Analysis, presentation and interpretation of data Essay
CHAPTER 4Analysis, presentation and interpretation of data The developments in the field of human resource management (HRM) are now well documented (see for example, Legge 1995; Poole 1999; Poole & Warner 1998; Schuler & Jackson 1999; Sisson & Storey 2000). Nevertheless, the debate on HRM issues continues even though its focus has changed over time. The main issue which occupied academics in the 1980’s was the evolution of HRM.
In this regard, the debate was mainly on the exploration of the salient aspects of the transformation of personnel management into HRM.
Having done so, it moved on to issues pertaining to the incorporation of industrial relations into HRM (Guest 1991); then the integration of HRM into business strategies, devolvement of HRM to line managers (Brewster et al. 1997; Budhwar & Sparrow 1997), and finally seeing HRM as a source of competitive advantage for organisations (see for example, Barney 1991; Schuler & MacMillan 1984; Wright et al. 1994).
There is an ongoing debate regarding the contribution of HRM to a firm’s performance (Guest 1997; Huselid 1995; MacDuffie 1995; Schuler & Jackson 1999).
The HR department began to really emerge during the second decade of the twentieth century with drastic changes in technology, the growth of organizations, the rise of unions, and government concern and intervention concerning working people. In line with this section’s subject, HR strategies of different organisation particularly in the Hospitality industry of Pakistan play an important role to their business strategies. Basically, this chapter of the study discusses the findings based on the collated information on the survey conducted by the researcher.
This chapter is divided into several parts, which correspond to the questionnaires designed. The first part provides a general description of the respondents. Particularly, it discusses the respondents’ age in table 1, gender in table 2, educational attainment in table 3, and number of years in the company in table 4. The second part discusses the respondents’ perception regarding the satisfaction of HR strategies on their respective hotels in accordance to business processes.
The third part of the chapter discusses the perception of the respondents regarding the problems and solutions they encountered in HRM strategies of their company. Finally, the last part of the chapter illustrates the statistical analysis of the gathered data Part 1. Demographic Profile of the RespondentsThe profile of the respondents is looked upon in terms of age, gender, educational attainment, and length of service in the company.Table 1Age of the Respondents95 Respondents Table 1 shows the age range of the respondents.
Forty-three percent (43.2%) of the respondents were 36-45 years old, showing that most of them were at the middle age. Almost thirty-three percent (32.6%) of the respondents were between 26-35 years old.
Nineteen percent (18.9%) of the respondents were between 46-55 years old. Respondents’ aged 16-25 is 2.1% of the total respondents.
Lastly, there is 3.2 percent of respondents who are 56 and above status. The apparent diversity of the maturity of the respondents reflects several implications in the study’s findings. In relation of the age bracket of the respondents, the researcher could presume that in the said percentage, there are a considerable number of respondents at the middle age bracket working at Mariot and Crown Plaza Hotel.
Table 2Gender of the Respondents95 Respondents Table 2. The number of the female respondents (42.1%) is closed to the male (57.9%) with the total of 40 for female and 55 for male.
Based on the figure, most of the respondents were male. This shows a virtually equal footing in terms of representation of gender regarding the perception of women in the effectiveness of HR strategies to the business operations of the Hotels (e.g. Marriot and Crown Plaza hotel).
The male respondents outnumber the female respondents by approximately 15.8%; this data provides a glimpse of the aggregate size of women in the workforce particularly of business environment but it does not follow always. These number of males are comprises of bell boys, bar tenders, cooks and support staff. On the other, the female staffs of these hotels are engaged in customer services area such as room cleaning, elevator assisting, luggage keeping, and others.
Table 3Educational Attainment of the Respondents95 RespondentsTable 3. Likewise, the respondents were asked for their educational attainment and the report shows 42 of them are in college and 53 are graduates, thus, this companies clearly requires at least a college level if not a degree holder. The survey indicates that most of the respondents are in college and already graduated that is engage to the study. The diversity of the population is further asserted when the respondents were asked regarding their professional history.
This data illustrate the maturity of the respondents particularly in terms of experience. On the other hand, the apparent youthfulness of the respondents, provided by their age and their lack of professional experience could not be considered as deterrence to their responses, some of the young respondents have the same responses with matured ones. Moreover, there is a noticeable distinction of the respective positions of the younger generations in their respective perceptions towards the role of HR strategies, some of the matured respondents were assigned in those areas that need better equipped workers, and most of these matured respondents have this quality and they were experienced too. Table 4Number of Years in the Company95 Respondents Table 4.
