**Essay**

**28 (6979 words)**

**162**

CHAPTER 2 1. As a rule of thumb, real rates of interest are calculated by subtracting the inflation rate from the nominal rate. What is the error from using this rule of thumb for calculating real rates of return in the following cases? Nominal rate (%)7121822 Inflation rate (%)4 6 810 Solution: [pic] 2. As a rule of thumb, real rates of interest are calculated by subtracting the inflation rate from the nominal rate. What is the error from using this rule of thumb for calculating real rates of return in the following cases? Nominal rate (%)481119 Inflation rate (%)13 2 4 Solution: [pic] CHAPTER 3 1.

At the end of March, 20X6 the balances in the various accounts of Dhoni & Company are as follows: Rs. in million Accounts Balance Equity capital 120 Preference capital 30 Fixed assets (net) 217 Reserves and surplus 200 Cash and bank 35 Debentures (secured) 100 Marketable securities 18 Term loans (secured) 90 Receivables 200 Short-term bank borrowing (unsecured) 70 Inventories210 Trade creditors 60 Provisions 20 Pre-paid expenses 10 Required: Prepare the balance sheet of Dhoni & Company as per the format specified by the Companies Act.

Solution: Balance Sheet of Dhoni & Company As on March 31, 20 X 6 Liabilities | |Assets | | |Share capital | |Fixed assets | | |Equity |120 |Net fixed assets |217 | |Preference |30 | | | |Reserve & surplus |200 |Investments | | | | |Marketable securities |18 | |Secured loans | |Current assets, loans & advances | | |Debentures |100 | | | |Term loans |90 | | | | | |Pre-paid expenses |10 | |Unsecured loans | |Inventories |210 | |Short term ank borrowing |70 |Receivables |200 | |Current liabilities & provisions | |Cash & Bank |35 | |Trade creditors |60 | | | |Provisions |20 | | | | |690 | |690 | 2. At the end of March, 20X7 the balances in the various accounts of Sania Limited are as follows: Rs. in million Accounts Balance Equity capital 250 Preference capital 80 Fixed assets (net)380 Reserves and surplus350 Cash and bank100 Debentures (secured)190 Marketable securities 30 Term loans (secured)120 Receivables420 Short-term bank borrowing (unsecured) 110 Inventories310 Trade creditors 90 Provisions 70 Pre-paid expenses 20 Required: Prepare the balance sheet of Sania Limited as per the format specified by the Companies Act. Solution: Balance Sheet of Sania Limited as on March 31, 20 X 7 Liabilities | |Assets | | | | | | | |Share capital | |Fixed assets | | |Equity |250 |Net fixed assets |380 | |Preference |80 | | | |Reserve & surplus |350 |Investments | | | | |Marketable securities |30 | |Secured loans | |Current assets, loans & advances | | |Debentures |190 | | | |Term loans |120 | | | | | |Pre-paid expenses |20 | |Unsecured loans | |Inventories |310 | |Short term bank borrowing |110 |Receivables |420 | |Current liabilities & provisions | |Cash & Bank |100 | |Trade creditors |90 | | | |Provisions |70 | | | | |1260 | |1260 | 3. The comparative balance sheets of Evergreen Company are given below: (Rs. in million) Owners’ Equity and Liabilities As on 31. 3. 20X6 As on 31. 3. 20X7 Share capital 70 70 Reserves and surplus 40 80 Long-term debt 80 90 Short-term bank borrowings 80 85 Trade creditors 40 70 Provisions 10 20 Total320415 Assets Fixed assets (net)120210 Inventories 90 95 Debtors 60 65 Cash 25 30 Other assets 25 15 Total320415 The profit and loss account of Evergreen Company for the year ending 31st March 2007 is given below: (Rs. in million) Profit & Loss Account for the Period 1. 4. 20X6 to 31. 3. 20X7

Net sales750 Cost of goods sold 505 Stocks290 Wages and salaries105 Other manufacturing expenses110 245 Gross profit Operating expenses135 Selling, administration and general120 Depreciation 15 Operating profit110 Non-operating surplus or deficit(20) EBIT 90 Interest 25 Profit before tax 65 Tax 15 Profit after tax 50 Dividends 10 Retained earnings 40 Required: (a) Prepare the classified cash flow statement for the period 1. 4. 20X6 to 31. 3. 20X7 b) Develop the cash flow identity for the period 1. 4. 20X6 to 31. 3. 20X7 Solution: |A. Cash flow from operating activities | | |- |Net profit before tax and extraordinary items | |85 | | |- |Adjustments for | | | | | |Interest paid | |25 | | | |Depreciation | |15 | | |- |Operating profit before working capital changes |125 | | |- |Adjustments for | | | | | |Inventories | |(5) | | | |Debtors | |(5) | | | |Trade creditors | |30 | | | |Provisions | |10 | | | |Increase in other assets | |10 | | |- |Cash generated rom operations | |165 | | | |Income tax paid | |(15) | | |- |Cash flow before extraordinary items | |150 | | | |Extraordinary item | |(20) | | |- |Net cash flow from operating activities | |130 | |B. |Cash flow from investing activities | | | | |- |Purchase of fixed assets | |(105) | | |- |Net cash flow from investing activities | |(105) | | | | | | | |C. Cash flow from financing activities | | | | |- |Increase in loans | |15 | | |- |Dividends paid | |(10) | | |- Interest paid | |(25) | | |Net cash flow from financing activities | |(20) | | | | | | | |D. |Net increase in cash and cash equivalents | |5 | | |- |Cash and cash equivalents as on 31. 03. 0X6 |25 | | |- |Cash and cash equivalents as on 31. 03. 20×7 | |30 | NoteIt has been assumed that “other assets” represent “other current assets”. (b) A. Cash flow from assets -Operating cash flow90 -Net capital spending (105) -Decrease in net working capital35 -Cash flow from assets20 B. Cash flow to creditors -Interest paid25 -Repayment of long term debt (15) -Cash flow to creditors10 C. Cash flow to shareholders -Dividends paid10 -Net new equity raised 0 -Cash flow to shareholders10 We find that (A)=(B) + ( C) i. e. Cash flow from assets=Cash flow to creditors + Cash flow to shareholders 4. The comparative balance sheets of Xavier Limited are given below: (Rs. in million) Owners’ Equity and Liabilities As on 31. 3. 20X6 As on 31. 3. 20X7 Share capital 20 30 Reserves and surplus 10 18 Long-term debt 30 25 Short-term bank borrowings 15 15 Trade creditors 10 15 Provisions 5 8 Total 90 111 Assets Fixed assets (net) 16 20 Inventories 44 55 Debtors 20 21 Cash 5 8 Other assets 5 7 Total 90 111 The profit and loss account of Xavier Limited for the year 2007 is given below: (Rs. in million) Profit & Loss Account for the Period 1. 4. 20X6 to 31. 3. 20X7 Net sales220

