A Study of Impact of Packaging on Customer Buying Behavior with Special Refernce to Dove Brand Essay
CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION 2. LITERATURE REVIEW 3. RATIONALE OF THE STUDY 4. OBJECTIVEOF THE STUDY 5. METHODOLOGY 6. 1 THE STUDY 6. 2 THE SAMPLE 6. 3 TOOLS FOR DATA COLLECTION 6. 4 TOOLS FOR DATA ANALYSIS 6. REFRENCE INTRODUCTION In nowadays competitive environment the role of packaging has changed due to increasing self-service and changing consumers’ lifestyle. Firms’ interest in packaging as a tool of sales promotion is growing increasingly. Packaging has become an ultimate selling proposition stimulating impulsive buying behavior, increasing market share and reducing promotional costs.
Packaging is the science, art, and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale, and use.
Packaging also refers to the process of design, evaluation, and production of packages. Packaging can be described as a coordinated system of preparing goods for transport, warehousing, logistics, sale, and end use. Packaging contains, protects, preserves, transports, informs, and sells. History of Packaging The first packages used the natural materials available at the time: Baskets of reeds, wineskins (Bota bags), wooden boxes, pottery vases, ceramic amphorae, wooden barrels, woven bags, etc.
Processed materials were used to form packages as they were developed: for example, early glass and bronze vessels. The study of old packages is an important aspect of archaeology. The earliest recorded use of paper for packaging dates back to 1035, when a Persian traveler visiting markets in Cairo noted that vegetables, spices and hardware were wrapped in paper for the customers after they were sold. Iron and tin plated steel were used to make cans in the early 19th century.
Paperboard cartons and corrugated fiberboard boxes were first introduced in the late 19th century. Packaging advancements in the early 20th century included Bakelite closures on bottles, transparent cellophane overwraps and panels on cartons, increased processing efficiency and improved food safety. As additional materials such as aluminum and several types of plastic were developed, they were incorporated into packages to improve performance and functionality. In-plant recycling has long been common for production of packaging materials.
Post-consumer recycling of aluminum and paper based products has been economical for many years: since the 1980s, post-consumer recycling has increased due to curbside recycling, consumer awareness, and regulatory pressure. As of 2003, the packaging sector accounted for about two percent of the gross national product in developed countries. About half of this market was related to food packaging. What is packaging? The definitions of ‘packaging’ vary and range from being simple and functionally focused to more extensive, holistic interpretations.
Packaging can be defined quite simply as an extrinsic element of the product (Olson and Jacoby (1972)) – an attribute that is related to the product but does not form part of the physical product itself. “Packaging is the container for a product – encompassing the physical appearance of the container and including the design, color, shape, labeling and materials used. Objectives of Packaging Physical Protection – Protection of the objects enclosed in the package from shock, vibration, compression, temperature, etc. Barrier Protection – A barrier from oxygen, water vapor, dust, etc.
Containment – Small objects are typically grouped together in one package for transport and handling efficiency. Alternatively, bulk Commodities (such as salt) can be divided into packages that are a more suitable Size for individual households. Information Transmission – Information on how to use, transport, recycle, or Dispose of the package or product is often contained on the package or label. Reducing Theft – Packaging that cannot be re-closed or gets physically damaged (Shows signs of opening) is helpful in the prevention of theft. Packages also provide opportunities to include anti-theft devices.
Marketing – The packaging and labels can be used by marketers to encourage potential buyers to purchase the product. Security -Packaging can play an important role in reducing the security risks of shipment. Packages can be made with improved tamper resistance to deter tampering and also can have tamper-evident features to help indicate tampering. Convenience – Packages can have features which add convenience in distribution, handling, display, Sale, opening, re-closing, use, and re-use. Portion control – Single serving or single dosage packaging has a precise amount of contents to control usage.
Bulk commodities (such as salt) can be divided into packages that are a more suitable size for individual households. It is also aids the control of inventory: selling sealed one-liter-bottles of milk, rather than having people bring their own bottles to fill themselves. Packaging Types Packaging may be looked at as being of several different types. For example a transport package or distribution package can be the shipping container used to ship, store, and handle the product or inner packages. Some identify a consumer package as one which is directed toward a consumer or household.
