8.3: Nationalism(Case Study:Italy and Germany)
types of nationalist movements
unification(19th century Italy and Germany)- mergers of politically divided but culturally similar lands
Separation(greeks in ottoman empire and french Canadians)- culturally distinct group of people resists being added to a state or tries to break away
state-building(US,turkey)- culturally distinct groups form into a new state by accepting a single culture
Austria had diverse people.In 1866 Prussia defeated Austria in this war.
North German Confederation
With victory of the Austro-Prussian War, Prussia gained control of this. It was a union of Prussia with 21 smaller german political units
Francis-Joseph of Austria
pressured by Hungarians he split his empire in half declaring Austria and Hungary independent states. with himself as ruler of both
split empire ruled by Francis-Joseph was called this. Nationalists weakened this empire for a while, and after WWI Austria Hungary broke into seperate nation states
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Russians ruled a large culturally diverse group of people, each group had own culture. They issued this policy in which they force Russian culture on all the ethnic groups in the empire. this policy made nationalist feelings stronger which un-unified Russia. last Romanov gave up power in 1917
the largest and most powerful of the Italian States, adopted liberal constitution in 1848.
Victor Emmanuel II
Sardinia’s king in 1852 named Cavour as his prime minister
Camillo de Cavour
worked to expand Sardinia’s power used skillful methods to gain control of northern Italy for Sardinia. Saw the roadblock was Austria, in 1858 Napoleon III said he would help drive Austria out of northern Italian provinces. He provoked war and with French they defeated them. Sardinia took all of northern Italy except Venetia. As he was working in the north he started helping nationalist rebels in south
Only part of Northern Italy that Cavour did not take when in battle with Austria. in 1866 became part of Italy
May 1860 Italian nationalists led by him captured Sicily, from there he crossed the Italian Mainland and headed north he soon agreed to Unite the south with Sardinia. Cavour arranged for him to meet with Emmanuel II in Naples, and this guy agreed to step aside and let the Sardinian king rule
Garibaldi and his followers
Rome was the capital of united Italy, but the pope would continue to govern this area
Starting in 1815 39 german states formed loose groups called these
In 1861 he came after Frederick William to the throne of Prussia. Liberal Parliament refused to give him money for reforms, he saw the refusal as a major challenge to his authority.
supported Wilhelm I, they were strongly conservative wealthy landowners in Prussia
Otto Von Bismarck
In 1862, Wilhelm chose this junker as his prime-minister. with his realpolitik style he became one of Germany’s strongest commanding figures. with kings approval he said he would rule without the consent of Parliament and without a legal budget, these violated the constitution. In 1864 took first step, Prussia and Austria formed an alliance and went to war against Denmark to get land.
Bismarck was a master of this, it means the politics of reality. describes tough power politics with no room for idealism
Schleswig and Holstein
2 border provinces of Denmark, that Prussia and Austria formed an alliance to get. Victory in gaining this increased national pride and new respect for Germans and gave Prussia support as head of Germany. Prussia governed Schleswig and Austria governed Holstein
Seven weeks war
Bismarck stirred up boarder conflicts with Austria over Schleswig and Holstein. Provoking Austria into war in 1866 with Prussia. Prussians used their good training and supplies to defeat Austria, Austrians lost Venetia to Italy, had to accept Prussian annexation of more German territory. With this victory Prussia took control of Northern Germany for first time east and west Prussia were together. In 1867 the rest of the north states joined the north German confederation
Few southern states with Catholics were independent in 1867. They resisted rule by protestant Prussia. Thought if he reasoned war with France that would rally the south. Bismarck created the impression that the French Ambassador insulted the Prussian king, the French reacted by declaring war on july 19, 1870. Prussians went to north France, in sept. 1870 the Prussians surrounded France at Sedan, French prisoners were taken including Napoleon III. Parisians withstood German siege until hunger made them give up. this was the final stage in uniting Germany, nationalistic fever hit people in southern Germany, they agreed to Prussian Rule.
the action of annexing something, especially territory. seizing.
Jan. 18, 1871 at captured Versilles Wilhelm was crowned this, meaning emperor
Germans called their empire this, the first was the holy roman empire. Bismarck got Prussian dominance over Germany and Europe by blood and iron