Cost of goods sold 140 Stocks 90 Wages and salaries 35 Other manufacturing expenses 15 80 Gross profit Operating expenses 40 Selling, administration and general 20 Depreciation 5 Operating profit 15 Non-operating surplus or deficit 1 EBIT 16 Interest 4 Profit before tax 12 Tax 2 Profit after tax 10 Dividends 2 Retained earnings 8 Required: (a) Prepare the classified cash flow statement for the period 1. 4. 20X6 to 31. 3. 20X7 b) Develop the cash flow identity for the period 1. 4. 20X6 to 31. 3. 20X7 Solution: |A. Cash flow from operating activities | | | | |- |Net profit before tax and extraordinary items | |11 | | |- |Adjustments for | | | | | |Interest paid | | 4 | | | |Depreciation | | 5 | | |- |Operating profit before working capital changes | 20 | | | | Adjustments for | | | | |- | | | | | | |Inventories | |(11) | | | |Debtors | | (1) | | | |Trade creditors | | 5 | | | |Provisions | | 3 | | | |Increase in other assets | | (2) | | |- |Cash generated from operations | | 14 | | | |Income tax paid | | (2) | | |- |Cash flow before extraordinary items | | 12 | | | |Extraordinary item | | 1 | | |- |Net cash flow from operating activities | | 13 | |B. |Cash flow from investing activities | | | | |- |Purchase of fixed assets | | (9) | | |- |Net cash flow from investing activities | | (9) | | | | | | | |C. Cash flow from financing activities | | 10 | | |- Increase in equity | | | | |- |Repayment of term loans | | (5) | | | |-Dividend paid | |(2) | | |- |Interest paid | | (4) | | |Net cash flow from financing activities | | (1) | | | | | | | |D. |Net increase in cash and cash equivalents | | 3 | | |- |Cash and cash equivalents as on 31. 03. 20X6 | 5 | | |- |Cash and cash equivalents as on 31. 03. 20×7 | | 8 | NoteIt has been assumed that “other assets” represent “other current assets”. (b) ACash flow from assets -Operating cash flow19 -Net capital spending(9) -Decrease in net working capital(9) Cash flow from assets 1 B. Cash flow to creditors -Interest paid 4 -Repayment of long term debt 5 -Cash flow to creditors 9 C. Cash flow to shareholders -Dividends paid 2 -Net new equity raised(10) -Cash flow to shareholders (8) We find that (A)=(B) + ( C) i. e. , Cash flow from assets=Cash flow to creditors + Cash flow to shareholders CHAPTER 4 1. Premier Company’s net profit margin is 8 percent, total assets turnover ratio is 2. 5 times, debt to total assets ratio is 0. 6. What is the return on equity for Premier? Solution: Net profit Return on equity = Equity = Net profit Net sales Total assets x x

Net sales Total assets Equity 1 = 0. 08 x 2. 5 x = 0. 5 or 50 per cent 0. 4 Debt Equity Note : = 0. 6 So = 1- 0. 6 = 0. 4 Total assets Total assets Hence Total assets/Equity = 1/0. 4 2. The following information is given for Alpha Corporation Sales3500 Current ratio1. 5 Acid test ratio1. 2 Current liabilities1000 What is the inventory turnover ratio? Solution: Current assets = Current liabilities x 1. 5 = 1000 x 1. 5 = 1500 Quick assets= Current liabilities x 1. 2 = 1000 x 1. 2 = 1200

Inventories= 300 3500 Inventory turnover ratio == 11. 7 300 3. The following information is given for Beta Corporation. Sales5000 Current ratio1. 4 Inventory turnover5 ratio Acid test ratio1. 0 What is the level of current liabilities? Solution: 4. Safari Inc. has profit before tax of Rs. 90 million. If the company’s times interest covered ratio is 4, what is the total interest charge? Solution: PBT= Rs. 90 million PBIT Times interest covered = = 4 Interest So PBIT = 4 x Interest PBT = PBIT – interest = 4x interest- interest = 3 x interest = 90 million Therefore interest = 90/3 = Rs. 30 million 5. A has profit before tax of Rs. 0 million. If its times interest covered ratio is 6, what is the total interest charge? Solution: PBT= Rs. 40 million PBIT Times interest covered = = 6 Interest So PBIT = 6 x Interest PBIT – Interest = PBT = Rs. 40 million 6 x Interest – Interest = Rs. 40 million 5 x Interest = Rs. 40 million Hence Interest = Rs. 8 million 6. McGill Inc. has profit before tax of Rs. 63 million. If the company’s times interest covered ratio is 8, what is the total interest charge? Solution: PBT= Rs. 63 million PBIT Times interest covered = = 8 Interest So PBIT = 8 x Interest PBIT – Interest = PBT = Rs. 63 million x Interest – Interest = 7 x Interest = Rs. 63 million Hence Interest = Rs. 9 million 7. The following data applies to a firm : Interest chargesRs. 200,000 SalesRs. 6,000,000 Tax rate40 percent Net profit margin5 percent What is the firm’s times interest covered ratio? Solution: Sales = Rs. 6,000,000 Net profit margin = 5 per cent Net profit = Rs. 6,000,000 x 0. 05 = 300,000 Tax rate = 40 per cent 300,000 So, Profit before tax = = Rs. 500,000 (1-. 4) Interest charge = Rs. 200,000 So Profit before interest and taxes = Rs. 700,000 Hence 700,000 Times interest covered ratio = = 3. 5 200,000 8.