The above presentation illustrates the number of years of the surveyed individuals pertaining to the length of stay in their respective hotels. Based on the gathered information, majority of them or almost fifty-three percent (53%) of them are working in the company for almost 6-8 years as seen in the table above.On the other hand, there is also a great influence of the respondents who are serving the company for six years or more. As the illustration shows the 28% of the respondents who are in the company for zero to two years, it is also evident to say that the management of the company is responsible for the employees needs because it is always the company’s obligation to take charge of the members of the company working.
The success of HR strategies is based on the collective effort of the management, HR personnel and employees. There should be cooperation and proper coordination among these groups of people in order for the HR objectives to be met. Furthermore, in developing a model for the HR strategy, it is important that its different phases be conducted and implemented properly. Part 2.
Perceptions of the RespondentsWith regards to the results of information gathered from the surveyed questionnaire, this part of the paper illustrates the summary of these results. In order to attain quality and effective results from hospitality industry, it always very reliable to use the perception of those who are engaged in HR and hospitality business. With regards to HR strategies, perceptions of employees are vital since employees or workers are the fuel of every organization. Without them, the organization cannot function.
They perform every task necessary for the success of the organization. The owner cannot make the business grow all by himself, the workers are a great factor too.Employees are needed to ensure that different tasks are being given focus and that the business operations function with ease and mobility. Thus, employees should be treasured and be taken care of.
Employees in a hospitality business are hard to find, and sometimes it takes a considerable amount of time just to find one. This type of employees should also be valuable for their values and loyalty to the organisation.However, ironic as it may seem, these types of employees are not willing to share their skills for nothing. This is the problem that most hospitality organisations currently confront.
Strengths of employees are derived from motivational factors that they can find. Without motivation, employees would be less willing to give their best effort and would rather be a slacker as their efforts spent are not being recognised. Motivation or empowerment of employees is important to give the employees enough reason to stay in the company. Empowerment is also useful to update employees’ skills and make sure that they do not lag behind with the changes taking place.
Without empowerment, employees would feel that the company does not care about them, employees’ capabilities will be stagnant and eventually deteriorate, which would then lead to turnover.These statements have a lot of weight but they can be best explained with the help of literatures and theories of motivation and employee empowerment discussed in literature review chapter. Understanding motivation and empowerment is the best initial move to consider applying motivation and empowerment programs for the employees particularly in giving non-monetary gains in retaining employees. Through knowing, doubt can be lessened and ideas can be broadened.
Lack of motivation can be a serious problem. Based on experience, it can result in massive turnover of skilled workers. While this consequence has been observed, there is still no clear understanding why it happened. By studying the theories of motivation, reasons why employees need motivation can be explored as well as other important factors that would defend why empowerment and motivation are necessary.
Table 5Summary of Perceptions95 RespondentsQuestions54321Weighted MeanStandard DeviationInterpretation1. How satisfied are you with your workload?205318223.91580.82078Satisfied2.
How satisfied are you with your company’s performance appraisal system?292442003.86320.85813Satisfied3. How satisfied are you with recognition for performance?185423003.
94740.65831Satisfied4. How satisfied are you with your company’s compensation policies?65831003.73680.
56888Satisfied5. How satisfied are you with your pay?22649004.13680.55755Satisfied6.
How satisfied are you with your benefit package?65930003.74740.56434Satisfied7. How satisfied are you with being treated with respect and fairness?145427003.
86320.64595Satisfied8. How satisfied are you with your employment security?11768004.03160.
44846Satisfied9. How satisfied are you receive with the trainings you receive to improve your skills in my current job?116816003.94740.53332Satisfied10.
How satisfied are you with how job openings are filled in your department?97412004.03160.47159Satisfied11. How satisfied are you with how the management communicates with the employees?185819003.
98950.6273Satisfied12. How satisfied are you with the decisions made by your manager?284522004.06320.
72656Satisfied13. How satisfied are you with how your company understands its customers’ needs?265019004.07370.68792Satisfied14.
How satisfied are you with how your company maintains very high standards of quality?127013003.98950.5156Satisfied15. How satisfied are you with the resources you need to do your job well?67712003.
