Anatomy Chapter 8

The two major anatomical divisions of the nervous system are the
Central Nervous System (CNS)
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
The central nervous system (CNS) consists of
The brain and spinal cord
The primary functions of the nervous system includes
Monitoring the internal and external environments.
Integrating sensory information.
Coordinating voluntary and involuntary responses of other organ systems.
The peripheral nervous system consists of two divisions, the
Efferent and Afferent
____ nerves carry impulses from the PNS to the CNS; ____ nerves carry impulses from the CNS to the PNS.

Afferent, Efferent
Voluntary control of skeletal muscles is provided by the
Somatic Nervous System
The type of neuroglia (glial cells) in the central nervous system are
Astrocytes, Oligodendrocytes, Microglia, Ependymal cells
The white matter of the CNS represents a region dominated by the presence of
Oligodendrocytes
The control of functions in the nervous system-communication and information processing- are performed by the
Neurons
Neurons are classified on the basis of their structure as
Unipolar, Bipolar, and multipolar
Neurons are classified on the basis of their function as
Motor, sensory, and association
Small phagocytic cells that are quite obvious in damaged tissue in the CNS are the
microglia
The motor neurons of the efferent division of the PNS carry
Instructions from the CNS to muscles, glands, and adipose tissue
A synaptic terminal is a part of the synapse, a site where
Intercellular communication between neuron occurs
Interneurons or association neurons
Are found only within the brain and the spinal cord (CNS)
The two types of neuroglia found in the PNS are
Schwann cells and satellite cells
At the site of an action potential, the membrane contains an
Excess of positive ions inside and an excess of negative ions outside
If the resting membrane potential is -70mV, a hyperpolarized membrane is
-80mV
In the first step in the generation of an action potential
A graded depolarization brings an area of excitable membrane to threshold
Opening of sodium channels in the membrane of a neuron results in
Depolarization
The sodium-potassium exchange pump
Required ATP energy to function
A propagated change in the membrane potential of the entire cell membrane is
An action potential
The all-or-none principle states that
Stimuli that are strong enough to bring the membrane to threshold will produce identical action potential
The most common type of synapse found in the nervous system is
Chemical
At cholinergic synapses, calcium ions entering the synaptic knobs trigger the exocytosis of the synaptic vesicles and cause the release of
Acetylcholine
The neurotransmitters that function primarily in the CNS are
Dopamine and Serotonin
Adrenergic synapses release the neurotransmitter
Norepinephrine
The processing of the same information at the same time by several neuronal pools is called
Parallel processing
In the last event to occur at a typical cholinergic synapse
the synaptic knob reabsorbs choline from the synaptic cleft and uses it to resynthesize Ach
Absorption of shock and giving physical stability to the brain and spinal cord is provided by the
Three layers of specialized meninges
Blood vessels servicing the spinal cord are found in the
Pia mater
The Pia mater is the meninx that is
Firmly bonded to neutral tissue and deep to the other meninges
The major region of the brain responsible for conscious thought processes, sensations, intellectual functions, memory, and complex motor pattern is the
Cerebrum
The region of the brain that adjusts voluntary and involuntary motor activities on the basis of sensory information and stored memories of previous movement is the
Cerebellum
The brain stem consist of the
Midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata
The largest portion of the diencephalon-the thalamus-contains
Relay and processing centers for sensory information
The hypothalamus contains centers involved with
Emotions and hormone production
The primary link between the nervous system and the endocrine is the
Pituitary gland
Major centers concerned with autonomic control of breathing, blood pressure, heart rate and digestive activities are located in the
Medulla oblongata
The cerebellum is an automatic processing center that
Adjusts the postural muscles of the body to maintain balance.
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Compares motor commands with proprioceptive information.
Programs and fine-tunes movements consciously and subconsciously.