The following data applies to a firm: Interest chargesRs. 50,000 SalesRs. 300,000 Tax rate 25 percent Net profit margin 3 percent What is the firm’s times interest covered ratio? Solution: Sales = Rs. 300,000 Net profit margin = 3 per cent Net profit = Rs. 300,000 x 0. 03 = 9,000 Tax rate = 25 per cent 9,000 So, Profit before tax = = Rs. 12,000 (1-. 25) Interest charge = Rs. 50,000 So Profit before interest and taxes = Rs. 62,000 Hence 62,000 Times interest covered ratio == 1. 24 50,000 9. The following data applies to a firm : Interest chargesRs. 10,000,000 SalesRs. 80,000,000 Tax rate 50 percent

Net profit margin 10 percent What is the firm’s times interest covered ratio? Solution: Sales = Rs. 80,000,000 Net profit margin = 10 per cent Net profit = Rs. 80,000,000 x 0. 1 = 8,000,000 Tax rate = 50 per cent 8,000,000 So, Profit before tax = = Rs. 16,000,000 (1-. 5) Interest charge = Rs. 10,000,000 So Profit before interest and taxes = Rs. 26,000,000 Hence 26,000,000 Times interest covered ratio == 2. 6 10,000,000 10. A firm’s current assets and current liabilities are 25,000 and 18,000 respectively. How much additional funds can it borrow from banks for short term, without reducing the current ratio below 1. 5? Solution: CA = 25,000CL = 18,000 Let BB stand for bank borrowing CA+BB = 1. 35 CL+BB 25,000+BB = 1. 35 18,000+BB 1. 35x 18,000 + 1. 35 BB = 25,000 + BB 0. 35BB = 25,000- 24,300 = 700 BB = 700/0. 35 = 2,000 11. LNG’s current assets and current liabilities are 200,000 and 140,000 respectively. How much additional funds can it borrow from banks for short term, without reducing the current ratio below 1. 33? Solution: CA = 200,000CL = 140,000 Let BB stand for bank borrowing CA+BB = 1. 33 CL+BB 200,000+BB = 1. 33 140,000+BB 1. 33 x 140,000 + 1. 33BB = 200,000 + BB 0. 33 BB = 200,000- 186,200 = 13,800 BB =13,800/0. 33 = 41,818 12.

Navneet’s current assets and current liabilities are 10,000,000 and 7,000,000 respectively. How much additional funds can it borrow from banks for short term, without reducing the current ratio below 1. 4? Solution: CA = 10,000,000CL = 7,000,,000 Let BB stand for bank borrowing CA+BB = 1. 4 CL+BB 10,000,000+BB = 1. 4 7,000,000+BB 1. 4 x 7,000,000 + 1. 4BB = 10,000,000 + BB 0. 4 BB = 10,000,000- 9,800,000 = 200,000 BB = 200,000/0. 40 = 500,000 13. A firm has total annual sales (all credit) of 25,000,000 and accounts receivable of 8,000,000. How rapidly (in how many days) must accounts receivable be collected if management wants to reduce the accounts receivable to 6,000,000? Solution: 25,000,000

Average daily credit sales = = 68,493 365 If the accounts receivable has to be reduced to 6,000,000 the ACP must be: 6,000,000 = 87. 6 days 68,493 14. A firm has total annual sales (all credit) of 1,200,000 and accounts receivable of 500,000. How rapidly (in how many days) must accounts receivable be collected if management wants to reduce the accounts receivable to 300,000? Solution: 1,200,000 Average daily credit sales = = 3287. 67 365 If the accounts receivable has to be reduced to 300,000 the ACP must be: 300,000 = 91. 3 days 3287. 67 15. A firm has total annual sales (all credit) of 100,000,000 and accounts receivable of 20,000,000.

How rapidly (in how many days) must accounts receivable be collected if management wants to reduce the accounts receivable to 15,000,000? Solution: 100,000,000 Average daily credit sales = = 273,972. 6 365 If the accounts receivable has to be reduced to 15,000,000 the ACP must be: 15,000,000 = 54. 8 days 273,972. 6 16. The financial ratios of a firm are as follows. Current ratio = 1. 25 Acid-test ratio = 1. 10 Current liabilities=2000 Inventory turnover ratio=10 What is the sales of the firm? Solution: Current assets = Current liabilities x Current ratio = 2000 x 1. 25 = 2500 Current assets – Inventories = Current liabilities x Acid test ratio 2000 x 1. 10 = 2200 Inventories = 300 Sales = Inventories x Inventory turnover ratio = 300 x 10 = 3000 17. The financial ratios of a firm are as follows. Current ratio = 1. 33 Acid-test ratio = 0. 80 Current liabilities=40,000 Inventory turnover ratio=6 What is the sales of the firm? Solution: Current assets = Current liabilities x Current ratio = 40,000 x 1. 33 = 53,200 Current assets – Inventories = Current liabilities x Acid test ratio = 40,000 x 0. 80 = 32,000 Inventories = 21,200

