???. 1 ?? 185 Chapter 1 American Intonation The American Speech MusicCD 1 Track 4 What to Do with Your Mouth to Sound American One of the main differences between the way an American talks and the way the rest of the world talks is that we don’t really move our lips. (So, when an American says, “Read my lips! ” what does he really mean? ) We create most of our sounds in the throat, using our tongue very actively. If you hold your fingers over your lips or clench your jaws when you practice speaking American English, you will find yourself much closer to native-sounding speech than if you try to pronounce every … single … ound … very … carefully.
If you can relate American English to music, remember that the indigenous music is jazz. Listen to their speech music, and you will hear that Americans have a melodic, jazzy way of producing sounds. Imagine the sound of a cello when you say, Beddy bada bida beader budder (Betty bought a bit of better butter) and you’ll be close to the native way of saying it.
Because most Americans came from somewhere else, American English reflects the accent contributions of many lands. The speech music has become much more exaggerated than British English, developing a strong and distinctive intonation.
If you use this intonation, not only will you be easier to understand, but you will sound much more confident, dynamic, and persuasive. Intonation, or speech music, is the sound that you hear when a conversation is too far away to be clearly audible but close enough for you to tell the nationality of the speakers. The American intonation dictates liaisons and pronunciation, and it indicates mood and meaning. Without intonation, your speech would be flat, mechanical, and very confusing for your listener. What is the American intonation pattern? How is it different from other languages?
Foa egzampuru, eefu you hea ah Jahpahneezu pahsohn speakingu Ingurishu, the sound would be very choppy, mechanical, and unemotional to an American. Za sem vey vis Cheuman pipples, it sounds too stiff. A mahn frohm Paree ohn zee ahzer ahnd, eez intonashon goes up at zee end ov evree sentence, and has such a strong intonation that he sounds romantic and highly emotional, but this may not be appropriate for a lecture or a business meeting in English. 1 American Intonation Do’s and Don’ts Do Not Speak Word by Word ???. 19 ?? 185 Connect Words to Form Sound Groups Use Staircase Intonation Bafoun. /////////// bi///////// ///////// ///////// zan///////// ////////// //////// ///////// the///////// ////////////////// ///////// ////////////////// Start a new staircase when you want to emphasize that information, generally a noun. + Do not speak word by word. If you speak word by word, as many people who learned “printed” English do, you’ll end up sounding mechanical and foreign. You may have noticed the same thing happens in your own language: When someone reads a speech, even a native speaker, it sounds stiff and stilted, quite different from a normal conversational tone. + Connect words to form sound groups.
This is where you’re going to start doing something completely different than what you have done in your previous English studies. This part is the most difficult for many people because it goes against everything they’ve been taught. Instead of thinking of each word as a unit, think of sound units. These sound units may or may not correspond to a word written on a page. Native speakers don’t say Bob is on the phone, but say [babizan the foun]. Sound units make a sentence flow smoothly, like peanut butter— never really ending and never really starting, just flowing along. Even chunky peanut butter is acceptable.
So long as you don’t try to put plain peanuts directly onto your bread, you’ll be OK. 2 + Use staircase intonation. Let those sound groups floating on the wavy river in the figure flow downhill and you’ll get the staircase. Staircase intonation not only gives you that American sound, it also makes you sound much more confident. Not every American uses the downward staircase. A certain segment of the population uses rising staircases—generally, teenagers on their way to a shopping mall: “Hi, my name is Tiffany. I live in La Canada. I’m on the pep squad. ” What Exactly Is Staircase Intonation?
In saying your words, imagine that they come out as if they were bounding lightly down a flight of stairs. Every so often, one jumps up to another level, and then starts down again. Americans tend to stretch out their sounds longer than you may think is natural. So to lengthen your vowel sounds, put them on two stairsteps instead of just one. We’re here. I We ///////// ‘re ///////// ///////// he ///////// ///////// ///////// re. ///////// ///////// ///////// ///////// The sound of an American speaking a foreign language is very distinctive, because we double sounds that should be single.