93680.43296Satisfied16. How satisfied are you with how your company supports a balance between work and personal life?5828003.96840.
37053Satisfied17. How satisfied are you with how people with different ideas are valued in your organization?15773004.12630.41876Satisfied18.
Taking everything into account, how satisfied are you with the company as a place to work?225221004.01050.67627Satisfied;Table 5. The above presentation describes the status of hospitality industry as perceived by the surveyed respondents.
As described by the computed mean and standard deviation, majority of these respondents are satisfied to the current HR strategies of their respective organizations. Basically, Table 5 illustrates the different HR issues immerging to the hospitality industry such as work satisfaction, salary satisfaction, trainings, motivation, working environment, communication, employee-employer relationship, recruitment, customer satisfaction and service quality.Most of the successful organizations depend greatly on good interpersonal communication and relationship between and among members of the system and the people whom they serve. In hospitality industry of Pakistan, being able to meet the demands of individuals who depend on a particular organization’s services would not be possible if the interactions among members and leaders are always in tension or in conflict.
Issues and problems brought about by cultural and ethical differences between employers and employees in an organization should be addressed and resolved for each to function for a common goal.Human resource management (HRM) is known and accepted in the broadest sense of the term, as a form of management that includes all management decisions and actions that affect the nature of the relationship between the organization and the employees – its human resources. In literature review chapter, human resource management is defined as the process of coordinating an organization’s human resources, or employees, to meet organizational goals.Believing that the most important asset of any organization is the people in order to achieve sustained success is the core philosophy of human resource management (HRM).
Realizing this leads to a strategic management of people within the organization. Its philosophy is based on the simple belief that human resources are the most important asset in achieving and sustaining the success of an organization. This realization became the driving force behind the creation of human resource management resulting in organizations taking a strategic approach to the management of their people. Human resource professionals basically deal with such areas as employee recruitment and selection, performance evaluation, compensation and benefits, professional development, safety and health, forecasting, and labour relations.
Actually, Table 5 particularly questions number 12, 13, 16, 17 and 18 described the perception regarding the organisational culture in hospitality industry provides significant effect to the study considering that the subjects are from different communities (i.e. Marriot Hotel and Crown Plaza Hotel). The previous table shows the result of the survey questionnaire of the respondents in regard to their perception.
Basically, majority of the respondents stated that they have difficulties in knowing how they should behave since they knew that the company expected them as responsible and efficient employees.;Moreover, majority of them believe that community differences in hospitality organization in Pakistan is not a problem because according to them, most hotel management staff in Pakistan is in full control with regards to employees empowerment and communication problems. Their actions and behaviours are always grounded on a certain rationale. The goals and objectives set by a person to himself or by the organization to its people serve as stages for growth and development not just for the members but also to the organization in general.
The purpose set by a person to him or herself motivates an individual to do things to feel a sense of accomplishment. Since they knew that HR strategies in hospitality industry of Pakistan expect more from them and they wanted to become successful in the organization, almost all of them are aware to the programmes of the organization for their development.;There are objectives that are identified which the system works on into achieving. The recognitions and acknowledgements of quality performance under the evaluation and assessment of leaders constitute the actualization of the individual as a performing individual and as an important part of the organization, thus providing a sense of importance.
From Table 5, there are some items related to the satisfaction of subjects pertaining to recruitment and selection in their respective company. And from their responses, majority of them or almost all of them are satisfied to the current selection and recruitment strategy of their present organisation. According to Robert H. Elliott and Siriwal Tevavichulada (1999), it is difficult to pick up any professional publication in the field of Human Resource Management (HRM) today without noticing the number of web pages available on-line for the use of personnel professionals, or without seeing advertisements by private companies touting the latest advances in software developments for a Human Resource Information System (HRIS).
;On the other hand, the previous table indicates the perceptions of the respondents pertaining to the recruitment and selection of staff in hospitality organisation is in good condition. The tables illustrated the view of the surveyed individuals to the qualification of personnel. According to the number of respondents, applying a job in hospitality industry in Pakistan is more difficult in comparison to other Pakistan Companies since the standard of most hospitality business or hotel industry is high. Apparently, these respondents were also asked about their perception on the methods of recruitment of hotels in Pakistan.