Sales = Inventories x Inventory turnover ratio = 21,200 x 6 = 127,200 18. The financial ratios of a firm are as follows. Current ratio = 1. 6 Acid-test ratio = 1. 2 Current liabilities=2,000,000 Inventory turnover ratio=5 What is the sales of the firm? Solution: Current assets = Current liabilities x Current ratio = 2,000,000 x 1. 6 = 3,200,000 Current assets – Inventories = Current liabilities x Acid test ratio = 2,000,000 x 1. 2 = 2,400,000 Inventories = 800,000 Sales = Inventories x Inventory turnover ratio = 800,000 x 5 = 4,000,000 19.

Complete the balance sheet and sales data (fill in the blanks) using the following financial data: Debt/equity ratio= 0. 80 Acid-test ratio= 1. 1 Total assets turnover ratio= 2 Days’ sales outstanding in Accounts receivable= 30 days Gross profit margin= 30 percent Inventory turnover ratio = 6 Balance sheet Equity capital 80,000Plant and equipment. . . . Retained earnings 50,000Inventories. . . . Short-term bank borrowings . . . . Accounts receivable. . . . Cash. . . . . . . .. . . . Sales. . . . Cost of goods sold …….. Solution: Debt/equity = 0. 80 Equity = 80,000 + 50,000 = 130,000 So Debt = Short-term bank borrowings = 0. x 130,000 = 104,000 Hence Total assets = 130,000+104,000 = 234,000 Total assets turnover ratio = 2 So Sales = 2 x 234,000 = 468,000 Gross profit margin = 30 per cent So Cost of goods sold = 0. 7 x 468,000 = 327,600 Day’s sales outstanding in accounts receivable = 30 days Sales So Accounts receivable = x 30 360 468,000 = x 30 = 39,000 360 Cost of goods sold 327,600 Inventory turnover ratio === 6 Inventory Inventory So Inventory = 54,600 As short-term bank borrowing is a current liability, Cash + Accounts receivable Acid-test ratio = Current liabilities Cash + 39,000 = = 1. 1 104 ,000 So Cash = 75,400

Plant and equipment = Total assets – Inventories – Accounts receivable – Cash = 234,000 – 54,600 – 39,000 – 75,400 = 65,000 Putting together everything we get Balance Sheet Equity capital 80,000Plant & equipment65,000 Retained earnings50,000Inventories54,600 Short-term bank borrowings 104,000Accounts receivable39,000 Cash75,400 234,000 234,000 Sales 468,000 Cost of goods sold327,600 20. Complete the balance sheet and sales data (fill in the blanks) using the following financial data: Debt/equity ratio= 0. 40 Acid-test ratio= 0. 9 Total assets turnover ratio= 2. 5 Days’ sales outstanding in Accounts receivable= 25 days

Gross profit margin= 25 percent Inventory turnover ratio = 8 Balance sheet Equity capital 160,000,000Plant and equipment——–Retained earnings 30,000,000Inventories ……… Short-term bank borrowings . . . …… Accounts receivable ….. . . . Cash . . . . . . . . . . . . Sales …. …. Cost of goods sold ……. Solution: Debt/equity = 0. 40 Equity = 160,000,000 + 30,000,000 = 190,000,000 So Debt = Short-term bank borrowings = 0. 4 x 190,000,000 = 76,000,000 Hence Total assets = 190,000,000+ 76,000,000 = 266,000,000 Total assets turnover ratio = 2. 5 So Sales = 2. 5 x 266,000,000 = 665,000,000

Gross profit margin = 25 per cent So Cost of goods sold = 0. 75 x 665,000,000 = 498,750,000 Day’s sales outstanding in accounts receivable = 25 days Sales So Accounts receivable = x 25 360 665,000,000 = x 25 = 46,180,556 360 Cost of goods sold 498,750,000 Inventory turnover ratio == = 8 Inventory Inventory So Inventory = 62,343,750 As short-term bank borrowings is a current liability, Cash + Accounts receivable Acid-test ratio = Current liability Cash + 46,180,556 = = 0. 9 76,000 ,000 So Cash = 22,219,444 Plant and equipment = Total assets – Inventories – Accounts receivable – Cash 266,000,000 – 62,343,750 – 46,180,556 – 22,219,444 = 135,256,250 Putting together everything we get Balance Sheet Equity capital 160,000,000Plant & equipment 135,256,250 Retained earnings 30,000,000Inventories62,343,750 Short-term bank borrowings 76,000,000Accounts receivable46,180,556 Cash22,219,444 266,000,000 266,000,000 Sales 665,000,000 Cost of goods sold 498,750,000 21. Complete the balance sheet and sales data (fill in the blanks) using the following financial data: Debt/equity ratio= 1. 5 Acid-test ratio= 0. 3 Total assets turnover ratio= 1. 9 Days’ sales outstanding in