For example, in Japanese or Spanish, the word no is, to our ear, clipped or abbreviated. No ///////// ???. 20 ?? 185 Clipped No /////////ou ///////// ///////// Standard American When you have a word ending in an unvoiced consonant—one that you “whisper” (t, k, s, x, f, sh)—you will notice that the preceding vowel is said quite quickly, and on a single stairstep. When a word ends in a vowel or a voiced consonant—one that you “say” (b, d, g, z, v, zh, j), the preceding vowel is said more slowly, and on a double stairstep. seat //////////// Unvoiced see /////////eed ///////////////// Voiced There are two main consequences of not doubling the second category of words: Either your listener will hear the wrong word, or even worse, you will always sound upset. 3 Consider that the words curt, short, terse, abrupt, and clipped all literally mean short. When applied to a person or to language, they take on the meaning of upset or rude. For example, in the expressions “His curt reply … ,” “Her terse response… ” or “He was very short with me” all indicate a less than sunny situation. Three Ways to Make Intonation
About this time, you’re coming to the point where you may be wondering, what exactly are the mechanics of intonation? What changes when you go to the top of the staircase or when you put stress on a word? There are three ways to stress a word. + The first way is to just get louder or raise the volume. This is not a very sophisticated way of doing it, but it will definitely command attention. + The second way is to streeeeetch the word out or lengthen the word that you want to draw attention to (which sounds very insinuating). + The third way, which is the most refined, is to change pitch.
Although pausing just before changing the pitch is effective, you don’t want to do it every time, because then it becomes an obvious technique. However, it will make your audience stop and listen because they think you’re going to say something interesting. Exercise 1-1: Rubber Band Practice with Nonsense SyllablesCD 1 Track 5 Take a rubber band and hold it with your two thumbs. Every time you want to stress a word by changing pitch, pull on the rubber band. Stretch it out gently, don’ t jerk it sharply. Make a looping ° ° figure with it and do the same with your voice.
Use the rubber band and stretch it out every time you change pitch. Read first across, then down. Read each column down, keeping the same intonation pattern. ABCD ???. 21 ?? 185 |1. |duh duh duh |1. |duh duh duh |1. |duh duh duh |1. |duh duh duh | |2. |ABC |2. |imprecise |2. |condition |2. |alphabet | |3. |123 |3. |a hot dog |3. |a hot dog |3. |hot dog stand | |4. |Dogs eat bones. |4. |They eat bones. |4. |They eat them. 4. |Give me one. | 4 Staircase IntonationCD 1 Track 6 So what is intonation in American English? What do Americans do? We go up and down staircases. We start high and end low. We ///////// go ///////// ///////// up ///////// and ///////// ///////// down ///////// ///////// ///////// stair ///////// cases. ///////// ///////// ///////// ///////// Every time we want to stress a word or an idea, we just start a new staircase. That sounds simple enough, but when and where do you start a new staircase? Statement Intonation with Nouns Intonation or pitch change is primarily used to introduce new information.
This means that when you are making a statement for the first time, you will stress the nouns. Practice the noun stress pattern after me, using pitch change. Add your own examples. + Pause the CD. V Practice the patterns five more times on your own, using your rubber band. 5 Statement Intonation with PronounsCD 1 Track 8 When you replace the nouns with pronouns (i. e. , old information), stress the verb. eat They///////// them ///////// ///////// ///////// ???. 22 ?? 185 As we have seen, nouns are new information; pronouns are old information. In nutshell, these are the two basic intonation patterns: Dogsbones. eat Theythem. Exercise 1-3; Noun and Pronoun IntonationCD 1 Track 9 In the first column, stress the nouns. In the second column, stress the verb. Fill in your own examples at the bottom. 1. Bob sees Betty. 1. He sees her. 2. Betty knows Bob. 2. She knows him. 3. Ann and Ed call the kids. 3. They call them. 4. Jan sells some apples. 4. She sells some. 5. Jean sells cars. 5. She sells them. 6. Bill and I fix the bikes. 6. We fix them. 7. Carl hears Bob and me. 7. He hears us. 8. Dogs eat bones. 8. They eat them. . The girls have a choice. 9. They have one. 10. The kids like the candy. 10. They like it. 11. The boys need some help. 11. They need something. 12. Ellen should call her sister. 12. She should call someone. 13. The murderer killed the plumber. 13. He killed a man. 14. The tourists went shopping. 14. They bought stuff. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 6 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Statement Versus Question Intonation CD 1 Track 10 You may have learned at some point that questions have a rising intonation. They do, but usually a question will step upward until the very end, where it takes one quick little downward step.
A question rises a little higher than a statement with the same intonation pattern. “Here is my car. ” Hereca ///////// is/////ar. ///////// /////my////////// ///////// //////////////////// “Where is my car? ” ca ///// ar? Where///// ///// /////////// is///// ///// /////////// //// my///// ///// /////////// //// /////////// ///// Emotional or Rhetorical Question Intonation ???. 23 ?? 185 If you know that your car is parked outside, however, and someone doesn’t see it and asks you where it is, you might think that it has been stolen and your emotion will show in your intonation as you repeat the question.
