Adolescence Final

Senator Gorson makes the case to his colleagues that there should be national legislation mandating parental consent for adolescent girls’ abortions. He calls abortion a “medically dangerous procedure” and one that will “scar these young women for life”. Research on his statements would seem to indicate that Senator Gorson is

A. correct about the medical risk; research has shown that abortion is medically dangerous.
B. correct about the psychological risks; girls who have had abortions are at high risk for depression.
C. incorrect on both positions; first trimester abortion is medically safe and a study of girls who had abortions showed they had a decrease in anxiety.
D. incorrect about the medical risk, but correct about the psychological risk.

C. incorrect on both positions; first trimester abortion is medically safe and a study of girls who had abortions showed they had a decrease in anxiety.
Which of the following statements regarding adolescents’ sources of sexual information is NOT true?

A. Male adolescents are more likely to talk to their fathers about sex than their mothers.
B. Adolescents get information about sex from the Internet.
C. Female adolescents are more likely to have conversations about sex with their mothers than with their fathers.
D. Many parents are uncomfortable talking about sex with their adolescents.

A. Male adolescents are more likely to talk to their fathers about sex than their mothers.
Which of the following adolescents is MOST likely to romanticize sexuality?

A. Kurt, age 13.
B. Nadia, age 16.
C. Julia, age 19.
D. All of them are likely to romanticize sexuality equally.

B. Nadia, age 16.
Adolescents in the United Sates are less likely than their counterparts in Canada to:

A. have access to a comprehensive sex-education program in school.
B. have access to reproductive health services.
C. be provided with free contraceptives.
D. all of these.

D. all of these.
Which of the following statements regarding abstinence-only sex education programs is TRUE?

A. They delay the onset of sexual intercourse.
B. They reduce HIV-risk behavior.
C. They do not delay the onset of sexual intercourse.
D. They are preferred by the majority of parents.

C. They do not delay the onset of sexual intercourse.

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Reviews of recent research have found that Latino adolescents were less likely to engage in risky sexual behavior when:

A. their fathers talked to them about the possible negative consequences of sex.
B. their mothers talked to them about the possible negative consequences of sex.
C. their grandmothers or older aunts talked to them about the possible negative consequences of sex.
D. they were confined to their homes after school and on weekends.

B. their mothers talked to them about the possible negative consequences of sex.
Obtaining information about adolescent sexuality has been difficult because:

A. those with conservative sexual attitudes are less likely to respond to sexual surveys than those with more liberal attitudes.
B. some people refuse to answer questions about sex asked by a stranger.
C. some people give socially acceptable answers rather than truthful answers.
D. all of these.

D. all of these.
Liz engages in oral sex with her boyfriend Trevor. Which of the following statements regarding beliefs about oral sex is Liz MOST likely to hold?

A. Oral sex has no health risks.
B. Oral sex is safer than sexual intercourse.
C. Oral sex is not really sex.
D. All of these

D. All of these
A recent study showed that college women who ______ made more responsible decisions regarding sexuality than women who did not engage in this behavior.

A. attended weekly religious services.
B. volunteered in their communities at least five hours per week.
C. had a prior STI.
D. frequently set personal goals.

D. frequently set personal goals.
Which of the following statements regarding sexual activity and gender is NOT true?

A. Adolescent females are less likely than males to report sexual intercourse as an enjoyable experience.
B. Adolescent males are more likely than adolescent females to be sexually active.
C. Adolescent males are less likely than adolescent females to report sexual intercourse as an enjoyable experience.
D. Adolescent males are more likely than adolescent females to engage in sexual intercourse.

C. Adolescent males are less likely than adolescent females to report sexual intercourse as an enjoyable experience.
Anna is a 24-year-old woman who is pregnant with her first baby. Her neighbor, Trish, is 16 and pregnant with her first child. Which of the following is most likely to be TRUE of these women?

A. Anna is more likely than Trisha to be receiving prenatal care.
B. Anna is more likely than Trisha to have a premature birth.
C. Trisha’s baby is likely to weigh more than Anna’s baby.
D. Both mothers will be equally competent caregivers for their babies.

A. Anna is more likely than Trisha to be receiving prenatal care.
Which of the following was a finding from several research studies of adolescents who watched sexually explicit TV shows?

