New Phase in American History

The colonists adopted customs of England, bought English goods, and also took on most of England’s ideas about politics and education. Most people believed that the colonies were outposts of the British world. How democratic was colonial America? Colonial America was not very democratic. Slavery still existed in the colonies, and the colonies were ruled by a King. Up until the American revolution, most colonists still considered themselves loyal to the King.

How did the French and Indian War sow the seeds of discontent? The French and Indian War created resentment toward the American colonies among British leaders. They were angry that the colonists had made so few financial contribution to the war, even though it was waged largely for American benefit. They were also angry that the colonists had been selling food to the French in the West Indies during the war. How did Britain’s “neglect” of the colonies gradually lead to independence? Britain had allowed the colonies in North America, by and large, a lot of freedom to govern themselves.

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The French and Indian war put Britain into staggering debt. In order to gain money, the British began to levy taxes on the colonies. The colonists objected, and this gradually led to America’s independence. Explain the methods of colonial response when rebelling against governmental control, whether British or colonial. The colonists responded in many ways against governmental control. The colonists revolted against the government, and also boycotted goods. The colonists also held meetings, most commonly in taverns straightening on how to revolt against the government.

What were the different views concerning declaring independence? There were two main views concerning declaring independence from England in the colonies. Many favored complete independence from Great Britain, although there was another group who hoped for modest reforms in the colonies’ relationship with Great Britain. “An army of principles can penetrate where an army of soldiers cannot. ” Is this a valid statement? Yes, this statement is valid. Although Britain had a larger military, the Americans came together under the idea for independence.

Although they faced a series of overwhelming challenges, the United States had advantages that weren’t apparent at first ruing the war. It was the spirit and resourcefulness of the people that led America to win the war for independence. What were the roles of women, Africans, and Indians during the American Revolution? During the American Revolution, many women stayed at home while their husbands, fathers, and brothers went off to war, although some women went off to war and performed tasks such as cooking, laundry and nursing. Some women even disguised themselves as men and fought in battle.

For some Africans in America, the war meant freedom, because it allowed slaves to take advantage f the British presence in the South. For others who did not take advantage of this, the war gave these people a strong desire for freedom. Most of the Indians in America fought with the British, although many tribes fled to Canada and eventually migrated back to the United States. Did the Articles of Confederation meet the needs of the nation? Why or why not? The Articles of Confederation met some of the nation’s needs, including a government and an institution of national authority.

It had the authority to conduct war and foreign relations and to appropriate, borrow and issue money, although it as not able to regulate trade, draft troops, or levy taxes directly on the people. What were the British and American military strategies during the Revolutionary War? There were many different military strategies used during the Revolutionary War by the Americans and the British. Americans used the aid of foreign countries such as France during the war, this greatly increased their numbers, and in the end, along with British blunders, and other factors, enabled them to win the war.

The British struck an alliance with many Indians during the war. Another British Strategy was to undermine the Revolution room within by enlisting the support of Americans living in the south. This strategy failed. Chapter 4: The Empire in Transition Essential Terms Albany Plan- A plan proposed by Benjamin Franklin in 1764 by which Parliament would set up one general government for all the colonies in America. Iroquois Confederacy- A group of the five Indian nations: Mohawk, Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, and Oneida.

French and Indian War- A war for territory fought primarily between the colonies of British America and New France, with both sides supported by military units from their parent countries of Great Britain and France. Fort Necessity- A crude stockade built by Washington and his troops outside of Fort Duquesne in 1754. Edward Bradford- A Commander in Chief of the British army in America, who was defeated in an effort to retake the forks of the Ohio River. William Pit- The English secretary of state, and later prime minister, who brought the war effort in America fully under British control.

Peace of Paris, 1763- A treaty signed in 1 763 in which France ceded a large amount of land to great Britain. Proclamation of 1763- A proclamation that forbid settlers to advance betony a line drawn in the Appalachian Mountains. King George III- A British King who ascended to the throne in 1760 at the age of 22. He suffered from mental disorders that eventually consumed him. Sugar Act of 1764- An act intended to eliminate illegal sugar trade and strengthen enforcement of the duty on sugar.

