Anatomy: Enzymes Essay
Enzymes are organic catalysts, usually proteins that speed up metabolic reactions - Anatomy: Enzymes Essay introduction. They lower the amount of energy needed for reactions to progress in cells. In enzymatic activity, the molecules at the beginning are called substrates. Lactose metabolism is when lactose is destroyed, maintained or produced. For instance, being lactose intolerance that’s where lactose is destroyed. Metal cofactors in enzyme activity are required to function properly. The Effect of Temperature on Enzymatic Activity:
Based on what I know about the effect of temperature on enzymatic activity, at 0 degrees Celsius I hypothesize that there will not be much enzymatic activity because 0 degrees is freezing point. At 40 degrees Celsius, I hypothesized that there will be low activity. 60 degrees is warmers, so there would be some activity there as well. And at 100 degrees Celsius, I hypothesized that the temperature would be too hot so the bonds would break, causing the protons to lose their proteins. This process it called denaturation.
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The substrate in this experiment is lactose, which is milk. The enzyme source would be lactase supplement because coming from some form of lactic acid. The regular lactase is from the body organs. The independent variable is temperature and the dependant variable is lactase. The products would be both, glucose and galactose. After comparing the effect of temperature on the production of glucose, I conclude that there was not much change between 0 degrees Celsius and 80 degrees Celsius because the level of glucose remained constant which was at a rate of 1000.
I would think that 0 degrees Celsius would have a different number of glucose production because it’s as freezing point, meaning the molecules are moving slower, causing little or no production. The glucose production of 100 degrees was the same as 80 degrees Celsius, which I thought may have been different also because as temperature rise, having more reactions. The Effect of pH on Enzymatic Activity: Based on what I know about the pH of various body organs and the effect of pH on enzymatic activity, at pH 2, the level is too low so there would be no enzymatic activity.
Based on what I know about the pH of various body organs and the effect on enzymatic activity at pH 7 would be normal since 7 is the neutral level. Based on what I know on the pH of 12 the activity would be high. At the acidic level, the pH is 2 and glucose (mg/dL) is negative, Neutral pH is 7 and the glucose 1000, and at a Basic level the pH is 12 and the glucose it 250. The substrate is lactose, the enzyme is lactase, the independent variable is pH and the dependant variable is the amount of glucose. The products are glucose and galactose.
The graph made sort of an upside down “U” with the highest being at a pH of 7 and the lowest and the lowest at the acidic level which was negative. After comparing the effect of pH on the production of glucose, I conclude that at a pH of 7, glucose is at its highest. Enzymatic Specificity: Knowing that lactase id specific for enzymes, it should bind and catalyze the reactions for its substrate. In the Lactose tube (glucose mg/dL) is 1000 and In the Maltose tube it’s 250. The substrate in the experiment is lactose and maltose. The enzyme is lactase.
The independent variable is both lactose and maltose and the dependant variable is the amount of glucose produced. The product is glucose and I concluded that lactase will bind better with lactose. Determining cofactors of Enzymes: I hypothesize that there will be more ETDA so there would not be an effect of lactase lowering the activation energy. My control-glucose (mg/dL) was 50 and the EDTA was 100. The substrate in this experiment was water. The enzyme source was milk and lactase. The independent variable was milk and the dependant variable was the EDTA.
And the product is glucose. I came to the conclusion that lactase activity isn’t dependent of a cofactor. Points for Discussion: The optimal temperature for lactase is 250. The optimal pH for lactase is neutral, it’s where more glucose was produced. At other pH values, the shape of the enzymes changes, therefore, it can’t form as well. I would create the two between the temperature range of 40 to 60 degrees and an pH of 7 because these two had more production. My substrate would be lactose because it would give an even amount of galactose and glucose.
I chose these conditions because they are the optimal conditions. Yes, lactose was specific for substrate. I know this because when tested, there was more glucose present in lactase. If lactase was not specific for lactose, and could instead bind to catalyze the hydrolysis reaction of maltose, the enzymes would catalyze both and it would not be enough enzymes to breakdown all of the lactose. Lactase activity did not depend upon the presence of a cofactor. Based on the number results, when we added EDTA we got more than we did with the control. ShaNariel Smith Enzyme Lab Report April 4, 2011