Abortion: Citation and Argument Essay

Thought and Writing II Guidelines for Term Essay (20% of total course grade) Write an argumentative essay on ONE of the topics below with the use of definition and classification. Topic: A controversial topic that has some applications in Hong Kong. * Censorship in the media * Abortion * Homosexual rights Length: 1000 – 1200 words (direct quotations, in-text citations and the sources listed on the References page are not included in the word count). Format: The essay is structured in 5 paragraphs and it should be typed with Times New Roman or Calibri in font size 12 and double-line spaced.

APA style must be used for citation and referencing. Student should include information such as name, student number, course title, course code and section code either on the cover page or header for easy identification. APA documentation: (1) In-text citation: a. Use at least two short direct quotations (exact words from the reference material in inverted commas) and include a correct in-text citation. (Maximum length two typed lines but single words, phrases, and parts of sentences can be used as direct quotations and integrated (mixed in) with the grammar of your own sentences. b. Use information and ideas from the sources as much as you need to in your own words and sentences and include a correct in-text citation for all information and ideas used. Include an in-text citation each time you use information or quote from reference material. (2) References page: a. Write up a References page in alphabetical order in APA Documentation Style at the end of your paper. b. All references on your References page must be cited in writing at least once and all sources cited in writing must be on your References list.

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Paper outline: You are required to submit the paper outline for peer review and approval in the 2-hour session in week 8. Deadline: Last meeting in week 10, i. e. 29 or 30 Apr (Mon or Tue) (a hardcopy to be submitted to your teacher in class and a soft copy to be uploaded to Turnitin via Moodle) About your position: 1. Your position in the topic must be something that not many people agree with. ?sexual harassment must be punished because… ?sexual harassment must not be punished because… 2. Your position must not be simplistic. the government should not support same-sex marriage because it is evil. the government should not have to make decisions about same-sex marriages because marriage is a matter of religion; the government should only concern itself with civil unions as a basis of the rights of couples. 3. This is not a personal essay, so your position must not merely be a casual statement. It must be something that you strongly believe in. About development: 1. You must support your position using logic, evidence, and developmental methods. 2. You must use definition as part of your argument. 3. You must use classification as part of your argument. 4.

As an argument essay, you must address the opposing point of view. You can do this by either just acknowledging it, or by refuting it with an anti-thesis or a middle-ground. About research: 1. You must have at least four secondary sources in this essay. 2. Demonstrate a good range of sources. Do not just have one or two kinds. 3. When using the internet, use fact-based, not opinion-based material. Do not use material that have low credibility such as Wikipedia, blogs, forum posts, student essays, promotional materials, personal articles with no listed author or an author with no evidence of authority in the area, etc.

Good materials are online newspapers, online journals, online databases, online books, online abstracts, government sites, etc. Give a citation for your borrowed information and a reference item for each citation on the reference list on the last page. Part ITerm Paper outline (5%) You need to make an outline of your paper and submit it for approval. However, your outline can still be changed or modified right up until the time that you write up the draft of your paper. Your outline should be detailed enough to provide a full overview of the content that will be included in the body paragraphs of the paper.

It should also include in-text citations for information and ideas on the outline that are from sources. Do NOT submit an introduction or conclusion with your outline. Include the following in your outline: * Thesis statement (full sentence): This is the main idea or main focus of your paper. Your thesis statement should be no more than one or two sentences and must include the following: 1. the key subject words 2. the position that you will argue in the paper Write a full sentence. Write in the third person. Do not use personal pronouns such as I, we, you, me or us.

Do not name or list your arguments in the thesis statement. Do not put counterarguments in the thesis statement. Use simple present tense verbs in the thesis statement. * Argument paragraphs (body paragraphs 1-3): For each body paragraph write an accurate, clear topic sentence (one complete sentence) with a major argument that supports your position. Underneath each topic sentence, write a list of evidence that supports the argument in point form. Put in-text citations beside the evidence in your list where necessary. Counterargument/refutation paragraph (body paragraph 4): Write a good, clear, counterargument (1 complete sentence against your position; use transitional language at the beginning of the sentence). Then write a sentence of refutation for your own position (answering back the counterargument). Use contrasting language at the beginning of your refutation. Write a list of evidence in point form that supports the refutation and put in-text citations beside the evidence where necessary. Do not provide evidence for the counterargument. Submit for peer review and approval.