Accounts receivable= 25 days Gross profit margin= 28 percent Inventory turnover ratio = 7 Balance sheet Equity capital 600,000Plant and equipment. . . . Retained earnings 100,000Inventories. . . . Short-term bank borrowings . . . Accounts receivable. . . . Cash. . . . . . . .. . . . Sales. . . ….. Cost of goods sold……… Solution: Debt/equity = 1. 5 Equity = 600,000 + 100,000 = 700,000 So Debt = Short-term bank borrowings =1. 5 x 700,000 = 1050,000 Hence Total assets = 700,000+1050,000 = 1,750,000 Total assets turnover ratio = 1. 9 So Sales = 1. 9 x 1,750,000 = 3,325,000 Gross profit margin = 28 per cent So Cost of goods sold = 0. 2 x 3,325,000 = 2,394,000 Day’s sales outstanding in accounts receivable = 25 days Sales So Accounts receivable = x 25 360 3,325,000 = x 25 = 230,903 360 Cost of goods sold 2,394,000 Inventory turnover ratio === 7 Inventory Inventory So Inventory = 342,000 As short-term bank borrowings is a current liability , Cash + Accounts receivable Acid-test ratio = Current liabilities Cash + 230,903 = = 0. 3 1050 ,000 So Cash = 84,097 Plant and equipment = Total assets – Inventories – Accounts receivable – Cash = 1,750,000 – 342,000 – 230,903 – 84,097 = 1,093,000 Putting together everything we get Balance Sheet

Equity capital 600,000Plant &equipment 1,093,000 Retained earnings100,000Inventories 342,000 Short-term bank borrowings 1050,000Accounts receivable 230,903 Cash 84,097 1,750,000 1,750,000 Sales 3,325,000 Cost of goods sold2,394,000 22. Compute the financial ratios for Acme Ltd. Evaluate Acme’s performance with reference to the standards. Acme Limited Balance Sheet, March 31, 20X7 Liabilities and Equity Equity capital Rs. 60,000,000 Reserves and surplus45,000,000 Long-term debt72,000,000 Short-term bank borrowing40,000,000 Trade creditors30,000,000 Provisions15,000,000 Total 62,000,000 Assets

Fixed assets (net) Rs. 110,000,000 Current assets Cash and bank 30,000,000 Receivables45,000,000 Inventories 61,000,000 Pre-paid expenses 10,000,000 Others 6,000,000 Total 262,000,000 Acme Limited Profit and Loss Account for the Year Ended March 31, 20X7 Net sales Rs. 320,000,000 Cost of goods sold 204,000,000 Gross profit 116,000,000 Operating expenses 50,000,000 Operating profit 66,000,000 Non-operating surplus 4,000,000 Profit before interest and tax 70,000,000 Interest 12,000,000 Profit before tax 58,000,000 Tax 20,000,000 Profit after tax 38,000,000

Dividends 4,000,000 Retained earnings 34,000,000 AcmeStandard Current ratio 1. 3 Acid-test ratio 0. 70 Debt-equity ratio 2. 0 Times interest covered ratio 4. 5 Inventory turnover ratio 5. 0 Average collection period 45 days Total assets turnover ratio 1. 5 Net profit margin ratio 8 % Earning power 20 % Return on equity 18 % Solution: For purposes of ratio analysis, we may recast the balance sheet as under. Let assume that ‘Others’ in the balance sheet represents other current assets. Liabilities and Equity Equity capital . 60,000,000 Reserves and surplus45,000,000 Long-term debt72,000,000 Short-term bank borrowing40,000,000

Total 217,000,000 Fixed assets (net) 110,000,000 Current assets Cash and bank30,000,000 Receivables45,000,000 Inventories61,000,000 Pre-paid expenses10,000,000 Others 6,000,000 152,000,000 Less: Current liabilities Trade creditors30,000,000 Provisions15,000,000 45,000,000 Net current assets 107,000,000 Total 217,000,000 Current assets (i) Current ratio = Current liabilities 152,000,000 == 1. 8 85,000,000 (Current liabilities here includes short-term bank borrowing also) Current assets – Inventories 91,000,000 (ii) Acid-test ratio = == 1. 1 Current liabilities 85,000,000 Current liabilities here includes short-term bank borrowing also) Long-term debt + Short-term bank borrowing (iii) Debt-equity ratio = Equity capital + Reserves & surplus 72,000,000 + 40,000,000 = = 1. 1 60,000,000 + 45,000,000 Profit before interest and tax (iv) Times interest coverage ratio = Interest 70,000,000 == 5. 83 12,000,000 Cost of goods sold204,000,000 (v) Inventory turnover period = = = 3. 34 Inventory61,000,000 365 (vi) Average collection period = Net sales / Accounts receivable 365 = =51. 3 days 320,000,000/45,000,000 (vii) Total assets =Equity + Total debt =( 60,000,000 + 45,000,000 ) +(72,000,000+40,000,000) = 217,000,000 Net sales320,000,000

Total assets turnover ratio = == 1. 5 Total assets217,000,000 Profit after tax 38,000,000 (ix) Net profit margin= = = 11. 9% Net sales 320,000,000 PBIT 70,000,000 (x) Earning power = = = 32. 3 % Total assets 217,000,000 Equity earning 38,000,000 (xi) Return on equity = = = 36. 2 % Net worth 105,000,000 The comparison of the Acme’s ratios with the standard is given below AcmeStandard Current ratio 1. 8 1. 3 Acid-test ratio 1. 1 0. 7 Debt-equity ratio 1. 1 2. 0 Times interest covered ratio 5. 8 4. 5 Inventory turnover ratio 3. 3 5. 0

Average collection period 51. 3 days 45 days Total assets turnover ratio 1. 5 1. 5 Net profit margin ratio 11. 9 % 8 % Earning power 32. 3 % 20 % Return on equity 36. 2 % 18 % 23. Compute the financial ratios for Nainar Ltd. Evaluate Nainar’s performance with reference to the standards. Nainar Limited Balance Sheet, March 31, 20X7 Liabilities and Equity Equity capital Rs. 100,000,000 Reserves and surplus 65,000,000 Long-term debt 140,000,000 Short-term bank borrowing 70,000,000 Trade creditors 24,000,000 Provisions 19,000,000 Total 418,000,000 Assets Fixed assets (net) Rs. 206,000,000