As your feelings rise in an emotional situation, your intonation rises up along with them. “Where is my car? ” ar? | |ca |///// | |Where | | |///// |///// | |///////// |is | |///// |///// | |///////// |//// |my |///// |///// | |///////// |//// |///////// |///// |///// | |///////// |//// |///////// |///// |///// | “Why? Is it gone? ” an? ga///////// Why? ///////// ///////// ///////// Is///////// ///////// ///////// ///////// it///////// ///////// ///////// ///////// //////////// /////////
Exercise 1-4: Sentence Intonation TestCD 1 Track 11 Pause the CD and underline or highlight the words that you think should be stressed. Check Answer Key, beginning on page 193. 7 Exercise 1-5: Four Main Reasons for IntonationCD 1 Track 12 Depending on the situation, a word may be stressed for any of the following reasons: New InformationOpinionContrast”Can’t” 1. New Information It sounds like rain. Rain is the new information. It’s the most important word in that sentence and you could replace everything else with duh-duh-duh. Duh-duh-duh rain will still let you get your point across. V Repeat: Duh-duh-duh rain I It sounds like rain.
V Make rain very musical and put it on two notes: ray-ayn. Duh-duh-duh ray-ayn / It sounds like ray-ayn. 2. Opinion It sounds like rain, but I don’t think it is. ???. 24 ?? 185 In this case, intonation makes the meaning the opposite of what the words say: It looks like a diamond, but I think it’s a zircon. It smells like Chanel, but at that price, it’s a knock-off. It feels like… It tastes like… These examples all give the impression that you mean the opposite of what your senses tell you. V Practice the intonation difference between new information and opinion: It sounds like rain. (It’s rain. It sounds like rain, (but it’s not. ) 3. Contrast He likes rain, but he hates snow. Like and hate are contrasted and are the stronger words in the sentence. 4. Can’t It can’t rain when there’re no clouds. Contractions (shouldn’t, wouldn’t) and negatives (no, not, never) are important words since they totally negate the meaning of a sentence, but they are not usually stressed. Can’t is the exception. 8 Exercise 1-6: Pitch and Meaning ChangeCD 1 Track 13 Practice saying the four sentences after me. Pay close attention to the changes in pitch that you must make to convey the different meanings intended.
The words to be stressed are indicated in bold face. 1. It sounds like rain. 2. It sounds like rain. 3. He likes rain, but he hates snow. 4. It can’t rain on my parade! He can’t do it. (See also Ex. 1-43 for negatives. ) Exercise 1-7: Individual PracticeCD 1 Track 14 Practice saying the sentences after the suggestion and the beep tone +. You will be given only a short time in which to reply so that you won’t have the leisure to overthink. Start speaking as soon as you hear the tone because I’ll be saying the sentence only a few seconds later. 1. Convey the information that it really does sound as if rain is falling. 2. Convey the opinion that although it has the sound of rain, it may be something else. + 3. Convey the different feelings that someone has about rain and snow. + 4. Convey the fact that rain is an impossibility right now. + + Pause the CD. V Practice the four sentences on your own ten times. + Once you’re familiar with moving the stress around and feeling how the meaning changes, turn the CD on to continue with the next exercise. Exercise 1-8: Meaning of “Pretty”CD 1 Track 15 Native speakers make a clear distinction between pretty easily (easily) and pretty easily (a little difficult).
Repeat the answers after me paying close attention to your stress. Question: How did you like the movie? Answer: 1. It was pretty good. (She liked it. ) 2. It was pretty good. (She didn’t like it much. ) 9 Exercise 1-9: InflectionCD 1 Track 16 Notice how the meaning changes, while the actual words stay the same. 1. I didn’t say he stole the money. Someone else said it. 2. I didn’t say he stole the money. That’s not true at all. 3. I didn’t say he stole the money. I only suggested the possibility. 4. I didn’t say he stole the money. I think someone else took it. 5. I didn’t say he stole the money.
Maybe he just borrowed it. 6. I didn’t say he stole the money, but rather some other money. ???. 25 ?? 185 7. I didn’t say he stole the money. He may have taken some jewelry. II didn’t say he stole the money. Someone else said it. It’s true that somebody said it, but I wasn’t that person. Didn’tI didn’t say he stole the money. That’s not true at all. Someone has accused me and I’m protesting my innocence. SayI didn’t say he stole the money. I only suggested the possibility. Maybe I hinted it. Maybe I wrote it. In some way, I indicated that he stole the money, but I didn’t say it. HeI didn’t say he stole the money.