Part IITerm Paper (15%) Revise your outline and use it to write up the draft of your Term Paper. Introduction (1 paragraph) * Write interesting opening sentences using one or more of the seven methods of writing introductions. * Write a good definition for the key subject words of the topic using the methods studied in class. Cite the source correctly if the information or some of the information comes from reference material. * Provide brief background information about the topic. Cite the source correctly for any information you use from reference material. Include the thesis statement in one or two sentences at the end of your introduction. You must include the following: (1) the key subject words, (2) your position on the issue and add any special circumstances, situations or time frame that relates to the position you are taking. (Do not give suggestions here. Do not include counterarguments in the introduction. Do not cite information from reference material in the thesis statement. Do not list your arguments separately in the thesis statement. ) It should be your own ideas and your own writing. Do not use personal pronouns such as I, we or you in the thesis statement.

Write in the third person. * Language use: Connect the ideas in your introduction where necessary by using transitions and repeating key subject words. It should be a well connected cohesive paragraph. Body paragraphs 1 to 3 (FOR your position) * Do NOT use counterarguments in your argument paragraphs. * Three clear and accurate topic sentences stating the three major arguments for your position (one for each argument paragraph). * Content of the paragraph: Support and explain your argument in the topic sentence with evidence from the reference material.

Provide examples, descriptions, explanations, statistics, short quotations, etc. Use any additional writing strategies studied in TWI and TWII such as exemplification, classification, description, narration, comparison and contrast, cause and effect, definition where needed. * Cite the source of the information correctly. Provide in-text citations for all information and quotations used from reference material. * Close your paragraph with a concluding sentence that supports the main point in the topic sentence and your position on the issue. Body paragraph 4 (Counterargument / Refutation)

Note: You must include ONE counterargument / refutation paragraph in your essay that acknowledges and refutes an opposite point of view. It should be the last body paragraph before the conclusion. * Counterargument: Write a sentence stating an argument against your position using transitional language (1 sentence). Do not provide evidence for the counterargument otherwise you will be arguing too strongly against your position. * Refute: argue back against the counterargument and re-establish your own position by using contrasting transitional language that moves the argument from the counterargument back to your own position.

Use evidence from reference material to support the refutation. The refutation and supporting evidence should be the longer part of the paragraph. Cite the source correctly for any information or ideas that you use from reference material. * Close the paragraph with a concluding sentence restating your own position strongly. Conclusion * Use any of the methods studied in class for writing conclusions. * In addition to those techniques, include a call for action (an action plan) or provide suggestions, solutions or recommendations. Your suggestions must be workable, sensible and practical. Ask yourself When? What? Who?

What? Why? How? Where? the suggestions, plan or recommendations will be carried out. Include practical details. Your suggestions / recommendations etc. can be your own ideas, ideas from the reference material or a combination of both. Provide an in-text citation for ideas used from reference material. * Finish off the essay with a concluding sentence/s that reinforces and is related to the position in your thesis. It can be a comment, a direct quotation, an example, a question, or any other kind of statement or thought provoking comment or question. Cite the source if the information comes from reference material.

Do not make personal comments, judgements or use personal pronouns (unless you are using the link to the reader method in which case you can use ‘we’ or ‘you’) in the closing sentences. Maintain an objective, formal, academic style of writing. Do not finish with an exclamation mark or give the reader a moral lesson. Organisational chart for reference Introduction (1 paragraph)| * Opening sentences using one or more of the methods studied in class including a * definition of key words for the subject * Background information (history) about the subject * Thesis statement including KSWs and your position on the issue|