Currency Act Of 1764- An act that required colonial assemblies to Stop issuing paper money, and to retire all money in circulation. Stamp Act of 1765- An act that imposed a tax on almost all printed documents in the colonies. Pastor Boys- A band of people from western Pennsylvania who came to Philadelphia demanding relief from colonial taxes and money to elf them defend themselves from Indians. Regulator Movement- An opposition to the high taxes that local sheriffs collected in North Carolina. Stamp Act Crisis- The initialization and unification in the colonies after the Stamp Act was passed.

Virginia Resolves- A set of resolutions declaring that Americans possessed the same rights as the English, especially the right to be taxed by their own representatives. Sons of Liberty- A group of men who terrorized stamp agents and burned stamps during the stamp crisis. Mutiny (Quartering) Act of 1765- An act that required colonists to provide quarters ND supplies for British troops in America. Townsend Acts of 1767- Acts that disbanded the New York Assembly until the colonists agreed to obey the Mutiny Act, and levied new taxes on various goods imported to the colonies from England.

Colonial Boycotts- Boycotts throughout the colonies in which colonists boycotted British goods subject to the Townsend duties. Boston Massacre- An incident on March 5, 1 770, in which British Army soldiers killed five civilian men and injured six others. Samuel Adams- The most effective radical in the colonies and the leading figure in fomenting public outrage over the Boston massacre. Committee of Correspondence- Shadow governments organized by the Patriot leaders of the American Colonies during the American Revolution.

Virtual versus Actual Representation- Virtual representation is the idea that all of England was represented in Parliament, even though many areas elected no representative of their own. Actual representation is the idea that every community is entitled to its own representative. Tea Act of 1773- An act which gave the East India Company the right to export its merchandise directly to the colonies without paying any navigational taxes. Boston Tea Party- A protest by local Patriots in Boston against the British government and the monopolistic East India Company that controlled all the tea imported into the colonies.

Coercive (Intolerable) Acts- Four acts that closed the port of Boston, reduced colonial self government, permitted royal officers to be tried in other colonies or in England when accused of crimes, and provided for the quartering of troops in the colonist’s barns and empty houses. Quebec Act- An act which extended the boundaries of Quebec to include the French communities between the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, granted political rights to Roman Catholics, and and agonized the legality of the Roman Catholic Church within its enlarged province.

First Continental Congress- A convention of delegates from British North American colonies that met on September 5, 1774 in Philadelphia. Conciliatory Propositions- A proposition that the colonies would tax themselves at parliament’s demand instead of being taxed directly by parliament. Minutemen- Farmers and townspeople Of Massacre guests that would fight on a minute’s notice. Lexington and Concord- The first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War. Thomas Gage- A British general commanding the garrison during the Battles of Lexington and Concord.

Study Questions During the early 18th century, the British Parliament established a growing supremacy over the king. The Prime Minister became the nation’s real executive during this time. During this time period, administration of the colonies was decentralized, and inefficient. This policy weakened England’s hold on the colonies. England’s hold was weakened between 1700 and 1775 because of decentralized and inefficient administration of the colonies. Colonial assemblies sent agents to England to lobby for American interests, and they did nothing to encourage interference with colonial affairs.

Growth of colonial population and a common threat from the French promoted colonial unity during this period. The Albany Plan was a plan proposed by Benjamin Franklin in 1764 by which Parliament would set up one general government for all the colonies in America. It revealed that the colonies still did not have strong unity, because no one approved the Albany Plan. By 1750, the French had laid claim to the entire whole continental interior of North America. The causes of Anglo-French conflicts between 1686 and 1748 were William Ills opposition against French expansionism, and his successor,

Queen Anne, carried on the struggle against France and its ally, Spain. The results of these conflicts was a series of Anglo-French wars that continued for nearly 80 years. During these wars in America, there were battles fought between the English in French in New England, and American colonists also took part in border fighting with the Spaniards, as well as with the French and Indians in the North. Anglo-French conflicts including William Ills opposition against French expansionism caused the Great War for the Empire. It was called this because it was a war mainly fought for territory in North America.