Current assets Cash and bank 25,000,000 Receivables 70,000,000 Inventories 85,000,000 Pre-paid expenses 20,000,000 Others 12,000,000 Total 418,000,000 Nainar Limited Profit and Loss Account for the Year Ended March 31, 20X7 Net sales Rs. 740,000,000 Cost of goods sold 520,000,000 Gross profit 220,000,000 Operating expenses 102,000,000 Operating profit 118,000,000 Non-operating surplus 12,000,000 Profit before interest and tax 130,000,000 Interest 22,000,000 Profit before tax 108,000,000 Tax 46,000,000 Profit after tax 62,000,000 Dividends 20,000,000

Retained earnings 42,000,000 NainarStandard Current ratio 1. 7 Acid-test ratio 1. 0 Debt-equity ratio 1. 4 Times interest covered ratio 5. 5 Inventory turnover ratio 6. 0 Average collection period 40 days Total assets turnover ratio 2. 0 Net profit margin ratio 8 % Earning power 30 % Return on equity 35 % Solution: For purposes of ratio analysis, we may recast the balance sheet as under. Let assume that ‘Others’ in the balance sheet represents other current assets. Liabilities and Equity Equity capital 100,000,000

Reserves and surplus 65,000,000 Long-term debt 140,000,000 Short-term bank borrowing 70,000,000 Total 375,000,000 Assets Fixed assets (net) 206,000,000 Current assets Cash and bank 25,000,000 Receivables 70,000,000 Inventories 85,000,000 Pre-paid expenses 20,000,000 Others 12,000,000 212,000,000 Less: Current liabilities Trade creditors24,000,000 Provisions19,000,000 43,000,000 Net current assets 169,000,000 Total 375,000,000 Current assets (i) Current ratio = Current liabilities 212,000,000 == 1. 9 113,000,000 ( Current liabilities here includes short-term bank borrowing also)

Current assets – Inventories 127,000,000 (ii) Acid-test ratio = == 1. 1 Current liabilities 113,000,000 ( Current liabilities here includes short-term bank borrowing also) Long-term debt + Short-term bank borrowing (iii) Debt-equity ratio = Equity capital + Reserves & surplus 140,000,000 + 70,000,000 = = 1. 3 100,000,000 + 65,000,000 Profit before interest and tax (iv) Times interest coverage ratio = Interest 130,000,000 == 5. 9 22,000,000 Cost of goods sold520,000,000 (v) Inventory turnover period = = = 6. 1 Inventory85,000,000 365 (vi) Average collection period = Net sales / Accounts receivable 365 = =34. 5 days 740,000,000/70,000,000 (vii)

Total assets = Equity + Total debt =(100,000,000 + 65,000,000 ) +(140,000,000+70,000,000) = 375,000,000 Net sales740,000,000 Total assets turnover ratio = == 2. 0 Total assets375,000,000 Profit after tax 62,000,000 (ix) Net profit margin= = = 8. 4 % Net sales 740,000,000 PBIT 130,000,000 (x) Earning power = = = 34. 7 % Total assets 375,000,000 Equity earning 62,000,000 (xi) Return on equity = = = 37. 6 % Net worth 165,000,000 The comparison of the Nainar’s ratios with the standard is given below NainarStandard Current ratio 1. 9 1. 7 Acid-test ratio 1. 1 1. 0 Debt-equity ratio 1. 3 1. 4 Times interest covered ratio 5. 9 5. 5

Inventory turnover ratio 6. 1 6. 0 Average collection period 34. 5 days 40 days Total assets turnover ratio 2. 0 2. 0 Net profit margin ratio 8. 4 % 8 % Earning power 34. 7 % 30 % Return on equity 37. 6 % 35 % 24. The comparative balance sheets and comparative Profit and Loss accounts for Nalvar Limited, are given below: Comparative Balance Sheets, Nalvar Limited (Rs. in million) | |20X3 |20X4 |20X5 |20X6 |20X7 | |Share capital |1. 6 |1. 6 |1. |1. 8 |2 | |Reserves and surplus |1. 0 |1. 6 |2. 4 |2. 3 |3 | |Long-term debt |1. 4 |1. 5 |1. 8 |1. 6 |1. 4 | |Short-term bank borrowing |1. 3 |1. 5 |1. 7 |1. 5 |1. 2 | |Current liabilities |1. 1 |1. 3 |1. 5 |1. 6 |1. 8 | |Total |6. 4 |7. 5 |9. 2 |8. |9. 4 | |Assets | | | | | | |Net fixed assets |1. 2 |1. 4 |2 |1. 7 |2 | |Current assets | | | | | | | Cash and bank |0. 3 |0. 3 |0. 2 |0. 4 |0. 3 | | Receivables |1. 8 |2. 1 |2. 5 |2. 4 |2. | | Inventories |1. 8 |2. 2 |2. 8 |2. 4 |2. 8 | | |1. 3 |1. 5 |1. 7 |1. 9 |1. 8 | |Other assets | | | | | | |Total |6. 4 |7. 5 |9. 2 |8. 8 |9. 4 | | | | | | | |

Comparative Profit and Loss Accounts, Nalvar Limited (Rs. in million) | | |20X4 |20X5 |20X6 |20X7 | | |20X3 | | | | | | | | | | | | |Net sales |3. 8 |4. 2 |5. 3 |6. 5 |7. 8 | |Cost of goods sold |2. 6 |3. |3. 9 |4 |4. 8 | |Gross profit |1. 2 |1. 1 |1. 4 |2. 5 |3 | |Operating expenses |0. 3 |0. 3 |0. 4 |0. 6 |0. 6 | |Operating profit |0. 9 |0. 8 |1 |1. 9 |2. 4 | |Non-operating surplus deficit |0. 1 |0. 2 |0. 1 |0. 3 |0. 3 | |Profit before interest and tax |1 |1 |1. |2. 2 |2. 7 | |Interest |0. 1 |0. 1 |0. 2 |0. 1 |0. 1 | |Profit before tax |0. 9 |0. 9 |0. 9 |2. 1 |2. 6 | |Tax |0. 05 |0. 08 |1 |1. 2 |1. 2 | |Profit after tax |0. 85 |0. 82 |-0. 1 |0. 9 |1. 4 | Required: Compute the important ratios for Nalvar Limited for the years 20X3-20X7.

