither intermarry nor inter-dine together, and indeed they belong to two different civilizations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions. “
Such a far-reaching speech by Mr Jinnah paved the way for the demand of a separate independent homeland for the exploited Muslims of India, who believed their rights and privileges could not be guarded under a parliamentary form of government. They also realised that the bloody brutes of the majority without any democratic traditions turned the Hindu rulers tyrannical in their behaviour and due to missing of any administrative experience they acted in a way that could be unacceptable in a democratic society.
One of the key demands made in the Pakistan resolution moved by chief minister of Bengal Maulvi Fazl-ul-Haq on March 23, 1940, was that no constitutional plan would be workable in this country or acceptable to the Muslims unless it was framed on the followed basic principles. Those geographically contiguous units are demarcated into regions, which should be constituted with such territorial readjustments as, may be necessary.
That the areas wherein the Muslims form majority as in the North-Western and Eastern zones of India be grouped together to constituted ‘independent States’ in which the constituted units shall be autonomous and sovereign. That adequate, effective and mandatory safeguards be specially provided in the constitution for minorities in these units and in the regions for the protection of their religious, cultural, economic, political administrative and other rights of interests in consultation with them and in other parts of India where the Muslims form minority.
Having analyzed the crux of the resolution, one comes to a conclusion as to it (the resolution) laid emphasis on a necessity of separate Muslim-state for the Muslims of India by grouping the North-Western and Eastern zones of India where they were in majority, constitutional protection to minorities and their rights-cum-interests. Passing of the Lahore Resolution, which was dubbed by the Hindu and the British press as ‘The Pakistan Resolution’, ended in a great hue and cry in the Hindu, Sikh and British circles.
The Indian press found a new target to incessantly make evil designs and unfurl campaigns against the Muslims and leaders of the Muslim League. Mr. Gandhi declared that partition would mean suicide and the Two-Nation Theory was an unreality. The vast majority of Muslims of India area concerts to Islam or are the descendents of the converts. In consequence, they did not make a separate nation as soon as they become converts, he maintained. Others who flatly opposed the Lahore Resolution were Raj Gopal Achari, B R Ambedkar, Master Tara Singh, Nationalist Muslim group.
On the other hand, the resolution was massively bolstered by many other noted leaders representing different provinces of India, who unanimously adopted it. Sindh too lead, which passed a resolution for Pakistan. Till now, the resolution is deemed to be the quintessence of goal-orientation of untiring and unfailing struggle of Indian Muslims, dating back to 1857. One of the major impacts of the resolution was that under the leadership of towering personality in Mr.
Jinnah not only it did stimulate the Muslim middle classes to unprecedented political action, but also it caught the imagination of the people of all classes of Muslim community It was the resolution, which made the Muslims of India discern their own destiny and spelled out destination and itinerary of action for them to a separate Muslim-state. After the downfall of Muslim empire, it was first time that the resolution proved a ‘line of direction’ for drifting Muslims.
The resolution not only injected new blood into the veins of the Indian Muslims to speed up their struggle to their destiny, but also rejuvenated their slow-down political activity for self-determination in the areas where they made a numerical majority Meri saans saans, Meri aas aas, Meri tishnagi aur meri pyaas Iski izzat pe bich jaey meri lash Mera Pakistan hai her pal meri aas. Khuda Kray K Meri Arz E Pak Pe Utray Wo Fasl E Gul, Jisay Andaisha E Zawal Na Ho.