Acid-Base Balance Essay

ACTIVITY 1 Hyperventilation 1. DescribethenormalrangesforpHandcarbondioxideintheblood. The normal pressure range for carbon dioxide in the blood is 35-45mmHg. The normal ph range for blood are between 7. 35 and 7. 45 2. Describe what happened to the pH and the carbon dioxide levels with hyperventilation. How well did the results compare with your prediction? The Ph increases and carbon dioxide decreases 3. Explainhowreturningtonormalbreathingafterhyperventilationdifferedfromhyperventilationwithoutreturningtonormal breathing.

When returning to normal breathing, there is a brief ten second period where carbon dioxide is retained before returning to normal breathing after hyperventilation. 4. Describe some possible causes of respiratory alkalosis.

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Hyperventilation caused by panic attacks, fever and anxiety along with travel to high altitudes may cause respiratory alkalosis. ACTIVITY 2 Rebreathing 1. DescribewhathappenedtothepHandthecarbondioxidelevelsduringrebreathing. Howwelldidtheresultscomparewith your prediction? They both increases as I thought they would. 2.

Describe some possible causes of respiratory acidosis. Depression of the respiratory center in the medulla oblongata as well as airway obstruction may cause respiratory acidosis. 3. Explain how the renal system would compensate for respiratory acidosis. The kidneys regulate the amount of H+ ions and HCO 3- excreted in the urine which regulate acid base balance.

A C T I V I T Y 3 Renal Responses to Respiratory Acidosis and Respiratory Alkalosis 1. Describe what happened to the concentration of ions in the urine when the PCO2 was lowered. How well did the results compare with your prediction? . What condition was simulated when the PCO2 was lowered? Acidosis. 3. DescribewhathappenedtotheconcentrationofionsintheurinewhenthePCO2 wasraised. Howwelldidtheresultscompare with your prediction? The concentration of H+ ions increased and the concentration of HCO3- ions decreased. 4. What condition was simulated when the PCO2 was raised? Alkalosis. A C T I V I T Y 4 Respiratory Responses to Metabolic Acidosis and Metabolic Alkalosis 1. Describe what happened to the blood pH when the metabolic rate was increased to 80 kcal/hr. What body system was

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