Packaging may be described in relation to the type of product being packaged: medical device packaging, bulk chemical packaging, over-the-counter drug packaging, retail food packaging, military material packaging, pharmaceutical packaging, etc. Aluminum can with an easy open lid It is sometimes convenient to categorize packages by layer or function: “primary”, “secondary”, etc. * Primary packaging is the material that first envelops the product and holds it. This usually is the smallest unit of distribution or use and is the package which is in direct contact with the contents. Secondary packaging is outside the primary packaging, perhaps used to group primary packages together. * Tertiary packaging is used for bulk handling, warehouse storage and transport shipping. The most common form is a palletized unit load that packs tightly into containers. These broad categories can be somewhat arbitrary. For example, depending on the use, a shrink wrap can be primary packaging when applied directly to the product, secondary packaging when combining smaller packages, and tertiary packaging on some distribution packs. Importance of Packaging in Marketing
Packaging is a very important marketing strategy to glamorize your product in order to attract the consumer’s attention. Sometimes Packaging is so important that it cost more than the product itself in order to lure the consumers to buy it. Packaging should definitely be included in the 4 major P’s of marketing (product, place, promotion and price). Most consumers judge a product by its Packaging before buying. So it is logical to say attractive packaging is crucial in order to get the first time buyers to buy your products. Without attractive Packaging, who would buy it in order to try it?
Your first step to enter the market is crushed if the Packaging is ugly. Having attractive Packaging doesn’t mean you should neglect quality either. In fact, you need to make high quality products in order to have repeated sales. Converting first time buyers into loyal consumers should be the main goal of your business and Packaging is the door to it. Packaging is one of those crucial steps that are often neglected in business. Ask yourself this question, would buy a plain looking item or something excitingly packaged that makes anyone drool. Role of Packaging in Consumers Buying Behavior Process by which individuals search for, select, purchase, use, and dispose of goods and services * In satisfaction of their needs and wants. See also consumer decision making. * Purchase decision making pattern that is a complex amalgam of needs and desires, and is influenced by factors such as the consumer’s (1) Societal role (parent, spouse, worker, etc. ), (2) Social and cultural environment and norms, and (3) Aspirations and inhibitions. Buying Behavior is the decision processes and acts of people involved in buying and using products.
In a world of hype and stereotypes, the Dove brand provides a refreshing alternative for women who recognise that beauty isn’t simply about how you look. Making a genuine difference Dove is committed to widening the definition of beauty for women because we believe real beauty comes in all ages, shapes and sizes. To help you enjoy your own brand of beauty, Dove provides an extensive range of cleansing and personal care products including skin care, lip care, deodorants and hair care that make a genuine difference to the condition and feel of your skin and hair.
Dove is the UK’s top Bar Soap brand and 45% of the population bought a Dove product in 2010. In fact, 10. 1 million women use Dove every week in the UK. How it all started * First launched in the US during the 1950s, Dove cleansing bar with its moisturising properties was originally developed to treat burn victims during the war. * In 1957 the basic Dove bar formula was refined and developed into the “Original Dove Beauty bar”. It was launched as a beauty soap that was clinically proven to be milder on dry and sensitive skins. In the 1970s an independent clinical dermatological study proved Dove “Beauty bar” was milder than 17 leading bar soaps. * Dove was launched in the UK in the 1990s. The following years saw the launch of more bath time treats like beauty baths and moisturising body washes. * In 2001 Dove launched its first antiperspirant deodorant. Only Dove Deodorant has its 1/4 moisturising cream formula that helps skin to recover itself after every shave, leaving underarm skin feeling smoother than an ordinary deodorant. 