I think someone else took it. I think someone stole the money, only not the person you suspect did it. StoleI didn’t say he stole the money. Maybe he just borrowed it. I agree that he took it, but I think his motive was different. TheI didn’t say he stole the money, but rather some other money. We agree that he stole some money, but I don’t think it’s this money. MoneyI didn’t say he stole the money. He may have taken some jewelry. We agree that he’s a thief, but we think he stole different things. Notice that in the first half of these sentences nothing changes but the intonation. V Repeat after me. 10
Exercise 1-10; Individual PracticeCD 1 Track 17 Now, let’s see what you can do with the same sentence, just by changing the stress around to different words. I’ll tell you which meaning to express. When you hear the tone +, say the sentence as quickly as you can, then I’ll say the sentence for you. To test your ear, I’m going to repeat the sentences in random order. Try to determine which word I’m stressing. The answers are given in parentheses, but don’t look unless you really have to. Here we go. 1. Indicate that he borrowed the money and didn’t steal it. (5) + 2. Indicate that you are denying having said that he stole it. 2) + 3. Indicate that you think he stole something besides money. (7) + 4. Indicate that you were not the person to say it. (1) + 5. Indicate that you don’t think that he was the person who stole it. (4) + 6. Indicate that you didn’t say it outright, but did suggest it in some way. (3) + 7. Indicate that he many have stolen a different amount of money. (6) + Overdo It Practice these sentences on your own, really exaggerating the word that you think should be stressed. In the beginning, you’re going to feel that this is ridiculous. (Nobody stresses this hard! Nobody talks like this!
People are going to laugh at me! ) Yet as much as you may stress, you’re probably only going to be stressing about half as much as you should. + Pause the CD and practice the sentences in random order ten times. Another reason you must overexaggerate is because when you get tired, emotional, or relaxed, you will stop paying attention. When this happens, like a rubber band, you’re going to snap back to the way you originally were sounding (10 percent). So, if you just stretch yourself to the exact position where you ideally want to be, you’ll go back almost completely to the old way when you ???. 6 ?? 185 relax. For practice, then, stretch yourself far beyond the normal range of intonation (150 percent), so when you relax, you relax back to a standard American sound (100 percent). We All Do It Possibly about this time you’re thinking, Well, maybe you do this in English, but in my language, I just really don’t think that we do this. I’d like you to try a little exercise. Exercise 1-11: TranslationCD 1 Track 18 Take the sentence I didn’t say he stole the money and translate it into your native language. Write it down below, using whatever letters or characters you use in your language.
Now that you have written your sentence down, try shifting the stress around in your own language by going through the stress patterns 1-7 in Exercise 1-9. Don’t try to put on a 11 particularly American or other accent; just concentrate on stressing a different word in the sentence each time you say it. For example, if your language is German, Ich habe nicht gesagt da? er das Geld gestohlen hat, you would change the stress to: Ich habe nicht gesagt da? er das Geld gestohlen hat, or Ich habe nicht gesagt da? er das Geld gestohlen hat.
If you translated it into French, you would say, Je n’ai pas dit qu’il a vole l’argent, or Je n’ pas dit qu’il a vole l’argent. In Japanese, many people think that there are no intonation changes, but if you hear someone say, wakkanai, you’ll realize that it has similarities to every other language. Watashi wa kare ga okane o nusunda to wa iimasen deshita. Or perhaps, Watashi wa kare ga okane o nusunda to wa umasen deshita. No matter how strange it may sound to you, stress each different word several times in your language. You may notice that with some words it sounds perfectly normal, but with other words it sounds very strange.
Or you may find that in your language, rather than stressing a word, you prefer to change the word order or substitute another word. Whatever you do is fine, as long as you realize where your language patterns are similar to and different from the American English intonation patterns. Then, when you do it again, in English, it will be much easier. Note An excellent exercise is to practice speaking your native language with an American accent. If you can sound like an American speaking your native language, imagine how easy it would be to speak English with an American accent.
