Anatomy Unit 12 Nervous System Essay
Anatomy review for the nervous system – Week 12 Study Guide 1 - Anatomy Unit 12 Nervous System Essay introduction. Distinguish the difference between neuron, neuroglial cells, Schwann cells, neurofibrils, and astrocytes. Neuron: masses of nerve cells in nervous tissue Neuroglial Cells: provide neurons physiological requirements (fill spaces, give support to neurons) Schwann Cells: larger axons of peripheral neurons enclosed in sheaths Neurofibrils: thin, long fibrils that run through body of neuron and extends to axon and dendrites; gives neuron shape and support Astrocytes: cells found between neurons; provide structural support 2.
What is the difference between dendrites and axons? Dendrites: short, branched fibers and neurons main receptive surface; carries impulses to the cell body; usually multiple dendrites per cell body Axon: slight elevation of the cell body; carries nerve impulses away from the cell body; only one per cell body 3. What color does myelin (the lipid-protein layers that form a sheath around an axon) appear? white 4. What are the 2 main parts of the nervous system? Central Nervous System & Peripheral Nervous System 5. What are 3 functions of the nervous system?
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Detect changes inside and outside of the body make decisions based on the info they receive stimulate muscle of glands to respond 6. What is the junction between 2 communicating neurons called? synapse 7. What are the simplest nerve pathways called? Reflex arc 8. Put the following in the correct sequence to identify the path a reflex arc takes: effector, sensory neuron, motor neuron, receptor, interneuron. Receptor, sensory neuron, interneuron, motor neuron, effector 9. What are the membranes called that are located between the bone and soft tissue of the nervous system? eninges 10. There are 3 layers of membranes of the nervous system. Name them in order starting with the outer layer. Dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater 11. Between what 2 layers is the CSF found? Between arachnoid and pia mater 12. In a spinal tap, between which vertebrae is the needle inserted to measure cerebrospinal fluid pressure? 3 & 4 13. The brain is divided into 3 major sections, what are they? Cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem 14. Which of the 3 deals with higher mental functions/thinking? cerebrum 15. Which one deals with visceral activities?
Brain stem (medulla oblongata) 16. Which one deals with voluntary muscular movements? cerebellum 17. What is affected by Parkinson’s and Huntington’s? Movement of the body 18. What are the 2 divisions of the peripheral nervous system? Somatic nervous system & autonomic nervous system 19. What is the outermost portion of the cerebrum called? Cerebral cortex 20. How do drugs that decrease a membrane’s permeability to sodium affect the perception of pain? How to they affect nerve impulses? When are these types of drugs typically used?
It prevents impulses from passing through the affected regions, & when it reaches the brain, it doesn’t inform it of sensations of touch and pain usually used during surgeries 21. How does caffeine stimulate the activity of the nervous system? Stimulant; increases alertness, reduces fine motor coordination 22. How do amphetamines stimulate the nervous system? They cause the release of norepinephrine 23. What is an analgesic? A person who has lost the ability to sense pain but hasn’t lost consciousness 24. Between which two layers of the meninges is cerebrospinal fluid found? Arachnoid and pia mater 5. What is the difference between quadriplegia and paraplegia? Quadriplegia: paralysis of all 4 limbs Paraplegia: paralysis of both lower limbs 26. Briefly describe each disorder: cerebral palsy, encephalitis, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis Cerebral palsy: partial paralysis and lack of muscular coordination caused by damage to the cerebrum Encephalitis: inflammation of brain and meninges producing drowsiness and apathy Epilepsy: disorder that temporarily disturbs brain impulses producing convulsive seizures Multiple Sclerosis: loss of myelin and scar-like patches throughout brain or spinal cord 27.
What test records the brain’s electrical activity? Electroencephalogram (EEG) 28. Why don’t infants’ nervous systems react as effectively to stimuli as adults’ nervous systems? Because their nerve fibers are not completely myelinated 29. List the sequence of structures through which a nerve impulse is transmitted. Stimulus, Receptor, sensory nerve fiber, CNS, relay neuron, (brain or simple reflex arc), motor neuron, effectors 30. What is a nerve? Bundles of nerve fibers; makes up the peripheral nervous system