African American Civil Rights Movement

CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT OF 1964

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The Civil Rights movement results from the African American Civil Rights movement completely transformed the lives of African

Americans and helped to integrate public schools, places and help them get their natural rights back - African American Civil Rights Movement introduction. From the earliest of time, white people enslaved and frowned upon African Americans. In the
southern states, African Americans were not allowed to even associate with whites. This is what we call segregation. African Americans were not allowed to use public restrooms, schools, nursing homes, water fountains, busses, trains, parks and beaches, movie theaters, concert halls, and restraunts that whites used.

Many places would post signs that would say that African Americans were not allowed to come in or use whatever they were trying to use. . Of course, African Americans were so frowned upon by white people that they were called worse names and never referred to “African Americans” instead, “Negroes or Niggers”. Since the discrimination of African Americans was so bad, it was hard for any of them to get a job, go to school, or to have any citizenship whatsoever. The southern states were by far the worst for African Americans, in other states beside the southern, African Americans had legal rights. Even

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though there was still discrimination and some segregation issues, they did have legal rights. (Patterson)

In 1941, a man named Philip Randolph threatened to create an allblack march on Washington unless President Franklin D. Roosevelt acted to end racial discrimination in employment and segregation of the armed forces. The response was not exactly what Randolph wanted, Roosevelt agreed to a Fair Employment Practices

Committee to investigate employee practices. Randolph was not the only person to press for civil rights, as the war progressed, more and more people pushed for civil rights.

By 1950, the NAACP’s Legal Defense and Educational Fund, led by Thurgood Marshall, decided to battle racial segregation through the courts. The Fund’s efforts led to the landmark 1954 ruling in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka. Marshall exclaimed after the decision, “I was so happy I was numb.” The Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka was a case that evolved around a blind African American third grader named, Linda Brown. She had to walk a mile and a half through a railroad switchyard just to get to her elementary when there was a white elementary school seven blocks away. Linda’s dad, Oliver Brown, applied for her to attend the white elementary school

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but got rejected. Brown went to McKinley Burnett, the head of Topeka’s branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and asked for help. The NAACP was eager to assist the Browns, as it had long wanted to challenge segregation in public schools. The NAACP argued that segregation in school portrayed that African Americans were inferior to whites and unequal. Although that was true, the Board of Educations defense was that segregation in the schools just prepared the kids for the segregation they will face in adult hood. They came to the conclusion that white schools and African American schools were separate but equal, which enforced the Jim Crow laws. (Cozzens, 1998)

Jim Crow laws were a set of laws that legalized segregation. The Jim Crow laws were followed from the “black codes” which were laws that initially restricted civil rights and civil right liberties of African Americans. The Jim Crow laws were overruled by the civil rights act of 1964.(“Jim crow laws,” 2013)

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited discrimination of race, color, sex or religion. The House Judiciary Committee approved the
legislation on October 26, 1963, and formally reported it to the full House on November 20, 1963, just two days before President

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Kennedy was assassinated. On November 27, 1963, President
Lyndon Johnson asserted his commitment to President Kennedy’s legislative agenda, particularly civil rights legislation. The House of Representatives passed a final version of the Civil Rights Act on February 10, 1964.(“The civil rights,” )

The African American civil rights movement changed the lives of people everywhere and not just African American lives. Whites at this point had to
learn how to accept African Americans. Even though, African Americans were still not treated perfect, the discrimination and segregation was gone. Today in society you do not really hear of much discrimination because there are as many successful African Americans than whites.

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Resources
1.Cozzens, L. (1998, June 28). Brown v. board of education. Retrieved from http://www.watson.org/~lisa/blackhistory/earlycivilrights/brown.html

2..Jim crow laws. (2013, August 30). Retrieved from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jim_Crow_laws

3.Patterson, J. T. (n.d.). The civil rights movement: Major events

and legacies. Retrieved from
http://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/civil-rightsmovement/essays/civil-rights-movement-major-events-andlegacies 4. The civil rights act of 1964. (n.d.). Retrieved from

http://www.judiciary.senate.gov/about/history/CivilRightsAct.cfm

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Monday, November 4, 2013 8:54:59 AM Central Standard Time

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CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT OF 1964

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