2004 saw the launch of the Campaign for Real Beauty, which highlighted the Dove brand’s commitment to broadening definitions of beauty. * Following on from this Dove launched the Self Esteem Fund in 2005 which acts as an agent of change to educate and inspire young girls on a wider definition of beauty. It aims to boost the self-confidence of young girls and women, enabling them to reach their full potential in life. * Also in 2007 Dove launched ProAge, a range of skin care, deodorant and hair care that has been specifically designed to give mature skin what it needs right now. In 2010 the Dove hair care range was revitalised with distinct new benefits. The Dove Damage Therapy range is designed to combat the damage caused by styling and Fibre Actives™ patented * technology is included in some Dove Hair Therapy formulas to deeply reconstruct hair from the inside. * 2010 also saw the launch of the new Dove Men+Care male grooming brand, offering deodorants and body washes specifically designed for men’s skin. * In 2011, Dove introduces the new line of Dove Hair Therapy Nourishing Oil Care line formulated with weightless Nutri-Oils to nourish your hair. 2011 also launches Dove Hair Therapy patented Fibre Actives technology to reconstruct hair from the inside. New products to look out for include Dove Intensive Overnight Creme and Dove Intensive Repair Mask. Did you know? * British girls suffer the lowest self esteem in the world, after Japan. Almost ? (74%) of girls aged 8 – 12 are so dissatisfied with their bodies that they would like to change something about their appearance. * The Dove team is committed to help girls build positive self-esteem and a healthy body image, with a goal of reaching 5 million girls worldwide by 010. * The Dove Self Esteem Fund has reached over 5 million girls worldwide and is committed to continuing to help girls build positive self-esteem and a healthy body image. For information on the Dove range of products call the customer careline free on 0800 085 1548 in the UK and 1850 404060 in Ireland. Innovations We have developed Dove Hair Therapy with patented Micro Moisture Serum™and Fibre Actives™to effectively reconstruct hair from the inside as well as protecting and smoothing it on the outside.
Our Hair Therapy line caters to each hair type and in 2011, will introduce the Nourishing Oil Care range with weightless Nutri-Oils for damaged hair. Key facts * Dove has evolved and grown in many ways over the year and no longer just caters to skin care. The Dove brand comprises of skin care for both men and women, lip care, deodorants, as well as hair care. * Dove is the UK’s top Bar Soap brand and 45% of the population bought a Dove product in 2010. In fact, 10. 1 million women use Dove every week in the UK. From our range Dove Beauty Cream Bar Dove Triple Moisturising Body Wash
Dove Rich Nourishing Body Moisturiser Dove Original Roll On Deodorant Dove Go Fresh Cucumber & Green Tea Scent Deodorant Dove Intensive Repair Shampoo Dove Intensive Repair Express Treatment Conditioner Dove Men+Care Clean Comfort Antiperspirant Dove Men+Care Clean Comfort Body Face wash Dove Nourishing Oil Care Range Dove Intensive Repair Regenerating Mask Dove Intensive Repair Overnight Creme LITERATURE REVIEW Rita Kuvykaite (2009) has descriptive research. According to Rita package attracts consumer’s attention to particular brand, enhances its image, and influences consumer’s perceptions about product.
Also package imparts unique value to products (Underwood, Klein & Burke, 2001; Silayoi & Speece, 2004), works as for differentiation, i. e. helps consumers to choose the product from wide range of similar products, and stimulates customers buying behavior (Wells, Farely & Armstrong, 2007). Thus package performs an important role in marketing communications and could be treated as one of the most important factors influencing consumer’s purchase of package, its elements and their impact on consumer’s buying behavior became a relevant issue. Bed Nath Sharma Dec. 008 studied New Consumer Products Branding, Packaging and Labeling in Nepal. This paper focuses on existing practice of branding, packaging and labeling of new products in consumer product manufacturing units. The study method was Descriptive presentation of facts collected through questionnaire survey concerned with different section of consumer new products (soap, biscuit, noodles, cigarettes) and the study further investigates the new consumer product packaging and labeling status in manufacturing units. They are aware about the value of packaging and labeling.
Majority of the consumer products 84. 37% (27 out of 32 responses) are using product label as a simple tag attached to the product or an elaborately designed graphic that is part of the package. Pires Gon? calves, Ricardo (2008) worked on Product Characteristics and Quality Perception, according to him when they choose among competing products consumers are faced with quality and product performance uncertainty, hence, they rely on cues as extrinsic attributes, for instance brand, price package and warranty, as signals of perceived quality.
