An investigation to determine the effect of an increase in molar mass Essay

An probe to find the consequence of an addition in molar mass on the enthalpy alteration of burning of fuels

Method Variables:

Independent Variable:

Molar mass ( type ) of intoxicant.

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Dependant Variable:

The following variable will be observed and measured:

* Mass of the intoxicant used.

Controlled Variable:

The undermentioned variables will necessitate to be controlled:

* Mass of H2O, the mass of H2O will be measured utilizing a measurement cylinder.

* Amount of wick on burner, the sum of wick on the burner will be measured utilizing a standard swayer and kept changeless as it affects the sum of intoxicant burnt.

* Height of beaker above fire, the beaker will be set up so that the base merely touches the fire.

* Type of beaker, the same beaker will be used and marked, as the denseness and size of the beaker affect the sum of heat energy transferred to the H2O.

* Agitation of the H2O, the H2O will necessitate to be stirred in every experiment as to forestall any anomalous consequences.

* Temperature alteration is held changeless, measured with a thermometer reading from -10oC to 110oC, with an uncertainness of ±0.5oC

Method Procedure:

1 - An investigation to determine the effect of an increase in molar mass Essay introduction. Measure 100cm3 of H2O in the measurement cylinder.

2. Pour the H2O into the 250cm3 beaker and record its temperature.

3. Choose a spirit burner.

Record the name of the fuel, and the mass of the whole burner ( including the palpebra and fuel indoors ) .

4. Clamp the beaker, and set it up so that the spirit burner will suit comfortably under it.

5. Light the 6mm wick of the spirit burner, and put it under the 250 cm3 beaker.

6. Stir the H2O gently with the thermometer, and watch the temperature.

When it has increased by 20°C, put the palpebra on the spirit burner to set the fire out.

7. Record the new mass of the whole burner ( including the palpebra and fuel indoors ) .

8. Using fresh H2O each clip, reiterate the experiment at least twice with the same fuel.

9. Repeat all for different fuels.

Consequence:

Quantitative natural informations:

Fuel Name

Experiment 1

Experiment 2

Temperature

Mass Before/g ( ±0.01 )

Mass After/g ( ±0.01 )

Mass Before/g

( ±0.01 )

Mass After/g

( ±0.01 )

Before/oC ( ±0.05 )

After/oC

( ±0.05 )

Methanol

181.48

180.00

179.79

178.22

20.00

40.00

Ethyl alcohol

215.64

214.50

214.52

213.50

20.00

40.00

Propan-1-ol

228.70

227.39

227.39

225.91

20.00

40.00

Butan-1-ol

174.63

173.96

173.96

173.34

20.00

40.00

Pentan-1-ol

172.33

171.47

171.47

170.84

20.00

40.00

Octan-1-ol

218.77

217.72

217.72

216.85

20.00

40.00

Observations during Experiment:

All reactions were exothermal as the beaker and the environing began to warm up.

Fuel Name

Observation

Methanol

It burnt with a short dim orangey xanthous fire. The base of the beaker was partially covered with carbon black. Small bubbles formed at the base of the beaker.

Ethyl alcohol

It burnt with a pale orangey xanthous fire. The base of the beaker was somewhat darkened by the formation of carbon black. Small bubbles formed at the base of the beaker.

Propan-1-ol

It burnt with a thin bright orangey xanthous fire. The base of the beaker was once more somewhat darkened by the formation of carbon black. Small bubbles formed at the base of the beaker.

Butan-1-ol

It burnt with a narrow and long xanthous orange fire. The base of the beaker was well darkened by the formation of carbon black. Small bubbles formed at the base of the beaker.

Pentan-1-ol

It burnt with a narrow and long xanthous orange fire. The base of the beaker was wholly darkened by the formation of carbon black. Small bubbles formed at the base of the beaker.

Octan-1-ol

It burnt with a narrow and long distinguishable xanthous fire. The base of the beaker was to the full obscured by the formation of carbon black. Small bubbles formed at the base of the beaker.

Analysis:

The heat that is released in the burning of an intoxicant is absorbed by the liquid. The temperature alteration of the liquid is so related to the heat of burning of the intoxicant ( heat released in a reaction ( burning in this instance ) = heat gained by the substance ) . I can work out the heat energy absorbed by the liquid utilizing the expression:

Heat Energy transferred ( Q ) = ma?™ca?™a?†T

degree Celsius = specific heating capacity of H2O ( 4.18 Jg-1K-1 )

m = mass of H2O ( in gms )

a?†T = alteration in temperature of the H2O.

And happen the heat content ( heat ) alteration of burning per fraction of a mole of the intoxicant.

For illustration:

Mass of H2O ( m ) = 100g ( ±0.5 ) , Change in Temperature ( a?†T ) = 20.00°C ( ±0.10 )

Therefore, Heat Energy Transferred ( Q ) = ma?™ca?™a?†T ( grade of uncertainness )

= 100 a?™ 4.18 a?™ 20 ( ±0.5 + ±0.10 ) = 8360 J ( ±0.6 ) = 8.36 kJ ( ±0.6 )

This is the same for every reaction as the mass of H2O remains changeless.