On this particular statement, the statistics shows majority of them are satisfied.;In the previous table, there are some portion of it that describes the majority of employees are increasingly demanding change, choice, flexibility, and variety in their work; suggesting that with the de-layering of organizations and empowerment of individual employees, the future for both the organization and the individual lies not in promotion to successively higher levels of management, but rather in developing the value of the individual as human capital. Actually, these results is true as verified that the value of human capital is enhanced by acquisition of higher performance potential such as new tasks, functions, and KSAPs (knowledge, skills, abilities, personal attributes).;In connection to this, all of the respondents believe that orientation training and on-the-job training is important for a newcomer.
Actually, majority of them understands the difference between these two kind of training since almost all of them expected that most training can reach their requirements. Thus, the importance of employee training has long been recognized as a crucial issue for businesses.;Actually, table 5 illustrated that majority of them are satisfied to the current training and most of them agreed about the development of employees to adopt for key positions. To the extent that employee-training programs are effective, hospitality companies are able to avoid wasteful spending and improve performance and productivity.
Thus, a key consideration for virtually all business is the expected return provided the organization for its training investment. As it has been suggested that organizations are likely to increase their reliance upon and utilization of employee training programs in years to come (Noe, 1999), the effectiveness of training interventions in organizations is likely to become even more salient in the future (Blanchard and Thacker, 1999). Training goes hand-in-hand with productivity, quality, flexibility, and automation in the best performing firms (Office of Technology Assessment, 1990).;With regards to the performance of the hospitality industry in Pakistan, performance management is an important process for influencing both the extrinsic and intrinsic motivations of employees, that is, increasing employees’ perceptions and understanding of job tasks and subsequently their job satisfaction.
For example, elements of performance management may provide the employee with a more accurate understanding of job tasks (task identity and task significance) through objective setting, leading to a clear sense of direction. Actually, majority of the surveyed respondents are satisfied about the current system of performance appraisals and most of them agreed that both team and individual appraisal schemes are important. Performance management also serves to focus employee efforts and attention on critical tasks through the use of performance feedback, which therefore assists employees in reducing job errors and minimizing the risks of learning through trial and error. In addition, where employees desire jobs that allow them to make good use of their skills and talents, performance management increases job task “fit” (skill variety) through the identification of training and development needs that are consistent with individual and organizational goals.
Part 3. Problems and SolutionsFrom the questionnaires given to the respondents, the researcher tries to determine the problems encountered by the respondents and the solutions applied or suggested solution to do in order to resolve the said problem. Basically, the researcher wish to identify the most common problems they’ve encountered with regard to the implementation of HR strategies of the company and solutions would they suggest to solve these problems they’ve mentioned. According to the majority of surveyed individuals, there are several problems arises when in comes to HR practices of their business organization.
According to the respondents, one of the major problems they encountered is the problem concerning communication and managing people. According to them, it very important to have a system in which the organisations will follow in order to have a good flow of communication. In managing people, and the human resource management, should be able to learn to think more systematically and strategically in using the organisation’s most valuable asset and the company’s great resource and that is the people. The human resource management should be able to develop a thriving organisational culture and a stronger organisation by good management of the people, providing their needs and the things that they deserve in order for them to be motivated and for them to seek more improvement and career development for their sake and for the organisation’s sake as well.
Further, it can also be concluded that in order to have a high-performing and competitive organisation, it is critical that the human resource management and the organisation as well should effectively align their people, work, structure and organisational behaviours to the purpose of the organisation and effectively reward the right performance that supports the objective of the organisation. Elements such as work processes, organisation design, career path, performance management and a compensation program are part of human resource management strategy and a plan to ensure continuing success. As part of the problems they encountered, the respondents all concur that their job description has been increasing as time goes by. According to respondents, “There have been more work demands that express concern on the stress and the level of our salaries”.
Another similarity is how they had been very optimistic about staying in their job but this had began a steady decline as time passes by. They have all expressed a dropping enthusiasm brought by the stagnant opportunities and working environment which goes to say that their management and staff had been less interested in providing them the feedback and recognition they were earlier given during the first months on their jobs. According to them, “Once, the companies had been exciting opportunities of growth and development but that has been beginning to wane”. Though their job descriptions had been increasing as time passes, they see this as more as a frustration than a challenge because they feel their environment has not been supportive or “appreciative” of them.