The Great War for the Empire became a global war because France and Great Britain were fighting from their own respective colonies. Both nations possessed colonies many areas around the globe, and battles were also fought in Europe among the nations allies. Britain carried out its part in the struggle by sending a substantial number of troops to America and other places to fight in the war. Many French and British colonists fought in the war alongside soldiers from France and England in North America. Colonists also provided lodging and food for soldiers during the war. The terms of the

Treaty of Paris were that the French would cede to Great Britain most of their colonies in India and the West Indian Islands. They also transferred all territory east of the Mississippi except for to Orleans, to Great Britain. They ceded New Orleans and all territory west of the Mississippi to Spain. At the end of the Great War for the Empire, Britain was in debt, and a major reorganization of the empire, giving London increased control over the colonies was needed. When George Ill ascended the throne, he removed power from the coalition of Whig, because he did not trust them.

In their lace, he created a new coalition of his own through bribes and patronage. The post-1 763 British policy caused colonists to see disadvantages of being a part of the British empire because many colonists saw this as a direct attempt by England to raise revenue in the colonies without their consent. The Stamp Act antagonized many of the colonists because it affected all Americans, and colonists saw it as a direct attempt by England to raise revenue in the colonies without their consent. Patrick Henry led protests in Virginia over the Stamp Act.

Tidewater planters who were in alliance with the royal governor nominated Virginia politics and contributed to this action. These protests led to a set of resolutions written by Henry called the Virginia Resolves. The House of Burgesses defeated the most extreme of Henrys resolutions, but they were printed and circulated. This created the impression that Virginia was more militant than they actually were in the other colonies. In response to the American protests over the Stamp Act, England repealed it. The taxation by Townsend attempted to anticipate American attacks on future attacks because it met standards they themselves accepted.

The strategies of Lord North differed from those of his predecessors in that he aimed to divide the colonists such as his repealing of the Townsend duties (except the Tea Act) and later his proposal of the colonists to tax themselves at Parliaments demand. They were alike in that they had the same goal of keeping British control over the colonies, and to continue taxation. Samuel Adams was a leading figure in fomenting public outrage over the Boston Massacre and was the most effective radical in the colonies.

Samuel Adams believed that England had become a morass of sin and corruption, and only in America did public virtue survive. The colonists viewed the British Empire as tyrannical, corrupt and oppressive. King George Ill and his supporters viewed the English constitution as the best system ever devised to meet the empire’s needs. John Locker’s theories on government were centralized around the idea that since humans were inherently corrupt and selfish, and government was necessary to protect individuals from the evil in one another.

Although because any government was run by corruptible people, the people need safeguards against its possible abuses of power. These ideas circulated widely wrought the American colonies and were part of the foundation of America’s new government. Tavern culture was critical to the growth of revolutionary sentiment in the colonies because men often gathered in taverns to discuss politics and express their growing disenchantment with English policy. Many Americans saw the Tea Act as a threat to themselves and their institutions because it revived the problem of taxation without representation.

The law did not make a new tax on tea, but it exempted the East India Company from having to pay taxes, which could allow them to monopolize the colonial tea trade. The Coercive Acts were four acts that closed the port of Boston, reduced colonial self-government, permitted royal officers to be tried in other colonies or in England when accused of crimes, and provided for the quartering of troops in the colonist’s barns and empty houses. The Quebec Act united the colonists in Boston because many Americans saw this as a plot to subject Americans to the tyranny of the Pope. The Coercive Acts made Massachusetts a martyr to the other colonies.

The Committees of Correspondence played a part in American protests by making possible contain souse cooperation among the colonies, and declaring something close o an economic war. The five major decisions made at the First Continental Continental Congress were the rejection of a plan for colonial union under British authority, the endorsement of a statement of grievances, the approval of a series of resolutions recommending that the colonists make military preparation for the defense against Britain, they agreed to importation, incorporation, and misconception, and the agreement to meet again the next spring.