The lateral ventricles communicate with the third ventricle in the diencephalon via the
Interventricular foramen
Cerebrospinal fluid that circulates between the different ventricles is produced at the
Choroid plexus
Progressing from the outward layer to the inward layer, the correct sequence of meningeal layers of the spinal cord is
Epidural space, dura mater, arachnoid, subarachnoid space, pia mater
When cerebrospinal fluid is drawn during a spinal tap, a needle is inserted into the
Subarachnoid space
The epidural space between the dura mater of the spinal cord and the walk to the vertebral canal contains
Loose connective tissue, blood vessels, and adipose tissue
The spinal cord serves as the major passageway for
Sensory impulses to the brain and motor impulses from the brain
In the spinal cord, cerebrospinal fluid is found within the
Central canal and subarachnoid space
The white matter of the spinal cord contains
Large numbers of myelinated and unmyelinated axons
The area of the spinal cord that surrounds the central canal and is dominated by the cell bodies of neurons and glial cells is the
Gray matter
The posterior gray horns of the spinal cord contains
Somatic and visceral sensory nuclei
The axons in the white matter of the spinal cord that carry sensory information up towards the brain are organized into
Ascending tracts
The neurons in the primary sensory cortex receive somatic information from
Touch, pressure, pain, taste, and temperature receptors
The neurons of the primary motor cortex are responsible for directing
Voluntary movements
The somatic nervous system issues somatic motor commands that
Direct the contractions of skeletal muscles
The primary motor area are located in the
Precentral gyrus area
The primary sensory areas are located in the
Postcentral gyrus area
The interpretive association area for vision is in the
Occipital lobe
The inability to interpret what is read or heard indicates that there is damage to the
Left hemisphere
The auditory cortex is located in the
Temporal lobe
Interconnecting neurons and communication between cerebral hemisphere occurs through the
Corpus Callosum
The series of elevated ridges that increase the surface area of the cerebral hemisphere and the number of neurons in the critical areas are called
Gyri
The special sensory cranial nerves include the
Olfactory, optic, and vestibulocochlear
Cranial nerves 3, 4, 6, and 11, which provide motor control, are the
Oculomotor, trochlear, abducens, and spinal accessory nerves
The cranial nerves that carry sensory information and voluntary commands are
5, 7, 9, and 10
The cranial nerve responsible for the sense of smell is the
Olfactory
The cranial nerve responsible for vision is the
Optic nerve
The pair of cranial nerves that control the pupil of the eye is the
Oculomotor
The cranial nerve involved when a person feels a sinus headache is the
Trigeminal
The number of the pair of cranial nerves involved in taste is
7
The cranial nerve that controls the diaphragm is the
Vagus
The hypoglossal cranial nerves control movement of the
Tongue
The 31 pairs of spinal nerves include
8 pr. cervical; 12 pr. thoracic; 5 pr.lumbar; 5 pr.sacral; 1 pr. coccygeal
The cervical plexus innervates the muscles of the
Neck and extends into the thoracic cavity to clean the diaphragm
Spinal nerves innervates and supply the pelvic girdle and lower limb via the
Lumbar plexus and sacreal plexus
The spinal nerve supply to the shoulder girdle and upper limb is provided by the
Brachial plexus
In a reflex arc, a stimulus initiates a nerve impulse that travels along a
Sensory neuron to the CNS, which sends an impulse via a motor neuron to the effector
The sensory neuron associated with a reflex arc transmits the impulse
Toward the CNS
The motor neuron associated with a reflex arc transmits the impulse
Away from the CNS and towards the effector
In a typical reflex arc, the correct pathway of an action potential beginning with the receptor is
Sensory neuron -> interneuron in CNS -> motor neuron -> effector
In a reflex arc, neurotransmitter activity occurs at
Synapses
The three major somatic sensory pathways include
The posterior column, spinothalamic and spinocerebellar pathways
The motor (descending) pathways include the
Corticospinal, medial, and lateral pathways
If the name of a tract begins with the prefix spine, the tract
Starts in the spinal cord and ends in the brain
Poorly localized sensations of touch, pressure, pain and temperature to the primary sensory cortex are the functions of the
Spinothalamic pathway
The spinocerebellar pathway delivers proprioceptive information concerning the
Positions of muscles, bones, and joints to the cerebellar cortex
Conscious voluntary control of skeletal muscles is provided by the
Corticospinal pathway
The pyramidal system consists of
Corticospinal pathways and corticospinal tracts
The crossing over of corticospinal axons cause the
Left side of the body to be controlled by the right cerebral hemisphere
The medial and lateral pathways provide reflexive skeletal muscle responses to
Equilibrium sensations and strong visual and auditory stimuli
The spinal cord lies within a body cavity known as the
Spinal central
The meningeal layer that must be penetrated first during a spinal tap in which a needle is penetrated to the subarachnoid space to withdraw cerebrospinal fluid, is the
Dura mater
The ______________ are two ventral arms of gray matter that contain motor functions
Anterior gray horns
In the spinal cord the _____ matter is located at the center
gray
The ___________ consists of white matter that occupies the dorsal side of the cord
Posterior white column
The thin, delicate _______ adheres to the outer surface of the brain and is continuous with the convultions
Pia mater
The upfolds in the cerebral convolutions are called _____
Gyri
The ________________ consists of white transverse fibers that connect the right and left hemispheres of the cerebrum
Corpus collosum
The largest structure of the diencephalons is the __________
Thalamus
The 3rd ventricle communicates with the lateral ventricles by way of a narrow channel known as the ______________________
Interventricular foramen
The tectum and cerebral peduncles are components of the __________
Midbrain
The ___________ contains narrow convolutions and lies ventral and posterior to the cerebrum
Cerebellum
The pyramids and numerous reflex centers characterize the ________________
Medulla oblongata
The __________ is comprised of the midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata
Brain stem
Sympathetic (preganglionic) neurons originate between
T1 and T2 o the spinal cord
Among the important functions of the postganglionic fibers that enter the thoracic cavity in autonomic nerves is
-Accelerating the heart rate
-Increasing the force of cardiac contractions
-Dilating the respiratory passageways
Preganglionic neurons in the parasympathetic division of the ANS originate in the
Brain stem and sacral segments of the spinal cord
Because second-order neurons in the parasympathetic division are all located in the same ganglion the effects of parasympathetic stimulation are
More specific and localized than those of the sympathetic division
The parasympathetic division of the ANS includes visceral motor nuclei associated w/cranial nerves
3, 7, 4, 5
At their synaptic terminals, all cholinergic preganglionic autonomic fibers release
Acetylcholine
At neuroeffector junctions, typical sympathetic postganglionic fibers release
At synapse and neuroeffector junctions, all preganglionic and postganglionic fibers in the parasympathetic division release
The functions of the parasympathetic division center on
Relaxation, food processing, and energy absorption
During a crisis, the event necessary for an individual to cope with stress and potentially dangerous situations is called
Sympathetic activation
Parasympathetic preganglionic fibers of the vagus nerve entering the thoracic cavity join the
The major structural difference between sympathetic pre- and postganglionic fibers is that
Preganglionic fibers are short and postganglionic fibers are long
The effects of parasympathetic stimulation are really
Brief in duration and restricted to specific organs and sites
Because the sympathetic division of the PNS stimulate tissue metabolism and increases alertness, it’s called the _________ division
“Fight or flight” or Sympathetic
Because the parasympathetic division of the ANS conserves energy and promotes sedentary activity, it’s known as the ____________ division
“Rest and repose” or Parasympathetic
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