You may assume that other assets in the balance sheet represent other current assets. • Current ratio • Debt-equity ratio • Total assets turnover ratio • Net profit margin • Earning power • Return on equity Solution: We will rearrange the balance sheets as under for ratio analysis. It is assumed that ‘Other assets’ are other current assets |Liabilities and Equity | | | | | | |• Current ratio |2. 2 |2. 2 |2. 3 |2. 3 |2. 5 | |• Debt-equity ratio |1. 0 |0. 9 |0. 8 |0. 8 |0. | |Total assets turnover ratio |0. 7 |0. 7 |0. 7 |0. 9 |1. 0 | |• Net profit margin(%) |22. 4 |19. 5 |-1. 9 |13. 8 |17. 9 | |• Earning power (%) |18. 9 |16. 1 |14. 3 |30. 6 |35. 5 | |• Return on equity (%) |32. 7 |25. 6 |-2. 4 |22. 0 |28. 0 | 26. The comparative balance sheets and comparative Profit and Loss accounts for Somani Limited, a machine tool manufacturer, are given below: Comparative Balance Sheets, Somani Limited (Rs. in million) | | | 20X5 | 20X6 | 20X7 | | | |20X4 | | | | | |20X3 | | | | | |Share capital |41 |50 |50 |50 |55 | |Reserves and surplus |16 |36 |72 |118 |150 | |Long-term debt |28 |25 |30 |29 |22 | |Short-term bank borrowing |35 |30 |36 |38 |38 | |Current liabilities |24 |28 |30 |30 |25 | |Total |144 |169 |218 |265 |290 | |Assets | | | | | | |Net fixed assets |72 |80 |75 |102 |103 | |Current assets | | | | | | | Cash and bank |8 |9 |15 |12 |11 | | Receivables |24 |30 |59 |62 |85 | | Inventories |35 |42 |55 |75 |79 | |Other Assets |5 |8 |14 |14 |12 | |Total |144 |169 |218 |265 |290 | | | | | | | | |Comparative Profit & Loss Account of Somani Ltd | | (Rs. n million) | | | |20X4 |20X5 |20X6 |20X7 | | |20X3 | | | | | |Net sales |285 |320 |360 |350 |355 | |Cost of goods sold |164 |150 |170 |175 |174 | |Gross profit |121 |170 |190 |175 |181 | |Operating expenses |64 |66 |68 |68 |64 | |Operating profit |57 |104 |122 |107 |117 | |Non-operating surplus deficit |3 |4 |4 |3 |3 | |Profit before interest and tax |60 |108 |126 |110 |120 | |Interest |8 |6 |10 |12 |12 | |Profit before tax |52 |102 |116 |98 |108 | |Tax |15 |26 |30 |26 |29 | |Profit after tax |37 |76 |86 |72 |79 | | | | | | | |