These decisions reaffirmed the colonies autonomous status within the empire, and declared something close to an economic war. The resistances that led to fighting at Lexington and Concord were the people Of Massachusetts gathering of arms, the Continental Congress approving preparations for a defensive war, and when General Thomas Gage decided to act by sending 1,000 soldiers out of Boston on the road to Lexington and Chapter 5: The American Revolution Olive Branch Petition- An attempt to avoid a full-blown war with Great Britain. The petition affirmed American loyalty to Great Britain and entreated the king to prevent further conflict.

Common Sense- An influential pamphlet written by Thomas Paine about the American Revolution. Declaration of Independence- A document signed in 1776 that declared America’s independence from Great Britain. Thomas Jefferson- Then a delegate from Virginia, Jefferson wrote most of the Declaration of Independence. Later on, he became the third president. Loyalists and Patriots- Loyalists were American colonists who stayed loyal to the British crown. Patriots were us porters of independence. Articles of Confederation- An agreement among the 13 founding states that established the United States of America as a confederation of sovereign states.

Gene. George Washington- The commander n chief of the Continental army, who later became the first president. Bunker Hill- A battle in which the Patriots suffered severe casualties and were driven from their position there. Saratoga- A battle in which the British ultimately surrendered, and a major turning point in the war. Iroquois Confederacy- A confederation of five Indian tribes. Some Of the tribes wanted to remain neutral during the war, while others wanted to contribute to the British cause. “Militia Diplomats”- American representatives who traveled to the capitals of Europe to discuss commercial treaties.

Nathaniel Greene- A Quaker and roomer blacksmith from Rhode Island who was the commander of the Southern Army. Yorktown- A battle in which Washington, Rechargeable, and Grasses set out to capture Cornwallis between land and sea, and succeeded. Treaty of Paris, 1783- A treaty that ended the American Revolutionary War between Great Britain on one side and the United States of America and its allies on the other. Judith Sergeant Murray- An early American advocate for women’s rights. Statute of Religious Liberty- Written by Thomas Jefferson in 1786, this called for the complete separation of church and state.

Ordinances f 1 784 & 1785- The Ordinance of 1 784 divided the western territory into ten self governing districts, and the Ordinance of 1785 created a system for surveying and selling the western lands. Northwest Ordinance- An ordinance that abandoned the ten districts established in 1784 and created a single Northwest territory out of the lands north of the Ohio, and specified a population of 60,000 as a minimum for statehood, guaranteed freedom of religion, the right to trial by jury to residents of the Northwest, and prohibited slavery throughout the territory.

Battle Of Fallen Timbers- The final battle Of he Northwest Indian War, a struggle between American Indian tribes and the United States for control of the Northwest Territory. Shay’s Rebellion- An armed uprising that took place in Massachusetts throughout the late sass’s. The rebellion was named after Daniel Shays, one of the rebel leaders. The two divisions within the Second Continental Congress were one group led by the Adams cousins, Richard Lee Henry and others who favored complete independence from Great Britain.

The other group led by John Dickinson and others hoped for modest reforms in the imperial relationship with Great Britain. They attempted to gain their ends by creating the Olive Branch Petition. Common Sense addressed the problem by the aim of the war by turning the anger of the Americans away from specific parliamentary measures they were resisting and toward the English constitution itself. This pamphlet helped change the American outlook on the war. The philosophical roots of the Declaration of Independence were expressed beliefs already widespread in America from declarations drafted up and down the coast.

The Declaration helped movements of liberation and reform and led to foreign aid. American advantages in the struggle were that they were fighting on their own ground, the Patriots were deeply committed to the conflict, and that the Americans had aid from abroad. George Washington was selected because he possessed more experience than anyone else available. The initial setbacks of the war were the succession of rapid defeats after the American’s decision to reject Hose’s Offer Of a royal pardon.

The Battles Of Trenton and Princeton were significant because they showed that the Americans could possibly defeat the British, even though Washington was unable to hold either Trenton or Princeton. The initial plan for the British campaign of 1 777 was to cut the United States in two. This was altered when Howe abandoned the plan, and launched an assault on Philadelphia. This led to the occupation of Philadelphia, but Burgeoned experienced one victory and then two staggering defeats. The American diplomatic goals at the start of the war were simply to go back to the way things were before 1763.