From here on, I can cipher the enthalpy alteration per fraction of a mole of the substance as it combusts to organize its merchandises:

a?†Hc

Alcohol + Oxygen > Carbon Dioxide + Water

Mass of Methanol used = 1.52g ( ±0.02 )

Number of moles ( N ) = M/RMM ( per centum grade of uncertainness )

= 1.52g / 32.04g ( ±2.00 % + ±0 % ) = 0.0474 mol ( ±2.00 % )

Where,

M = Mass of the Alcohol used to heat the sum of H2O

RMM = Relative Molar Mass of the Alcohol obtained from the informations book, so the per centum uncertainness is ±0 %

Enthalpy alteration of Combustion ( a?†Hc ) = Q/N ( per centum grade of uncertainness ) = 8.36 kJ / 0.0474 mol ( ±7.17 % + ±2.00 % ) = 176.22 ( ±9.17 % )

All computations are done likewise.

Fuel Name

Average Initial mass/g ( ±0.01 )

Average Final mass/g ( ±0.01 )

( M ) Mass used/g ( ±0.02 )

( a?†T ) Temp change/°C ( ±0.10 )

( Q ) Heat Energy Transferred/kJ ( ±0.12 )

( N ) Number of Moles used/mol ( ±2.00 % )

( a?†Hc ) Enthalpy alteration of Combustion ( ±9.17 % ) /kJ mol-1

Methanol

180.64

179.11

1.52

20.00

8.36

4.74 x10-2

-176.22

Ethyl alcohol

215.08

214.00

1.08

20.00

8.36

2.34 x10-2

-356.62

Propan-1-ol

228.05

226.65

1.40

20.00

8.36

2.33 x10-2

-358.82

Butan-1-ol

174.30

173.65

0.65

20.00

8.36

0.88 x10-2

-953.29

Pentan-1-ol

171.90

171.16

0.75

20.00

8.36

0.85 x10-2

-982.58

Octan-1-ol

218.25

217.29

0.96

20.00

8.36

0.74 x10-2

-1134.09

Decision:

From the tabular array it is apparent that the molar mass of an intoxicant increases the sum of heat energy it dispenses per fraction of a mole. Besides, the graph shows that there is a positive correlativity between molar mass and enthalpy alteration of burning for intoxicants. What could explicate the relation is that as the molar mass additions there is an addition in the figure of available C atoms to unite with O and release energy. Therefore, an addition in molar mass will hold an incremental consequence on the enthalpy alteration of burning.

Evaluation:

Fuel Name

Literature

a?†Hc Value ( LV )

Experimental a?†Hc Value ( EV )

Literature mistake

( EV – LV ) /LV*100

Methanol

-726.00

-176.22

75.76 %

Ethyl alcohol

-1367.30

-356.62

74.00 %

Propan-1-ol

-2021.00

-358.82

82.24 %

Butan-1-ol

-2675.60

-953.29

64.38 %

Pentan-1-ol

-3328.70

-982.58

70.48 %

Octan-1-ol

-5293.60

-1134.09

78.58 %

Table picturing the per centum mistake of the experimental value from the existent value available in the informations book

Average Literature mistake: 74.22 %

The consequences are non consistent with the literature values, all of the reactants did non wholly combust due to the deficiency of O, taking to the formation of carbon black and C monoxide, which means that the heat end product is less than it would hold been if all of the C burnt, since the computations are based on the mass of the un-burnt C, the deliberate value is less than the literature value. The beaker would non hold transferred all the heat across ; some would hold been lost in heating the beaker every bit good as the clinch and base, this would hold caused the value to be less than the existent value.

Other possible beginnings of mistake could be by little differences in the values of the fixed variables, like the mass of H2O non being precisely 100g, due to incorrect reading of the mensurating cylinder caused by a parallax ( when the graduated table is read at an angle to the oculus, as the visible radiation is refracted through the glass, the reading appears to be at a different place ) . The same mistake could hold been besides made in the reading of the thermometer, doing at that place to be incorrect temperature readings. There were some anomalousnesss when reading the graph as two values were about indistinguishable.

It could hold been due to the sum of wick on the burner as it would non hold been precisely the same ( 6mm ) on each burner as this was hard to mensurate. This would hold caused differences in the sum of intoxicant burnt. The fire was non ever merely touching the beaker, as this once more was hard to mensurate accurately, and would hold caused differences in the sum of heat given off as the temperature of the fire is different at different highs. Besides, the thermometer was non in the same topographic point at each temperature entering, as even though the H2O was stirred, there would be differences in the temperature of the H2O at different deepnesss.

Mistakes mentioned in carry oning Experiment

Possible corrections that could be made

Incomplete Combustion of reactants

Puting the fuel in an air-tight chamber and commanding the flow of air through valves as to do the right stoichiometric balance ratio of C and O.

Heat loss to the surrounding

Insulation of the beaker, foreman, clinch and base by wrapping them with polystyrene. Besides, Preventing any draft from transporting the heat energy off by puting a board to screen it.

Parallax mistake

Position of oculus at all volumetric vass must be at the same degree as the semilunar cartilage.

Transportation of heat energy to the liquid

A calorimeter made of a better heat carry oning stuff, possibly something strong and lightweight like aluminum.

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