Compute the following ratios for years 20X3-20X7: • Current ratio • Debt-equity ratio • Total assets turnover ratio • Net profit margin • Earning power • Return on equity For ratio analysis purpose, we will rearrange the balance sheet as under. It is assumed that ‘Other assets’ are other current assets 20X3 20X4 20X5 20X6 20X7 |Share capital | |41 | |50 | | |• Current ratio |1. 2 |1. 5 |2. 2 |2. 4 |3. 0 | |• Debt-equity ratio |1. 1 |0. 6 |0. 5 |0. 4 |0. | |• Total assets turnover ratio |2. 4 |2. 3 |1. 9 |1. 5 |1. 3 | |• Net profit margin (%) |13. 0 |23. 8 |23. 9 |20. 6 |22. 3 | |• Earning power (%) |50. 0 |76. 6 |67. 0 |46. 8 |45. 3 | |• Return on equity (%) |64. 9 |88. 4 |70. 5 |42. 9 |38. 5 | 26. The Balance sheets and Profit and Loss accounts of LKG Corporation are given below. Prepare the common size and common base financial statements |Balance Sheets (Rs. n million) | | |20×6 |20×7 | |Shareholders’ funds |256 |262 | |Loan funds |156 |212 | |Total |412 |474 | |Fixed assets |322 |330 | |Investments |15 |15 | |Net current assets |75 |129 | |Total |412 |474 | |Profit & Loss Accounts | |(Rs. n million) | | |20×6 |20×7 | |Net sales |623 |701 | |Cost of goods sold |475 |552 | |Gross profit |148 |149 | |PBIT |105 |89 | |Interest |22 |21 | |PBT |83 |68 | |Tax |41 |34 | |PAT |42 |34 | Solution: Common Size statements: Profit and Loss Account | |Regular ( in Rs. |Common Size(%) | | |million) | | | | |20×6 |20×7 | |20×6 |20×7 | |Net sales |623 |701 | |100 |100 | |Cost of goods sold |475 |552 | |76 |79 | |Gross profit |148 |149 | |24 |21 | |PBIT |105 |89 | |17 |13 | |Interest |22 |21 | |4 |3 | |PBT |83 |68 | |13 |10 | |Tax |41 |34 | |7 |5 |PAT |42 |34 | |7 |5 | | | | Balance Sheet | | |Regular ( in million)| |Common Size(%) | | |20×6 |20×7 | |20×6 |20×7 | |Shareholders’ funds |256 |262 | |62 |55 | |Loan funds |156 |212 | |38 |45 | |Total |412 |474 | |100 |100 | |Fixed assets |322 |330 | |78 |70 | |Investments |15 |15 | |4 |3 | |Net current assets |75 |129 | |18 |27 | |Total |412 |474 | |100 |100 | 27. The Balance sheets and Profit and Loss accounts of Grand Limited are given below. Prepare the common size and common base financial statements Balance Sheet | | |20×6 |20×7 | |Shareholders’ fund |85 |85 | |Loan funds |125 |180 | |Total |210 |265 | |Fixed assets |127 |170 | |Investments |8 |10 | |Net current assets |75 |85 | |Total |210 |265 | |Profit & Loss Account | | |20×6 |20×7 | |Net sales 450 |560 | |Cost of goods sold |320 |410 | |Gross profit |130 |150 | |PBIT |85 |98 | |Interest |12 |17 | |PBT |73 |81 | |Tax |22 |38 | |PAT |51 |43 | Solution: |Balance Sheet |Regular (Rs. n million) |Common Size(%) | | |20×6 |20×7 |20×6 |20×7 | |Shareholders’ funds |85 |85 |40 |32 | |Loan funds |125 |180 |60 |68 | |Total |210 |265 |100 |100 | |Fixed assets |127 |170 |60 |64 | |Investments |8 |10 |4 |4 | |Net current assets |75 |85 |36 |32 | |Total |210 |265 |100 |100 | |Profit & Loss Account |Regular (Rs. n million) |Common Size(%) | | |20×6 |20×7 |20×6 |20×7 | |Net sales |450 |560 |100 |100 | |Cost of goods sold |320 |410 |71 |73 | |Gross profit |130 |150 |29 |27 | |PBIT |85 |98 |19 |18 | |Interest |12 |17 |3 |3 | |PBT |73 |81 |16 |14 | |Tax |22 |38 |5 |7 | |PAT |51 |43 |11 |8 | |Common base year statements | |Balance Sheet |Regular (Rs. n million) |Common base year (%) | | |20×6 |20×7 |20×6 |20×7 | |Shareholders’ funds |85 |85 |100 |100 | |Loan funds |125 |180 |100 |144 | |Total |210 |265 |100 |126 | |Fixed assets |127 |170 |100 |134 | |Investments |8 |10 |100 |125 | |Net current assets |75 |85 |100 |113 | |Total |210 |265 |100 |126 | |Profit & Loss Account |Regular (Rs. n million) |Common base year (%) | | |20×6 |20×7 |20×6 |20×7 | |Net sales |450 |560 |100 |124 | |Cost of goods sold |320 |410 |100 |128 | |Gross profit |130 |150 |100 |115 | |PBIT |85 |98 |100 |115 | |Interest |12 |17 |100 |142 | |PBT |73 |81 |100 |111 | |Tax |22 |38 |100 |173 | |PAT |51 |43 |100 |84 | CHAPTER 5 1. The profit and loss account of Sasi Industires Limited for years 1 and 2 is given below: Using the percent of sales method, prepare the pro forma profit and loss account for year 3. Assume that the sales will be 3500 in year 3. If dividends are raised to 40, what amount of retained earnings can be expected for year 3? |Year | | |1 |2 | |Net sales |2300 |2700 | |Cost of goods sold |1760 |2000 | |Gross profit |540 |700 | |Selling expenses |150 |180 | |General and administration expenses |120 |124 | |Depreciation |94 |84 | |Operating profit |176 |312 | |Non-operating surplus deficit |12 |10 | |Earnings before interest and tax |188 |322 | |Interest |30 |38 | |Earnings before tax |158 |284 | |Tax |56 |96 | |Earnings after tax |102 |188 | |Dividends |35 |35 | |Retained earnings |67 |153 | Solution: |Year | | | | |1 |2 |Average percent |Proforma Profit & Loss| | | | |of sales |account for year 3 | | | | | |assuming sales of 3500| |Net sales |2300 |2700 |100 |3500 | |Cost of goods sold |1760 |2000 |75. 30 |2635. 43 | |Gross profit |540 |700 |24. 70 |864. 57 | |Selling expenses |150 |180 |6. 59 |230. 80 | |General and administration expenses |120 |124 |4. 90 |171. 7 | |Depreciation |94 |84 |3. 60 |125. 97 | |Operating profit |176 |312 |9. 60 |336. 14 | |Non-operating surplus deficit |12 |10 |0. 45 |15. 61 | |Earnings before interest and tax |188 |322 |10. 05 |351. 75 | |Interest |30 |38 |1. 36 |47. 46 | |Earnings before tax |158 |284 |8. 69 |304. 29 | |Tax |56 |96 |3. 00 |104. 3 | |Earnings after tax |102 |188 |5. 70 |199. 46 | |Dividends(given) |35 |35 | |40 | |Retained earnings |67 |153 | |159. 46 | 2. The profit and loss account of KG Electronics Limited for years 1 and 2 is given below: Using the percent of sales method, prepare the pro forma profit and loss account for year 3. Assume that the sales will be 26,000 in year 3. If dividends are raised to 500, what amount of retained earnings can be expected for year3 . |Year | | |1 |2 | |Net sales |18,230 |22,460 | |Cost of goods sold |13,210 |16100 | |Gross profit |5020 |6360 | |Selling expenses |820 |890 | |General and administration expenses

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