X Pause the CD and practice shifting the stressed words in your native language. Intonation Contrast Below are two sentences—the first is stressed on the most common, everyday word, book. Nine times out of ten, people will stress the sentence in this way. The second sentence has a less common, but perfectly acceptable intonation, since we are making a distinction between two possible locations. Normal intonationWhere’s the book? It’s on the table. Changed intonationIs the book on the table or under it? It’s on the table. X Pause the CD and repeat the sentences. Exercise 1-12: Create Your Own Intonation ContrastCD 1 Track 19 Write a hort sentence and indicate where you think the most normal intonation would be placed. Then, change the meaning of the sentence slightly and change the intonation accordingly. Normal intonation Changed intonation 12 ???. 27 ?? 185 Exercise 1-13: Variable StressCD 1 Track 20 Notice how the meaning of the following sentence changes each time we change the stress pattern. You should be starting to feel in control of your sentences now. 1. What would you like ? This is the most common version of the sentence, and it is just a simple request for information. 2. What would you like?
This is to single out an individual from a group. 3. What would you like? You’ve been discussing the kinds of things he might like and you want to determine his specific desires: “Now that you mention it, what would you like? ” or He has rejected several things and a little exasperated, you ask, “If you don’t want any of these, what would you like? ” 4. What would you like? You didn’t hear and you would like the speaker to repeat herself. or You can’t believe what you heard: “I’d like strawberry jam on my asparagus. ” — “What would you like ? ” + Turn off the CD and repeat the four sentences.
Exercise 1 -14: Make a Variable Stress SentenceCD 1 Track 21 Now you decide which words should be emphasized. Write a normal, everyday sentence with at least seven words and put it through as many changes as possible. Try to make a pitch change for each word in the sentence and think about how it changes the meaning of the entire sentence. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 13 Application of IntonationCD 1 Track 22 There is always at least one stressed word in a sentence and frequently you can have quite a few if you are introducing a lot of new information or if you want to contrast several things. Look at the paragraph in Exercise 1-15.
Take a pencil and mark every word that you think should be stressed or sound stronger than the words around it. I’d like you to make just an accent mark (‘) to indicate a word you think should sound stronger than others around it. Reminder The three ways to change your voice for intonation are: (1) Volume (speak louder), (2) Length (stretch out a word), and (3) Pitch (change your tone). * Pause the CD and work on the paragraph below. Exercise 1 -15: Application of StressCD 1 Track 23 Mark every word or syllable with ‘ where you think that the sound is stressed. Use the first sentence as your example. Check Answer Key, beginning on page 193.
Pause the CD. ???. 28 ?? 185 Hello, my’ name is . I’m taking American Accent Training. There’s a lot to learn, but I hope to make it as enjoyable as possible. I should pick up on the American intonation pattern pretty easily, although the only way to get it is to practice all of the time. I use the up and down, or peaks and valleys, intonation more than I used to. I’ve been paying attention to pitch, too. It’s like walking down a staircase. I’ve been talking to a lot of Americans lately, and they tell me that I’m easier to understand. Anyway, I could go on and on, but the important thing is to listen well and sound good.
Well, what do you think? Do I? V Listen and re-mark the stressed words with your marker. After you’ve put in the accent marks where you think they belong, take one of the colored translucent markers and as I read very slowly, mark the words that I stress. I am going to exaggerate the words far more than you’d normally hear in a normal reading of the paragraph. You can mark either the whole word or just the strong syllable, whichever you prefer, so that you have a bright spot of color for where the stress should fall. Note If you do the exercise only in pencil, your eye and mind will tend to skip over the accent marks.
The spots of color, however, will register as “different” and thereby encourage your pitch change. This may strike you as unusual, but trust me, it works. * Pause the CD and practice reading the paragraph out loud three times on your own. 14 How You Talk Indicates to People How You AreCD 1 Track 24 Beware of “Revealing” a Personality that You Don’t Have! There is no absolute right or wrong in regard to intonation because a case can be made for stressing just about any word or syllable, but you actually reveal a lot about yourself by the elements you choose to emphasize.
For example, if you say, Hello, this intonation would indicate doubt. This is why you say, Hello ? when answering the telephone because you don’t know who is on the other end. Or when you go into a house and you don’t know who’s there because you don’t see anyone. But if you’re giving a speech or making a presentation and you stand up in front of a crowd and say, Hello, the people would probably laugh because it sounds so uncertain. This is where you’d confidently want to say Hello, my name is So-and-so. A second example is, my name is—as opposed to my name is.