Body paragraphs: 3 argument paragraphs| * 3 argument paragraphs with a TS stating a strong argument for your position in each. * Support your argument in the paragraph with good quality evidence from reference material. * Cite sources of information correctly. * Use other writing strategies apart from argumentation (description, exemplification, classification, cause and effect, comparison and contrast, and definition where needed). * Write a concluding sentence reinforcing the argument in the TS for your position. | Body paragraph: 1 counterargument/refutation paragraph | Write a counterargument that is opposite to your position using transitional language (1 sentence; no evidence) * Refute the counterargument strongly using contrasting transitional language to move the argument back to your own position (1 sentence). * Use good quality evidence and different writing strategies to support the refutation. * Cite the source of any information used from reference material. * Write a strong concluding sentence re-establishing and confirming your position. | Conclusion (1 paragraph)| * Use one or more of the methods studied in class to write your conclusion. Provide sensible, feasible and workable suggestions, recommendations, or an action plan to solve the problems the issue has raised. Provide practical details. * Finish the essay with a concluding sentence/s using any of the methods studied in class. Do not make personal comments, judgements or use personal pronouns in the closing sentence/s (unless you are using the link to the reader method). Write in the third person. Maintain an objective academic style of writing. Do not finish with an exclamation mark. | General advice * The essay should be well-balanced in terms of the length of the aragraphs. The four body paragraphs should be roughly equal in length. * Do not forget logos and pathos when using evidence. Logos means all the many different types of facts (statistics, other examples, case studies, narratives, descriptions, diagrams, tables of data, opinions from other people, citations, accounts etc. ) that you use that make your essay believable and credible and persuasive. Pathos means the special use of emotional and dramatic language to arouse the sympathy of the reader so that they will agree with your arguments and your position on the issue.

Logos combined with pathos is powerful in persuading the reader if it is combined skillfully. A combination of logos and pathos is suitable for your topic. * Consider the overall ethos of your essay. How reliable and credible is your essay? If you have used information from the reference material skillfully, made careful in-text citations, have logical arguments, and organised the essay well, then it will have good ethos. * Connect the ideas in each paragraph by using internal transitional language, and repeating key subject words. Each argument should be developed into a well-formed paragraph with supporting evidence.

Do not plagiarise information from reference material or other people’s writing You will receive a Fail grade for the assignment and you may also receive a Fail grade for the whole course if you do. Always cite the source of the information. Do not plagiarise information from reference material or other people’s writing You will receive a Fail grade for the assignment and you may also receive a Fail grade for the whole course if you do. Always cite the source of the information. Brainstorming and Planning Write up a list of major arguments for or against, or partly for and against the issue with your group members in the table below.

You need four good strong arguments for your position but write down as many as you can think of for the moment. Put your arguments in order from strongest to weakest. Against| For| | | Preparation of Term Paper Outline Use this handout to draft your Term Paper Outline. Type up your outline before you submit it. Thesis statement Write down the thesis statement stating the overall main point of the essay using key subject words and stating your position clearly on the issue by using opinion words. Do not name or list your arguments in the thesis statement. ________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________

Body paragraphs Argument paragraphs for your position (total of 3, 1 argument per body paragraph for your position) Topic sentences: Write down the three arguments for your position, one for each paragraph. Argument for position body paragraph 1 Topic sentence _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________

Argument for position body paragraph 2 Topic sentence _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ Argument for position body paragraph 3 Topic sentence ________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ Counterargument/refutation paragraph (body paragraph 4) Begin the paragraph with a sentence stating a counterargument (argument against your position).

Use transitional language at the beginning of the sentence. Counterargument (1 sentence, no evidence): _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ Refutation:

Refute the counterargument using contrasting transitional language to move the argument back to your own position (1 sentence only). (1) Strong sentence of refutation: _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 2) Evidence supporting refutation (in point form with in-text citations for information used from reference material): _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ ___ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ Type up your outline and submit it. Transitional and contrasting language for the Counterargument/Refutation paragraph Other people may think… * Some peoples say/claim/think/believe/argue… * Those who deny this would argue that… * Those who disagree with this would say… * An opposite point of view is that… * In contrast to this idea some people claim/say/think/argue/believe… * On the other hand… * Looking at the issue from another/the opposite point of view… * In contrast, another way of looking at the issue is… * Opponents of this view would say/argue/claim… * Despite the fact that this may be true… * In spite of this/despite this… * Although this may be true/partly true… * Contrary to this point of view… * Nevertheless… * Yet… * But… * However… * In contrast… It may be true that (counterargument)… but/however/nevertheless it is also true to say that (re-establish your own position)… * The opposite side of the coin is… * The issue can be seen from another point of view. * This may be partly true but it is not completely true. Example: Organisation of an argument paragraph Title: Here’s looking at reality kid: Why films should carry warnings about the hazards of smoking, Rolanda Burris. Issue: Whether or not films showing actors smoking should carry warnings about its hazards. Should films carry warnings about the hazards of smoking? Purpose: To persuade the reader that films including smoking scenes should carry the same warnings that are required of tobacco advertisements in other media.