A. There was a link between the amount of time adolescents watched sexually explicit TV and initiation of dating.
B. There was a link between the amount of time adolescents watched sexually explicit TV and the initiation of sexual intercourse
C. shows were less likely to endorse sexual stereotypes than adolescents who did not watch these shows.
D. None of these was a finding.

B. There was a link between the amount of time adolescents watched sexually explicit TV and the initiation of sexual intercourse
The potential for abuse is highest in cults that:
are physically and socially isolated from the outside community.
are physically and socially isolated from the outside community.
Marcy believes that self-regulation, rather than abstract reasoning, is the key to positive moral development. Which of the following theorists shared Marcy’s view?
Albert Bandura
Albert Bandura
Researchers have found that having a religious affiliation is linked to:
all of these
all of these
Which of the following statements regarding religion and parenting is NOT true?
Adolescents who have a positive relationship with their parents are more likely to seek a religion that is different from their parents’ religion.
Adolescents who have a positive relationship with their parents are more likely to seek a religion that is different from their parents’ religion.
Research has found that moral children have parents who do all EXCEPT:
foster an external sense of morality.
foster an external sense of morality.
Which of the following statements regarding moral behavior is NOT true?
Adolescents are likely to display consistent moral behavior in diverse social settings.
Adolescents are likely to display consistent moral behavior in diverse social settings
Margaret’s parents refuse to talk to her if she displeases them in any way. They tell her younger brother that Margaret is a big disappointment to them if she gets any grade below a B. Margaret’s parents are using which of the following discipline techniques?
love withdrawl
love withdrawl
Jordan says that he wants to make as much money as he can after college so that he can retire at age 45. He plans to “save every dime” that is not needed for his basic living expenses. David says that he wants to earn a decent salary but that he is more interested in using some of his earnings to travel and meet interesting people. Jordan and David have different
values about money
values about money
Katie’s parents know that their daughter will inevitably be confronted by peers who want to offer her alcohol or drugs. They spend time talking with her about how to resist these harmful situations, and they even role-play with her to increase her skills. Katie’s parents are engaging in which type of parenting strategy?
pre-arming
pre-arming
Mr. Hale has his tenth-grade honors English class tutor younger children in reading and writing. Mr. Hale’s students are engaged in:
service learning
service learning
What differences exist between Kohlberg’s and Gilligan’s theories of moral development?
Kohlberg postulated an ethic of justice; Gilligan postulated an ethic of care.
Kohlberg postulated an ethic of justice; Gilligan postulated an ethic of care.
The key concept in understanding Kohlberg’s theory of moral development is:
internalization
internalization
Romantic relationships and _____ predicted an increase in depressive symptoms in girls.

A. co-rumination
B. secure attachment to parents
C. lack of female friends
D. poor grades in school

A. co-rumination
Being rejected or overlooked by peers can lead some adolescents to:

A. become closer to their parents.
B. be vulnerable to cult recruiters.
C. feel lonely or hostile.
D. become closer to their siblings.

C. feel lonely or hostile.
Debra’s parents have a high level of marital conflict. According to research, as an emerging adult, Debra is likely to have romantic relationships that are:

A. stable.
B. warm and nurturing.
C. superficial.
D. conflicted.

D. conflicted.
Lisa lives with her boyfriend, Jeff. According to recent research, Lisa is more at risk for _____
than her married counterparts.

A. depression
B. partner violence
C. alcoholism
D. eating disorders

B. partner violence
Which of the following statements regarding child and adolescent groups is NOT true?

A. Adolescent groups are more mixed or heterogeneous than children’s groups.
B. Opposite-sex participation in social groups decreases in adolescence.
C. Adolescent groups are more formalized than children’s groups.
D. Rules are more well-defined in adolescent groups than in children’s groups.

B. Opposite-sex participation in social groups decreases in adolescence.
Tony has not adjusted well to the peer group at his new school. When another boy accidentally bumps into Tony at a school dance, Tony will be MOST likely to:

A. ignore the bump and continue talking to the chaperone who has befriended him.
B. aggressively attack the other boy because he assumes that he was bumped on purpose.
C. verbally lash out, but he won’t be physically aggressive.
D. ask those around him if he was bumped on purpose.