Little research has been done on packages as extrinsic attributes used by consumers as signs of perceived quality, thus this study is a small contribution to that lack of scholarly research on packages. Colors and shapes are important elements of marketing strategies, and they are both essential features of packages, especially in product labels. Renaud LUNARDO 2007 has a great research on the influence of label on wineconsumption. Its effects on young consumers’ perception of authenticity and purchasing behavior the main objective of the paper is to identify the effects of authenticity on purchase behavior.
They used a repertory grid (RG) approach as a methodological framework in order to know which pattern of features is better at inducing purchase. All the relationship between authenticity provided by the label of bottles and consumer behavior attributes (performance risk, perceived price and purchase intentions) have all been tested by using linear regressions. This study was intended to provide a more complete understanding of the influence of the authenticity perceive from the label of bottled wine.
As an attempt to extend the research on the influence label of bottled wine can have on consumers’ decisions of buying, the current it is clear from these findings is the major role played by labels. L Renaud 2007 worked on The Influence of Eco-Labeling on Consumer Behavior. The main objective of this study was to assess the relative importance of the labeling in Packaging compared to other product attributes (like brand, price, etc. ) for consumers’ buying decisions. The methodological approach that they chose was discrete choice analysis, which is particularly powerful for this kind of analysis.
Further this study attempts to analyze if the importance of the labeling and packaging differs between product groups. They surveyed a total of 302 customers; Two thirds of the interviews were conducted in the German-speaking. The Variables chose within this study are, present mood, time, buying purpose With regard to sustainability marketing, Time. The most important result of analysis is the significant willingness to pay for Packaging energy efficient products. Alice Lou w (2006) has studied The Power of Packaging the people belonged to Age 20-30 years old University graduates were taken for research. 0 respondents were asked to rank 5 water bottles in terms of their overall appeal. Following this, they were given questionnaires and asked and asked to rate of the bottles on 20 statements related their packaging. For the remaining 20 respondents, the order of process was switched: they rated the bottles first and then ranked them. The statements ranged from functional attributes (e. g. easy to drink from, right size) to more emotive, non-functional attributes (e. g. I like the colors, high quality). For both groups there was a clear winner and a clear loser in terms of the rankings.
However, although the top brand chosen was consistent in both groups, the worst brand differed. The group that ranked the bottles first showed more variance in terms of their responses (Variance 1. 33) than the second group who rated the attributes first (variance 0. 89). This Packaging plays an important role in the marketing context. His research results that right packaging can help a brand carve a unique position in the marketplace and in the minds on consumers. Assoc. Professor Jane (2005), Consumer Response to Sponsorship Leveraged Packaging (SLP).
Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyses the data from the experiment. This program of research aims to test a model that examines the structural relationships between SLP and consumer attitudes and purchase intentions toward the sponsors’ products as well as the factors that impact this relationship. Research suggests sponsorship leverage packaging may act in a similarly way to celebrity endorsement on product packaging, implying that FMCG brands may benefit from marketing strategies that communicate the sponsorship relationship on packaging.
It I s critical that brand managers identify the affect SLP has on consumer behavior and evaluate the degree to which it can enhance communication of the sponsorship relationship in the market place. This paper outlines a framework of consumer response to SLP, proposing a three step process of exploratory and experimental methodologies. The outcomes from the research will contribute to a better understanding of sponsorship effects on consumer behavior and provide managers with the means to develop more effective branding strategies and promotions. RATIONALE OF THE STUDY To get deep knowledge about the relationship between packaging and sales of any product or consumer buying behavior. * To identify the various packaging factors that has impact on the sales. It describes different aspects behind the sales of a product. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY * To determine the impact of packaging on customer buying behavior with special reference to Dove brand. * To Study Customer’s perception towards product packaging. METHODOLOGY The Study – To understand the impact of the packaging on consumer buying behavior, customer’s perception, relationship between packaging and sales of any product or consumer buying behavior.
The Sample – Sample size will be 100 buyers who were involved in the process of day to day purchasing. Tools for Data Collection – Primary and Secondary data will be used. Tools for Data Analysis – Appropriate statistical tools will be applied for study. REFRENCES Books – * Consumer Behavior by Arjun Choudhary * Consumer Behavior application in marketing by Robert East * Packaging research in food design and development by Howard R Websites – http://www. experiment-resources. com/convenience-sampling. html#ixzz1mn3fdjlf http://rakshapacakaging. com/