Position statement: Warnings about the dangers of smoking should be required for films the same as they are for cigarette advertisements in other media. Federal law forbids tobacco commercials on television. (Topic sentence presenting argument for position against sowing smoking in films without warning the public against its harmful effects; logos-fact) And it also requires that magazine or newspaper advertisements carry a health warning from the Surgeon General about the dangers of cigarette smoking. (extension of argument in the topic sentence; logos-fact, authoritative source as supporting evidence) In this way, adults and young people are reminded about the hazards of smoking and potentially protected from the intended enticement of the advertisements. evidence of the effects of federal law in the form of personal knowledge and experience; logos-fact) But where is the warning in movies that say smoking is a health hazard? (rhetorical question challenging the reader to think about the issue) The National Coalition on Television Violence discovered that cigarette smoking appears in 100 percent of PG-13 films, movies that have been approved for 13-year-olds with parental permission to watch. (authoritative evidence from reference material, source not cited; logos-facts in the form of statistics; example illustrating how commonly smoking is shown in films for young people) Moreover, even young viewers with parental permission have no cautionary notice before viewing a film. further evidence to support the argument in the form of personal knowledge and experience; logos-fact) Like their adult counterparts, they remain unwarned prey to the powerful film images that portray smoking as accepted behaviour. (concluding sentence for position; pathos-emotional language “unwarned prey”) (Burris in Dornan & Dees, 2008, p. 290) (in-text citation) Reference Dornan, E. A. , & Dees, R. (2008). Four in One: Rhetoric, reader, research guide, and handbook. (3rd ed. ). New York: Pearson Longman. Organisation of a counterargument/refutation paragraph Title: Here’s looking at reality kid: Why films should carry warnings about the hazards of smoking, Rolanda Burris, pp. 288-291. Opponents of mandating health warnings about smoking in films will no doubt say, “But smoking’s not the only hazardous activity shown in films.

The next thing you’ll want to include is to include warnings about everything potentially harmful in a movie—from bad language to car chases and shootouts. ” (begins with a counterargument against the writer’s position using other people’s knowledge and experience as evidence, no citation given for the direct quotation) No, (Refutation: ‘No’ acts like a transition of contrast to begin the refutation) viewers are already warned about bad language and violence in a movie. And extending the same standards now applied to those elements in films, as well as to smoking advertisements in other media, isn’t going to send anyone down a slippery slope of regulating every film with a potentially dangerous component. swinging sentences that move the argument from the counterargument (against the writer’s position) to the writer’s own position) Just because we should regulate films with smoking scenes (own position restated and re established strongly) doesn’t mean we should also put warnings in movies portraying car chases or shootouts to protect people from the misuse of guns or cars, for example. Cars and guns do not kill people: Drivers and gun owners kill people, and the potential danger inherent in each of them is well recognized. (explanation and examples to support own position. Use of logos, facts from own experience, and pathos through dramatic emotional language such as “kill” and “potential danger”) In contrast, (transitional language) cigarettes appear deceptively safe and attractive, especially in movies. And the fact that they do kill people is well documented. own position is re-established using logos and pathos “they do kill people”) (Dornan & Dees, 2008, p. 290) (in-text citation) Organisation of a counterargument/refutation paragraph Topic: Politics and the English language, George Orwell. Issue: Whether or not/ that it is possible to remove undesirable words and expressions from English and therefore improve its standard and quality. Is it possible to remove undesirable words and expressions from English and therefore improve the standard and quality of the language? Position on the issue: That it is possible to remove undesirable words and expressions from the English language. I said earlier that the decadence* of our language is probably curable. Begins the paragraph with a TS stating own position on the issue) Those who deny this would argue, (transitional language) if they produced an argument at all, that language merely reflects existing social conditions, and that we cannot influence its development by any direct tinkering with words and constructions. (counterargument against the writer’s position). So far as the general tone or spirit of a language goes this may be true, but it is not true in detail. (transitional language and swinging sentence that moves the argument from the counterargument against the writer’s position back to the writer’s own position. ) Silly words and expressions have often disappeared, though not through any evolutionary process but owing to the conscious actions of a minority. (own position re established in a slightly different way to the TS; more supporting evidence could be provided to

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