B. aggressively attack the other boy because he assumes that he was bumped on purpose.
Which of the following adolescents is MOST likely to assume a leadership role on the student council?

A. Jeremy, an African-American boy
B. Sarah, a middle class White girl
C. John, a low socioeconomic class Latino boy
D. Marcus, a lower socioeconomic class White boy

B. Sarah, a middle class White girl
Which of the following individuals has the highest risk of divorce?

A. Andrea, a 43-year-old lawyer who has been married for 12 years
B. Connie, a 19-year-old high school graduate who has been married for a year
C. Joel, a 26-year-old youth minister who has been married for two years
D. Harry, a 40-year-old physician whose parents divorced when he was 25 years old

B. Connie, a 19-year-old high school graduate who has been married for a year
Reputation-based crowds often appear first during:

A. late childhood.
B. early adolescence.
C. late adolescence.
D. emerging adulthood.

B. early adolescence.
Which of the following statements regarding single adults is TRUE?

A. Over a thirty-year period there has been a dramatic decrease in the number of single adults in the United States.
B. Single people experience much less stress than married people.
C. There are few advantages to being single.
D. Singles are frequently stereotyped as “swinging” or “desperate.”

D. Singles are frequently stereotyped as “swinging” or “desperate.”
Megan has a problem with her boyfriend’s intense jealousy. She and her friends talk constantly about her problem, focusing on nothing else. According to research, this co-rumination is likely to result in

A. resolution of the problem for Megan.
B. decrease in positive friendship quality with her friends.
C. an increase in depressive symptoms for Megan.
D. all of these.

C. an increase in depressive symptoms for Megan.
Lydia is a sexually active lesbian adolescent. Which of the following is probably TRUE for Lydia?

A. She has had sex with boys before a same-sex encounter.
B. Her initial same-sex encounter was with a casual acquaintance.
C. She is in love with her current partner.
D. She is open with her parents about her romantic life.

A. She has had sex with boys before a same-sex encounter.
Which of the following statements regarding parental involvement in adolescents’ schooling is TRUE?

A. Most parents are fairly knowledgeable about normal adolescent development.
B. Parents and teachers usually get to know each other well at the high-school level.
C. Parents need to receive better information about curricular choices.
D. Parents’ involvement needs to decrease by the time their children are in high school.

C. Parents need to receive better information about curricular choices.
Jamie has a reading disability. Which of the following approaches to learning would experts recommend for Jamie?

A. self-paced learning
B. direct instruction
C. peer-tutored
D. computer-assisted

B. direct instruction
Which of the following students is most likely to be a bully?

A. Skyler, who has average grades and is fairly popular.
B. Donald, who drinks alcohol and has some mild depressive symptoms.
C. Evie, who is shy and socially withdrawn from her peers.
D. Lisa, who is an honor student but suffers from anxiety.

B. Donald, who drinks alcohol and has some mild depressive symptoms.
In Mr. Durgan’s U.S. history class, students work in teams to explore, research, and present a topic to the class. They can choose from a list of topics or propose a topic to the teacher for approval. Mr. Durgan serves as their guide and mentor for the project. This is an example of:

A. the constructivist approach to learning.
B. the jigsaw classroom.
C. direct instruction.
D. an open education approach.

A. the constructivist approach to learning
Mrs. Grundy, a superintendent of schools, wants to implement strategies that will decrease the dropout rate in her district. According to research, what should Mrs. Grundy concentrate on FIRST?

A. Early detection and remediation of children’s learning difficulties.
B. Allowing adolescents to have shorter school days so that they can work and contribute financially to their families.
C. Developing comprehensive sex-education programs to decrease teen pregnancy rates.
D. Developing more exciting curricula so that students won’t drop out from boredom.

A. Early detection and remediation of children’s learning difficulties.
Mr. Root has clear classroom rules but students are so busy being absorbed in learning that he rarely has to enforce a rule. As a result, his students are:

A. more likely to be motivated.
B. less likely to develop academic problems.
c. less likely to develop emotional problems.
d. all of these.

