Ancient Times

Does the Code of Hammurabi sound harsh, fair, or lenient? Penalties such as exile and mutilation were less severe than death, but was harsh justice necessary in Babylonia? Based on your reading of the code, was Hammurabi an enlightened ruler? In the actions of accusing a man for murder and not able to convict him, stealing an animal, stealing from another’s home or property, and aiding a slave to escape the punishment of death sounds too harsh. In my point of view a lie should have a less severe punishment as like stealing. Perhaps imprisonment or a few whips sound more reasonable.

Aiding a slave should have a much similar punishment, or banished from town sounds reasonable too, of course also depending on how bias you are. In some cases harsh punishment was necessary in Babylonia. Cases like murder, rape, and kidnaps did deserve harsh punishments. Hammurabi in his code was somewhat of an enlightened ruler. He did give some knowledge of what justice was and how it was used. He also created these laws and warned the people. In what way does the code of Hammurabi exhibit the influences of the urban society from which these laws were imposed?

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What are the general characteristics of ancient Near Eastern urban society? The code of Hammurabi influences the urban society in a similar way that the greater the crime the harsher the punishment. Justice is debatable of crimes. Hammurabi’s code influences us by his methods and it also helps us realize its mistakes on cruel and unusual punishments. Some general characteristics of ancient Near Eastern urban societies are that if you did something wrong you were punished and justified accordingly with the code of Hammurabi. Laws were strict and you had to follow them.

The Instruction of Ptah-Hotep Central to the instructions issued by Ptah-Hotep, a sage and advisor, was that the pharaoh was to act in accordance with ma’at. What is ma’ at and why was it so important to Ptah-hotep? Did the cultures of all ancient civilizations accept the existence of something like ma’at? Ma’at was an old practice, law, and saying. It was a concept of truth and balance for a pharaoh. It was important to ptah-hotep because is meant that it was Godlike and it meant he could become a powerful and wise king. Truthful and noble is what he can be.

In ancient times most cultures did accept something like ma’at. In Babylonia there was the code of Hammurabi. In Egypt it was mostly religion what the people respected and its gods. Since ancient times people have had a sense of what is wrong and what is right. Akhenaten, the Hebrews, and Monotheism How does the “Hymn to the Aten” express monotheism? Why would a pharaoh, already acknowledged as divine, attempt a religious revolution? Why did he fail? In the passage of “Hymn to the Aten” monotheism is expressed as one sun and God. It talks of how the sun gives life and light.

It expresses God as the sun which gives live during the day and in the sunset we die. I do not really understand why a pharaoh would attempt a religious revolution but maybe he wanted power for one man. I think he was comparing himself to the one God and he wanted to become that one God. In my opinion he failed because he lacked power and control. He lacked followers and there were many who believed in many gods in ancient times. Many people saw Akhenaten as the enemy. How does this idea of order differ from the ma’at of the Egyptians?

How does the monotheism of the Hebrews differ from that of Akhenaten? Why did polytheism emerge before monotheism? The idea of order differs from that of ma’at in the way that it is more Godlike. It is based more on nature and its creator. Ma’at deals more with the human being itself. Ma’at speaks of right, truth, and balance of human. The monotheism of Hebrews differ from that of Akhenaten in the way that they believed in a man. The Hebrews saw god as a mighty man with great powers. Akhenaten saw god as the sun. The creator of light and all nature.

Polytheism emerged before monotheism because of peoples ancient believes. They believed in the sun god, the thunder god, the water god and many more. People would see weather and nature as gods because they didn’t have much science and facts. The Mycenaeans and the Near East: The Tawagalawas Letter Why did the Hittite king Hattusilis III have such strong feelings about honor and respect? Why did he write his complaint letter to the king Ahhiyawa? King Hattusilis III had such strong feelings about honor and respect because he valued his friends and country.

He was a man of word and believed in justice. He disliked betrayal and lies. He wrote his complaint letter to king Ahhiyawa because he was lied too and betrayed by his men. This man was also a worker for his good friend which was king Ahhiyawa thus he became confused and angry. Are certain standards of behavior expected of civilized nations? Which ancient states adhered to them and which did not? What sanctions or penalties could be imposed on them by the international system? Yes, many civilized standards are expected in higher class society to show their wealth and honor to the lower classes.

Some of the states that adhered to them are Egypt, and Greece. Those that did not were Mesopotamia, and Babylonia. One of the penalties that could be imposed on these states by the international system is the cut off and halt of trade and merchandise with other countries and states. The Senjirli Stele of King Esarhaddon Can we separate Esarhaddon’s actual accomplishments from his boastful propaganda? What function did this inscription serve? Yes, we can certainly separate Esarhaddon’s accomplishments from his propaganda. He did win his battles but his propaganda is flaw.

He speaks of his mighty power and kingship like no others! He believes that he is better than everyone else and that is his boastful propaganda! The function of this inscription was to show the kings success and his believe of greater power over the rest. He wanted to show his trophies. What features of this text suggest that reputation may be well deserved? The description of power and might that they show has much to do with this deserved reputation. The description of gods and kings that are being talked of and compared to Esarhaddon contains more facts toward this reputation.

Also he speaks of how he ruled Egypt and not one man escaped from his wrath. I believed that Hammurabi’s code did echo in Assyrian law. As many men were slewed from Esarhaddon, he went back and slewed just as many and more from those enemies. “An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth” did abide for Assyrian laws. Some lasting influence that may have affected other cultures by the Assyrians were that maybe the wrath and domination of power. The pursue to be greater and get revenge. Another factor that have influenced is their battle strategies and dominance of others.

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