If you stress name, it sounds as if you are going to continue with more personal information: My name is So-and-so, my address is such- and-such, my blood type is O. Since it may not be your intention to give all that information, stay with the standard—Hello, my name is So-and-so. If you stress / every time, it will seem that you have a very high opinion of yourself. Try it: I’m taking American Accent Training. I’ve been paying attention to pitch, too. I think I’m quite wonderful. An earnest, hard-working person might mphasize words this way: I’m taking American Accent Training (Can I learn this stuff? ). I hope to make it as enjoyable as possible (I’ll force myself to enjoy it if I have to). Although the only way to get it is to practice all the time (24 hours a day). A Doubting Thomas would show up with: I should pick up on (but I might not) the American intonation pattern pretty easily, (but it looks pretty hard, too). I’ve been talking to a lot of Americans lately, and they tell me that I’m easier to understand (but I think they’re just being polite). Exercise 1-16: Paragraph Intonation PracticeCD 1 Track 25
V From your color-marked copy, read each sentence of the paragraph in Exercise 1-15 after me. Use your rubber band, give a clear pitch change to the highlighted words, and think about the meaning that the pitch is conveying. ? Back up the CD and practice this paragraph three times. ? Pause the CD and practice three times on your own. ???. 29 ?? 185 15 Exercise 1-17: Staircase Intonation PracticeCD 1 Track 26 Draw one step of the staircase for each word of the paragraph. Start a new staircase for every stressed word. There usually is more than one staircase in a sentence.
New sentences don’t have to start new staircases; they can continue from the previous sentence until you come to a stressed word. I’ll read the beginning sentences. Check the first sentence against the example. Then put the words of the second sentence on a staircase, based on the way I read it. Remember, I’m exaggerating to make a point. V Write out the rest of the staircases. ? Turn the CD back on to check your staircases with the way I read the paragraph. ? Pause the CD again to check your staircases in the Answer Key, beginning on page 193. Back up the CD, and listen and repeat my reading of the paragraph while following the staircases in the Answer Key. 16 Exercise 1-18: Reading with Staircase IntonationCD 1 Track 27 Read the following with clear intonation where marked. Hello, my name is . I’m taking American Accent Training. There’s a lot to learn, but I hope to make it as enjoyable as possible. I should pick up on the American intonation pattern pretty easily, although the only way to get it is to practice all of the time. I use the up and down, or peaks and valleys, intonation more than I used to. I’ve been paying attention to pitch, too.
It’s like walking down a staircase. I’ve been talking to a lot of Americans lately, and they tell me that I’m easier to understand. Anyway, I could go on and on, but the important thing is to listen well and sound good. Well, what do you think? Do I? Exercise 1-19: Spelling and NumbersCD 1 Track 28 Just as there is stress in words or phrases, there is intonation in spelling and numbers. Americans seem to spell things out much more than other people. In any bureaucratic situation, you’ll be asked to spell names and give all kinds of numbers—your phone number, your birth date, and so on.
There is a distinct stress and rhythm pattern to both spelling and numbers—usually in groups of three or four letters or numbers, with the stress falling on the last member of the group. Acronyms (phrases ???. 30 ?? 185 that are represented by the first letter of each word) and initials are usually stressed on the last letter. Just listen to the words as I say them, then repeat the spelling after me. AcronymPronunciation IBMEye Bee Em MITEm Eye Tee Ph. D. Pee Aitch Dee MBAEm Bee ? i LAEh Lay IQEye Kyu RSVPAre Ess Vee Pee TVTee Vee USAYou Ess ? i ASAP? Ess ? i Pee CIASee Eye ? i FBIEff Bee Eye USMCYou Ess Em See CODSee Oh Dee SOSEss Oh Ess X,Y, ZEx, Why, Zee SpellingPronunciation BoxBee Oh Ex CookSee Oh Oh Kay WilsonDubba You Eye El, Ess Oh En NumbersPronunciation Area Code213 Zip Code94708 Date9/6/62 Phone Number555-9132 17 Exercise 1-20; Sound/Meaning Shifts CD 1 Track 29 Intonation is powerful. It can change meaning and pronunciation. Here you will get the chance to play with the sounds. Remember, in the beginning, the meaning isn’t that important—just work on getting control of your pitch changes.