A. more likely to be motivated.
The largest group of U.S. students to receive special education is children with:

A. mental retardation.
B. emotional problems.
C. learning disabilities.
D. speech and language impairments.

C. learning disabilities.
The transition to middle school or junior high school is stressful because:

A. students have less independence than they did in elementary school.
B. students have to shift to a team-oriented approach.
C. students have too many subjects from which to select their courses.
D. many changes are taking place at the same time.

D. many changes are taking place at the same time.
The reason most frequently given for stress and depression among college students is:

A. living away from home.
B. having too many assignments and too little time to complete them.
C. fear of failing in a success-oriented world.
D. pressure from parents to get good grades.

C. fear of failing in a success-oriented world.
Which of the following statements regarding the direct approach to learning is NOT true?

A. It is a student-centered approach.
B. It is a teacher-centered approach.
C. It is a passive approach.
D. It emphasizes time on academic tasks.

A. It is a student-centered approach.
Which of the following characteristics must be present for a diagnosis of ADHD?

A. obsessions and compulsions
B. phobias
C. anxiety
D. inattention

D. inattention
A written statement that spells out a program specifically tailored for children or adolescents with a disability is called:

A. an inclusion plan.
B. a mainstreaming plan.
C. a child-centered plan.
D. an individual education plan.

D. an individual education plan.
Professor Daube teaches Theories of Personality. He has his students analyze the song lyrics of famous songwriters, past and present, and see if they can determine the writers’ specific personality traits based on their writings. According to research, Professor Daube’s students should _____ than students who are taught Theories of Personality by lectures only.

A. be more cognitively engaged with their learning
B. learn less
C. be less motivated
D. none of these

A. be more cognitively engaged with their learning
Christine wants to be a nursery-school teacher. While still in high school, she takes a class through which she works part of each day at the day-care center her school operates for the children of students, teachers, and staff. Christine is participating in:

A. a vocational class.
B. a paid internship.
C. theory-to-practice class.
D. none of these.

A. a vocational class.
Which of the following statements regarding adolescents and part-time work is NOT true?

A. Adolescents who spend 20 hours or more each week at work spend less time with their peers.
B. Adolescents who work spend less time with their families.
C. Adolescents who work long hours are more frequent users of alcohol and marijuana.
D. Tenth-graders who worked more than 14 hours a week suffered a drop in grades.

A. Adolescents who spend 20 hours or more each week at work spend less time with their peers.
In which of the following domains would an adolescent be expected to form an identity FIRST?

A. lifestyle
B. religious
C. vocational
D. political

C. vocational
Which of the following is NOT true of adolescents and achievement?

A. Adolescence is a critical juncture in achievement.
B. As demands on adolescents intensify, different areas of their lives may come into conflict.
C. Adolescents’ achievement is mainly due to their intellectual abilities.
D. New academic and social pressures force adolescents toward different roles.

C. Adolescents’ achievement is mainly due to their intellectual abilities.
Stephanie’s biology class had to go to the computer and follow a set of directions that guided them through the steps that a surgeon would use to do open-heart surgery. While most of her classmates thought it was a fun assignment. Stephanie says, “I’m horrible at these computer simulations,” even
though she has done them in other classes and done well. Stephanie is showing a

A. phobia about the human body.
B. helpless orientation.
C. negative orientation.
D. fear of computers.

B. helpless orientation.
Whitney gets an A- on her science test on ecology. She studied for several afternoons with a group of classmates and she says that the test was difficult but fair. Whitney’s explanation for her good test grade is an example of:

A. an external attribution.
B. an internal attribution.
C. a cognitive belief.
D. a behavioral attribution.

B. an internal attribution.
Career development is related to _____ in adolescents and emerging adults.

A. high stress levels
B. high levels of anxiety
C. identity development
D. self-esteem

C. identity development
Which of the following statements regarding college students and work is TRUE?

A. As the number of hours of work increases, so does the likelihood of dropping out of school.
B. Most colleges try to reserve some sections of classes for working students to make scheduling easier for these students.
C. Most colleges restrict the number of hours that students can work and still remain in good standing.
D. All of these are true.

