Active Learning in Teaching-Learning Activity
Nowadays, active learning is used mostly used method in teaching-learning process. Active learning gives some positive affects to the teaching-learning process so that it gives good result in the end of lesson in class. Hannele Niemi (2002) asserted that according to the qualitative data, learning as an active learning process has a clear connection with student teachers’ professional development.
Learning which demands active reflection and high responsibility gets student teachers to overcome their own limits. The main point to this issue is that active leaning want to reduce or to discover the obstacles in the process of learning that is faced both of students or educators especially in transferring knowledge from educators to learners.
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According to Hannele Niemi (2002) in Andri Suherman and friends (2011), the common feature of active learning “is the learner’s active impact on learning and a learner’s involvement in the learning process” also it is supported fervently by Hannele Niemi (2002) in her article, she asserted that active learning is emphasize constructivistic qualities in knowledge processing like independent inquiry and structuring and restructuring of knowledge, also requires a problem solving orientation, a critical approach and an evaluation of knowledge.
Both of the articles point at a same thing that active learning is that a process needs an independent action in its participation. In active learning some elements are needed to complete its process H. Niemi in Teaching and Teacher Education 18 (2002) 763–780 emphasize that metacognitive skills are the key of learning active. She also shows other elements that needed in active learning like a problem solving orientation, a critical approach and an evaluation of knowledge. While L. Kremer-Hayon and H. H.
Tillema (1998) mention that implementing Self-Regulated Learning (SLR) requires an open curriculum system that provides different learning opportunities for students and a flexible approach to teaching also they added that metacognitive skills, such as reflection and self management, were also mentioned frequently as basic elements of the concept of SLR but in their research they found difference result from the objects; the common elements mentioned by teacher educators and student teachers in both countries (Israel and Netherlands) primarily indicated a cognitive orientation towards SRL, including both low and high levels of cognition.
L. Kremer-Hayon and H. H. Tillema assume this difference might be understood as resulting from Israel’s specific situation of being a state of fighting for survival both politically and economically. The elements in active learning basically are the components that needed in the active learning. Most of them are skills that must be available among the participants. In here metacognitive skill is mentioned to be the most important thing in active learning beside other components.
The implementation of active learning also has gained some obstacles that may barrier the process of learning. Andri Suherman and friends (2011) mention some of problem that may disturb the process of active learning. They are the lack of adequate supplies of audio-visual aids, heavy teaching loads, parents’ lack of sources and the unprepared students toward participation in active learning. Similar to this, H. Niemi in Teaching and Teacher Education 18 (2002) 763–780 note some factors that affect whether active learning is implemented in schools or not.
They are heavy preparatory work, teachers’ pedagogical role, curriculum and lack of time, the size of students group, weak learning condition and materials, teachers’ cynical attitudes and the last is students’ weak metacognitive skills. Also L. Kremer-Hayon and H. H. Tillema in Teaching and Teacher Education 15 (1999) 507-522 emphasize that facilities are affect to the process active learning especially curricula material.
So it can be concluded that the problems in active learning is divide into two parts, the first one is that extrinsic factors which are include AVA supplies, heavy teaching load, curriculum, lack of time and so forth and the second one is that intrinsic factors which are teachers’ cynical attitude, students’ weak metacognitive skills, the passivity among the learner and so on. But those barriers can be solved by the educator as the moderator in class by give new atmosphere during the active learning activity.
Like give some fun teaching activity in transferring knowledge to the pupils. It depends on how the educators will make his or her class more interesting. From what have been discussed from the experts, they want the use of active learning can be implemented for the smooth of teaching-learning process since active learning has some advantages for it. (Stern & Huber, 1997) in H. Niemi / Teaching and Teacher Education 18 (2002) 763–780 active learning project revealed that teachers who wanted to tutor their pupils to become active learners had a new pedagogical role.
The term new pedagogical role means that the educators are the facilitators during the class. They give more responsibility to their pupils like to negotiate or more speak up in the class. The thing is that the students are more active in the class. A teacher’s position was no longer in front of the classroom, nor in the center of the classroom, but he or she was a circulating expert, learning together with students and trying to give as much space as possible to his/her students. But this expects is different with what L. Kremer-Hayon and H.
H. Tillema (1999) found in their research to their objects that are Dutch and Israeli. Teacher educators in both countries appear to be more conservative than their students. L. Kremer-Hayon and H. H. Tillema mentioned that possibly it because they are more realistic in this respect and aware of the difficulties that have been encountered in the implementation of self regulated learning. Finally, active learning approach is actually really needed in the education area since it shows positive result to teaching-learning process.
Like Andri Suherman and friends (2011) found in their research, the use of “Magic Finger” technique in teaching multiplication of numbers prove that can help whether teacher or students in applying the principles of active learning. The same thing is happen with L. Kremer-Hayon and H. H. Tillema in Teaching and Teacher Education 15 (1999) 507-522 also explain the expected outcome in their schema to guide planning and evaluation efforts in self-regulated learning.