Use your rubber band for each stressed word. How many kids do you have? I have two. I’ve been to Europe. I have, too. Why do you work so hard? I have to. Exercise 1-21: Squeezed-Out Syllables CD 1 Track 30 Intonation can also completely get rid of certain entire syllables. Some longer words that are stressed on the first syllable squeeze weak syllables right out. Cover up the regular columns and read the words between the brackets. actually[? k•chully]every[? vree] ???. 31 ?? 185 |average aspirin |[? vr’j] [? sprin] [braklee] |family finally general |[f? lee] [fyn•lee] [j? nr’l] | |broccoli | | | | |business |[bizness] |groceries |[grossreez] | |camera |[k? mruh] |interest |[intr’st] | |chocolate |[chakl’t] |jewelry |[joolree] | |comfortable |[k’mf•t’bl] |mathematics |[m? thm? ix] | |corporal |[corpr’l] |memory |[m? mree] | |desperate |[d? spr’t] |orange |[ornj] | |diamond |[daim’nd] |probably |[prablee] | |diaper |[daiper] |restaurant |[r? strant] | |different |[diffr’nt] |separate |[s? r’t] | |emerald |[? mr’ld] [vej•t’bl] |several |[s? vr’l] [libr’l] | |vegetable | |liberal | | |beverage |[bev•r’j] |conference |[canfrns] | |bakery |[ba•kree] |coverage |[c’vr’j] | |catholic |[c? h•l’k] |history |[hisstree] | |nursery |[nrsree] |accidentally |[? k•s? •dent•lee] | |onion |[? ny’n] |basically |[ba•s? •klee] | Note The ~cally ending is always pronounced ~klee. 18 Syllable Stress CD 1 Track 31 Syllable Count Intonation Patterns In spoken English, if you stress the wrong syllable, you can totally lose the meaning of a word: “MA-sheen” is hardly recognizable as “ma-SHEEN” or machine.
At this point, we won’t be concerned with why we are stressing a particular syllable— that understanding will come later. Exercise 1-22: Syllable PatternsCD 1 Track 32 In order to practice accurate pitch change, repeat the following column. Each syllable will count as one musical note. Remember that words that end in a vowel or a voiced consonant will be longer than ones ending in an unvoiced consonant. 1 Syllable Pattern 1a ???. 32 ?? 185 Pattern 1b 2 Syllables Pattern 2a Pattern 2b 19 a hot dog is an overheated canine a hot dog is a frankfurter Exercise 1-22: Syllable Patterns continuedCD 1 Track 32 Syllables ABC Pattern 3ala-la-laWorms eat dirt. Joe has three. Bob’s hot dogInchworms inch. Bob has eight. Bob won’t know. Pets need care. Al jumped up. Sam’s the boss. Ed’s too late. Glen sat down. Susie’s nice. Paul threw up. Tom made lunch. Bill went home. Wool can itch. Kids should play. ???. 33 ?? 185 Cats don’t care. Birds sing songs. Mom said, “No! ” Stocks can fall. Spot has fleas. Mars is red. School is fun. Nick’s a punk. Ned sells cars. Pattern 3bla-la-laMake a cake. IBM a hot dogHe forgot. a good time I don’t know. Take a bath. Use your head! He’s the boss.
We’re too late. How are you? We cleaned up. I love you. We came home. in the bagover hereon the bus for a whileWhat a jerk! engineer I went home. How’s your job? She fell down. We don’t care. How’d it go? They called back. It’s in March. Who’d you meet? You goofed up. Pattern 3cla-la-lapercentage (%)Ohio a hot dogadvantagehis football I don’t know! It’s starting. They’re leaving. Jim killed it. Let’s try it. How are you? tomorrowfinancialemphatic a fruitcakeI thought so. Dale planned it. the engineon WednesdayYou took it. a wineglassin Aprilexternal potatoI love you. bargain whateverLet’s tell him. Don’t touch it. Pattern 3dla-la-laalphabetphone number hot dog standpossiblethink about I don’t know. Show me one. comfortable analyzeareawaiting for articlepunctuatepitiful dinnertimeemphasiseverything digitalsyllableorchestra analogPostIt noteignorant cell structureRolodexRubbermaid 20 Exercise 1-22; Syllable Patterns continuedCD 1 Track 32 ???. 34 ?? 185 4 Syllables ABC Pattern 4ala-la-la-laNate needs a break. Max wants to know. Spot’s a hot dog. Ed took my car. Al’s kitchen floor Jim killed a snake. Jill ate a steak.
Bill’s halfway there. Joe doesn’t know. Spain’s really far. Roses are red, Nate bought a book. Jake’s in the lake. Violets are blue, Al brought some ice. Sam’s in a bar. Candy is sweet, and so are you. Pattern 4bla-la-la-laShe asked for help. I want to know. It’s a hot dog. We took my car. the kitchen floor He killed a snake. We need a break. We watched TV. He doesn’t know. It’s really far. She’s halfway there. We came back in. I love you, too. We played all day. He bought a book. They got away. Please show me how. Pattern 4cla-la-la-laBoys ring doorbells. Phil knows mailmen.