Workers have been complaining of having to be pressured, take overtime or irregular hours constantly but this is not properly compensated. The staff shortage and lay off had been responsible why these professionals are currently stacked with so much work to do. This may be the trigger that will encourage these workers to shift employment and find other opportunities. The keyword used above was stagnancy and if talents must be retained, the plan should be to keep them enthusiastic about their jobs.
The staff crisis had been delaying or putting to hold (or completely shelving) projects that would have maintained the invigoration and energy in staying and working in the company. One of the respondents stated, “My organization has plans to layoff its employees due to the prospect of off-shoring for cheaper labour”. Thus, to add with the overtime and overwork stress was the insecurity in the job. It is worth noting how these workers had been earlier optimistic about the companies they belong too, but now the organizations begin to fail expectations thus suggesting that hospitality organizations seem to be having a hard time keeping consistent to their earlier promises.
In addition, some of them also expressed difficulty and frustration and attempting to get a higher pay to compensate for his overtime work and he admitted to feeling disregarded by the management because he would not receive feedback. Another respondent, a father of three, has his interests focused entirely on his family. According to him, “An increase on payment and thus, an increase in working hours would rather be sacrificed in favour of a flexible time, extended leave opportunities and benefit packages”. The ideal company for this respondent is to be in a company that will consider the welfare of his family and at the same time his individual needs without having to compromise.
Another respondent, a single woman, she stated, “I wanted to be proud of what I am doing and of the organization that I belong to”. Another commonality with the respondents is how they are hard workers but they are very particular on support. This may come in the form of training and development or constant education. By prioritizing advancement and providing opportunities towards this, the employee is empowered and encouraged further to stay in the company.
These are considered sufficient rewards by most of the respondents, particularly those who are still single while those who have family to support are more concerned on a comfortable and supportive environment. However, one respondent who has a family of two would concur that Training and development would be an organizations efforts and testament that they are doing their best to work for the good of the employee. Part of the problem they encountered is their monetary strategies. While certainly agreeing that money is a factor, these workers would prioritize other factors than a higher salary.
As mentioned earlier, their priorities are more on the workplace culture, management support, Training and development (or prospects of growth) and comfort. The concerns are more on intrinsic than extrinsically based. The respondents prioritize respect and physical welfare more than a higher salary. It is important that they may function in the workplace efficiently and that they may grow within it.
Both the female and male respondents are equal in their responses but the male respondents were more concerned on comfort, growth and support while women tended for a higher benefits package and salary. The respondents responded more positively in a higher benefits package than a higher salary thus emphasizing the concern on health support. If higher salary means more demanding unrealistic work hours, they would rather not opt for it. Another respondent said that they must firstly be treated with respect by the organization.
Retention relies on the management as well as the environment should it be conducive to work and learning, rather an increase in the pay check. By being conducive to work and learning this means an avenue for these workers for training and advancement as well as presenting challenging tasks that will consequently be provided feedback and recognition so the task or assignment must be something the professional will be proud of. A salary increase is the least of the concerns of these workers if they are not in a healthy working environment physically, mentally and psychologically. Monetary strategies are deemed insufficient and even less important in the retention of workers especially as they grow in experience.
The younger respondents had considered salary and incentive as retention factors but the older ones would choose other intrinsic factors of the job. Thus it is possible that the interest on salary diminishes in time and as such, is only very temporary. The longer the working experience of the worker, the lesser the employee regards monetary rewards. Money interest stops at a certain level and other factors and aspects become more important which are most likely, intrinsic ones such as career growth, balance between work and life as well as workplace culture and support.
All in all it is very important that an organisation should make a way in adjusting their management and styles to complement the differences and similarities of the employees and the organisation as a whole that may catalyst the motivation among the employees. Hence, the role of human resource management is crucial in making the organisation achieved its goal of having a working force that contributes to the competitive advantage of the organisation. Part 4. Statistical Analysis To determine the difference between the perception of respondents from Marriot Hotel and Crown Plaza Hotel, the use of t-test must perform.
The t-test is the most commonly used method to evaluate the differences in means between two groups (Guilford, J.P. and B. Fruchter 1973).