By 1 776, however, the Declaration of Independence was signed and Americans wanted independence. The problems they faced Britain’s access to the resources of an empire, their massive army, and their coherent structure of command. By enlisting the aid of the French, the Americans overcame these problems. The American victory proved that they were definitely capable of defending themselves against Britain. This win gave time for France to land and organize their troops in America. Britain responded to this huge loss by imposing new limits on its commitment to the conflict.

The British army decided to try and enlist the support of loyalists in America. The British decided to launch a campaign against the Southern colonies because they believed Loyalist sentiment was Strongest in the Southern colonies. The British Overestimated he extent of Loyalist sentiment in the South, and there were more Patriots there than they expected. The campaign in the South was composed of three years of the British moving through the South, fighting battles, and attempting to neutralize the territory through which they traveled, and gain support of the Loyalists.

The British also encouraged southern slaves to desert their owners for promises of freedom. The victory at Yorktown was significant because it was the last major battle in the Revolutionary War. The provisions of the Treaty of Paris were recognition of U. S. Independence and he delineation of boundaries that would allow for American western expansion. The treaty affected relations among the United States, France, and Spain by ceasing Spanish and French hostilities. The Loyalists were American colonists who stayed loyal to the British crown.

At least a fifth of the American population remained loyal to England during the Revolution. Some remained loyal because they stood to lose their positions in government if the British lost, some were merchants engaged in trade closely tied to the imperial system. Others remained loyal because they lived in relative isolation and the Revolution did not affect them. The American Revolution weakened the position of Native Americans in many ways. The Patriot victory increased demand western lands, forcing the Indian population to move farther west.

During the Revolutionary War there was fighting among Indians and colonists, which continued after the war. The American Revolution made women think about their rights because when their husbands, brothers, and fathers went off to war, many women were left in charge of farms and businesses. The war brought out calls for women’s rights, although the Revolution did little to hanged any legal customs. In some states, it became easier for women to obtain divorces, and in New Jersey, women obtained the right to vote, even though it was repealed in 1807.

The American Revolution disrupted traditional economic patterns, although it strengthened the economy in the long run. A republican government was so appealing to the Americans because all the power came from the people. There were several ways that the Americans proposed to avoid creating a government similar to England’s. The first was that the constitutions were to be written down, the second was hat the power of the executive must be limited, and the third was that every state forbade the governor or any other executive officer from holding a seat in the legislature.

The characteristics of the state constitutions were that the constitutions were to be written down, the power of the executive must be limited, and that that every state forbade the governor or any other executive officer from holding a seat in the legislature. They reflected the general spirit of the enlightenment because these state constitutions were written with ideas such as that political authority did not derive from the divine right of inns but from the consent of the governed. After the Revolution, slavery was abolished in New England and Pennsylvania.

In the South, every state except South Carolina and Georgia prohibited further importation Of slaves from abroad, and Virginia passed a law encouraging the freeing of slaves. The Articles of Confederation created a national government much like the one already in place. Its major features were that it had the authority to conduct war and foreign relations and to appropriate, borrow and issue money. Although it was not able to regulate trade, draft troops, or levy taxes directly n the people. There was no separate executive, the president was merely the presiding officer at the sessions of Congress.

Each state had a single vote in Congress, and at least nine states had to approve the admission of a new state. All thirteen states had to approve any amendment of the Articles. Westward movement had a negative effect on America’s diplomatic relations with Spain and Britain because Britain and Spain didn’t follow through on their terms of the treaty of 1783. The Confederation had enormous postwar debt that had accumulated at home and and abroad during the war, and few means with which to pay it, having no power to tax.

To solve this, the government called for a five-percent duty on imported goods to be levied by Congress and used to pay off the debt. Congress failed to approve the impost twice. The actions of Daniel Shays and his followers related to the economic problem of the Confederation period by demanding debt relief, production of paper money, and tax relief. The forefathers realized that tax and debt relief was necessary in order to improve the future of the united States and the creation of a new national constitution.

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