A. As the number of hours of work increases, so does the likelihood of dropping out of school.
Claudia is a 23-year-old emerging adult. Her transition from school to work is most strongly influenced by her:

A. geographic location.
B. level of education.
C. ethnic background.
D. personality.

B. level of education.
A student who has not yet made a commitment to a career but is still exploring options is in:

A. identity diffusion.
B. identity moratorium.
C. identity foreclosure.
D. identity achievement.

B. identity moratorium.
Liam does not have as high an IQ as his twin brother, but Liam persists at his tasks and has confidence that he will be able to solve life’s problems. According to research, we can predict

A. Liam will not be as successful as his intellectually brighter twin.
B. Liam may be quite a high achiever because he has adaptive motivational patterns.
C. Liam will probably give up easily and thus end up being a low achiever.
D. None of these.

B. Liam may be quite a high achiever because he has adaptive motivational patterns.
Researchers in the field of developmental psychopathology seek to establish links between:

A. nature and nurture.
B. early precursors of a problem and later outcomes.
C. late signs of a problem and prognosis.
D. none of these.

B. early precursors of a problem and later outcomes.
The four problems that affect the largest number of adolescents are sexual problems, juvenile delinquency, drug abuse, and:

A. eating disorders.
B. self-injurious behaviors.
C. depression.
D. school-related problems.

D. school-related problems.
Kiptyn takes a drug that increases his heart rate, breathing rate, and temperature. He has a feeling of energy and elevated mood on this drug. Kiptyn is probably taking:

A. a stimulant.
B. a hallucinogen.
C. marijuana.
D. alcohol.

A. a stimulant.
Violent youth tend to be males who come from:

A. poverty-infested areas of inner cities.
B. rural areas where there is nothing to do.
C. poor areas of suburbs.
D. entitled backgrounds.

A. poverty-infested areas of inner cities.
Kathy’s parents use alcohol quite a bit. After they get home from work, they drink steadily all evening and, although she has never seen her parents drunk, they don’t spend much time interacting with each other or the children. According to research, Kathy is at risk for:

A. drinking heavily herself.
B. depression.
C. social isolation.
D. becoming angry with her peers who drink.

A. drinking heavily herself.
Which of the following individuals has the highest risk of taking drugs by age 12?

A. Erica, age 9, whose parents insist that she attend Sunday School each week.
B. Jesse, age 11, who is an honor roll student in grade 6.
C. Pauline, who is rejected by most of her peers at school.
D. Maura, whose parents monitor her very closely.

C. Pauline, who is rejected by most of her peers at school.
Jake, age 14, has a long history of setting small fires, torturing kittens, skipping school and fighting with his peers. His parents have sought counseling for him, as they cannot control him and fear that his behavior is getting worse. Jake meets the criteria for a diagnosis of:

A. antisocial personality disorder.
B. oppositional-defiant disorder.
C. conduct disorder.
D. sociopathic personality disorder.

C. conduct disorder.
Hannah, age 22, suffers from an anxiety disorder that requires her to take anti-anxiety medication in order to function at her job and in her personal life. Hannah has which of the following problems?

A. an externalizing problem
B. an internalizing problem
C. a latent problem
D. an acute problem

B. an internalizing problem
Adolescent researcher Joy Dryfoos has identified three common components of successful programs for preventing or reducing adolescent problems: early identification and intervention, individualized attention, and:

A. mandatory psychotherapy, either individual or family.
B. concurrent programs for parents and/or guardians.
C. community-wide, multiagency, collaborative programs.
D. the appointment of a case manager who will coordinate all of the needed services.

C. community-wide, multiagency, collaborative programs.
The behavioral problems that most likely cause adolescents to be referred to a clinic for mental health treatment are:

A. feelings of sadness or depression.
B. feelings of anxiety.
C. eating disorders.
D. self-injurious behaviors.

A. feelings of sadness or depression.
Dr. Vengrove believes that the cause of his adolescent client’s depression is a lack of serotonin in her brain; he prescribes an anti-depressant drug to treat her depression. Dr. Vengrove is using the _____ approach to adolescent problems.

A. psychological
B. social
C. biological
D. holistic

C. biological
Which of the following is a protective factor against developing a cigarette smoking habit?

A. participation in interscholastic sports
B. having mothers who smoke
C. beginning smoking at age 12
D. none of these

A. participation in interscholastic sports
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