Theoretically, the t-test can be used even if the sample sizes are very small (e.g., as small as 10; some researchers claim that even smaller n’s are possible), as long as the variables are normally distributed within each group and the variation of scores in the two groups is not reliably different (Walpole, RE, Myers, RH, Myers, SL and Ye, K 2002). Basically, the normality assumption can be evaluated by looking at the distribution of the data using histograms or by performing a normality test (Walpole, RE et al, 2002).
The equality of variances assumption can be verified with the F test, or we can use the more robust Levene’s test. If these conditions are not met, then we can evaluate the differences in means between two groups using one of the nonparametric alternatives to the t- test.When testing for a relationship between two variables, sometimes there is a 3rd variable, which we are not interested in at the moment, which influences our results.So, the null hypothesis (Ho: x and y are independent), can also be written as:Ho: mD= 0, where mD = population mean of difference scoresdf = N – 1, where N = the number of pairs of participants Then, using the standard “template” for our inference test, we have:Source: Walpole, RE et al 2002Assumptions of the TestsIn conducting t-test analysis, it is very vital to consider the following assumptions.
Ø One last note: It is important to know the assumptions we make in using the 2 sample t-test.Ø Characteristics of the Dependent Variable: It is assumed that y is interval, continuous, and normally distributed.Ø Homogeneity of Variance: We assume that the variances are equal for both groups in the population. If the sample estimates are vastly different, such as 9:1 or 3:1, then you probably have violated this assumption.
As you can see, the two sample estimates have to be very different from each other before we worry about the assumption. For this reason we say that t is robust with regard to violations of this assumption. In other words, t still works well, unless the sample variances are drastically different from each other. When homogeneity of variance is violated, it is suggested use of the following modified 2 group tdf for independent samples.
Source: Walpole, RE et al 2002 Table 6Marriot Hotel and Crown Plaza Hotel Group Statistics Table 6 display the number of cases, mean value, standard deviation, and standard error for the variables compared in the T Test procedure. Since the T Test compares the means for the two variables, it is useful to know what the mean values are. From the presentation the overall computed means for Marriot Hotel and Crown Plaza Hotel surveys are 3.9233 and 4.
0123, respectively. Table 7Marriot Hotel and Crown Plaza Hotel Independent Samples Test As previously discussed, the T Test procedure compares the means of two variables that represent the same group at different times (e.g. between responses of employees from Marriot and Crown Plaza Hotel) or related groups.
The Independent-Samples T Test procedure compares means for two groups of cases. As shown in Table 7, the mean values for the two groups are displayed in the Group Statistics table. Since the significance value for the Levene test is low (typically less than 0.05) then we may use the results that do no assume equal variances for both groups.
From the results, a low significance value for the t test (typically less than 0.05) indicates that there is a significant difference between the two group means. Thus, from the survey respondents, we may conclude that the perception of their perception towards their satisfaction to the HR strategies of their respect organization is different to each other. Meaning to say, the perception of Marriot Hotels respondents is different from the perception of the respondent in the Crown Plaza Hotel.
Please see Appendix A for the complete results of t-test analysis. SynthesisIt is said that the philosophy of human resource management is based on the simple belief that human resources are the most important asset in achieving and sustained business success. This realization became the driving force behind the creation of human resource management resulting in organizations taking a strategic approach to the management of their people.The true worth of human resource management is becoming more widely understood as human resource management steadily interweaves all aspects of people management and development within the company.
Thus, the HR has to gain knowledge of and become skilled at in the host country because the setting may be diametrically opposed to the home nation.Even on a more personal note, managers in HR have a lot to do with the employees in the company. Especially in hospitality industry of Pakistan, the manager should be aware of the local practices and traditions if there are any. The fringe benefits the company offers may have to be adjusted in relation to what the host country deems acceptable.
Considering all these responsibilities and the ramifications involved if there is no proper implementation, the position as HR manager should be handled by one who has relevant qualifications and experience.Although the knowledge may be gained and experience earned, it is necessary primarily because the tasks involved calls for managerial functions. They may not be very necessary if the need is for HR staff. As a member of the staff, there will be a lot of information to be gleaned and eventually, imbued.
However, as the position specifically requires managerial functions, so should there be expertise in the field.HRM should not be underestimated. Efficient management is no mean feat, especially in a foreign setting like in host countries where there are a myriad of differences in the social, cultural, political, economic and ethical aspects.  Taken wholly from Walpole, RE et al 2002