Bob likes hot dogs. Bill ate breakfast. Joe grew eggplants. Ann eats pancakes. Guns are lethal. Humpty Dumpty Cats eat fish bones. Inchworms bug me. Hawks are vicious. Bears are fuzzy. Ragtops cost more. Homework bores them. Planets rotate. Salesmen sell things. Mike can hear you. Pattern 4dla-la-la-laan alarm clockHe said “lightbulb. ” It’s my hot dog. I don’t need one. What does ‘box’ mean? imitationRing the doorbell. Put your hands up. analyticWhat’s the matter? Where’s the mailman? We like science. introductionan assembly my to-do listmy report carddefinition
Pattern 4ela-la-la-lapotato chipWhat time is it? a hot dog standWhose turn is it? my phone number Jim killed a man. We worked on it. Let’s eat something. analysisHow tall are you? How old are you? invisibleinsanityuntouchable a platypusabilitya maniac Pattern 4fla-la-la-lasupervisorlighthouse keeper permanentlywindow cleanercough medicine demonstratedrace car driverbusiness meeting categoryJanuary (j? n-y? -wery)February (feb•y? •wery) office suppliesprogress reportbaby-sitter educatorthingamajigdictionary 21 ———————– [pic] [pic] |A | |B | |C | |D | |1. |duh duh duh |1. |la la la |1. |mee mee mee |1. |ho ho ho | |2. |duh duh duh |2. |la la la |2. |mee mee mee |2. |?????????? | | | | | | | | |????????? | | | | | | | | |??????????? | | | | | | | |??????????? | | | | | | | | |????????? | | | | | | | | |?????????? | | | | | | | | |?????????? | | | | | | | | |???????? | | | | | | | |????????? | | | | | | | | |???????? | | | | | | | | |????????? | | | | | | | | |????????? | | | | | | | | |?????????? | | | | | | | |????? ho ho ho| |3. |duh duh duh |3. |la la la |3. |mee mee mee |3. |ho ho ho | |4. |duh duh duh |4. |la la la |4. |mee mee mee |4. |ho ho ho | [pic] |Dogs | |bones | |/////////|eat |///////// | |/////////|///////// |///////// | |1. |Dogs eat bones. |11. |Jerry makes music. | |2. |Mike likes bikes. |12. |Jean sells some apples. | |3. Elsa wants a book. |13. |Carol paints the car. | |4. |Adam plays pool. |14. |Bill and I fix the bikes. | |5. |Bobby needs some money. |15. |Ann and Ed call the kids. | |6. |Susie combs her hair. |16. |The kids like the candy. | |7. |John lives in France. |17. |The girls have a choice. | |8. |Nelly teaches French. |18. |The boys need some help. | |9. |Ben writes articles. |19. | | |10. |Keys open locks. |20. | | |1. |Sam sees Bill. |11. |He sees him. | |2. |She wants one. |12. |Mary wants a car. |3. |Betty likes English. |13. |She likes it. | |4. |They play with them. |14. |They eat some. | |5. |Children play with toys. |15. |Len and Joe eat some pizza. | |6. |Bob and I call you and Bill. |16. |We call you. | |1. |You and Bill read the news. |17. |You read it. | |8. |It tells one. |18. |The news tells a story. | |9. |Bernard works in a restaurant. |19. |Mark lived in France. | |10. |He works in one. |20. |He lived there. | |Duh | | |ray | | |///// |duh | |///// |ayn. | |///// |///// |duh |///// |///// | ///// |///// |///// |///// |///// | [pic] [pic] |my tie |mai-tai |Might I? | |my keys |Mikey’s |My keys? | |inn key |in key |inky | |my tea |mighty |My D | |I have two. |I have, too. |I have to. | |A |B |C | |la! |get |stop | |cat jump box |quick choice loss |which bit beat |la-a |law |bid | |dog |goes |bead | |see |choose |car | |plan |lose |know | | | | | |la-la |Bob Smith |for you | |a dog |my car |Who knows? |a cat |some more |cassette | |destroy |red tape |ballet | |a pen |enclose |valet | |pretend |consume |to do | |your job |my choice |today | |pea soup |How’s work? tonight | |la-la |wristwatch |phone book | |hot dog |textbook |doorknob | |icy |bookshelf |notebook | |suitcase |sunshine |house key | |project |placemat |ballot | |sunset |stapler |valid | |Get one! modern |dog show | |Do it! |modem |want ad | [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic]
Cite this American Accent Training Essay
American Accent Training Essay. (2019, May 01). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/american-accent-training/