Annotated Bibliography - Part 18 - Literature Essay Example
McClelland, D - Annotated Bibliography introduction. (1953). The Achievement Motive. New York: Appleton-Century-
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In McClelland’s book, he explores the direct relationship between motivation and achievement. Through extensive research, McClelland was able to design a theory that explicates how man motivates himself, leading him to accomplish his personal goals and objectives. The author clearly portrays how man’s instinctive nature or drive of fulfilling achievements is the primary motivation of his behavior and actions that contribute to the realization of this human need. McClelland’s views were supported through a series of laboratory experiments. The remainder of McClelland’s book was devoted to describing the features or characteristics of achievement-motivated human beings, based on the biological principle of overloading, the influence of rewards to motivation, and the impact of feedback to the desire of man to achieve success.
Herzberg, F. (1966). Work and The Nature of Man. Cleveland: World Pub.
In Herzberg’s book, he proposes a theory that explicates the factors that influence the behavior of man towards his work. The central argument to this theory is based on Herzberg’s view of human nature – one that is animalistic, and the other humanistic. The kind of behavior that man will exhibit towards his work is dependent on how both his animalistic and humanistic needs are satisfied or maintained. Aside from the animalistic and humanistic views of human nature, Herzberg also explored other factors that influence man’s behavior towards work such as mental health conditions and psychological dimensions that affect human motivation. Overall, Herzberg postulates that human attitudes toward work are influenced by how animalistic and humanistic needs are fulfilled and or how man’s frame of mind lends itself to self-motivation to accomplish self-actualization within the work setting. This supposition was backed up by comprehensive research on other studies conducted in the past about the issue.
Herzberg, F. (1959). The Motivation to Work. New York: Wiley.
Herzberg was able to explore the relationship of motivation to work similarly, as McClelland was able to do, through his analytical analyses and interpretations of real-life situations obtained through research detailing work situations and events that have influenced the mindset of workers about their jobs. In Herzberg’s point of view, worker motivation is not deeply related to working conditions and tangible or concrete factors experienced or seen within the working environment, although they have been sources of dissatisfaction among workers. Herzberg postulated that motivation triggering desirable responses or behaviors toward work is highly related to intangible factors that are psychological in nature, such as the rate of achievements or recognitions being received at work, and the kind of work, which most workers expect to be interesting and challenging.
Maslow, A. (1970). Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper & Row.
Maslow’s book is centered on his theory about self-actualization as presented on the concept of the hierarchy of needs. This particular concept is deeply explored by analyzing how the hierarchy of needs, particularly the ultimate of goal of man for self-actualization, according to this theory, fuels motivation to act or perform in order to accomplish basic to complex human physiological, psychological, sociological, cognitive, and emotional needs. Maslow further dissected the theory of the hierarchy of needs by utilizing this particular theory to explicate different personalities, psychology, and psychotherapy.
Maslow, A. (1968). Toward a Psychology of Being. Princeton: Van Nostrand.
Like Maslow’s book, “Motivation and Personality, central to the main theme of this book was founded on the theory of self-actualization based on the concept of the hierarchy of needs. Maslow delves on humanizing man by considering the personal, economic, and sociological struggles that hinder the process of self-actualization. In addition, Maslow also discovers the role of feelings or emotions in self-actualization. Maslow’s viewpoints in this book was based on the theories or concepts of psychological health, existentialism, the negative and positive kinds of motivation, the role of knowledge and awareness, cognition, experiences, the value of creativity, values, physical health, and social perspectives. These particular theories or concepts are major factors that affect how man realizes humanity during his journey to achieving self-actualization.
McClelland, D. (1961). The Achieving Society. Princeton: Van Nostrand.
In McClelland’s book, he sought to discuss human motivation beyond the psychological and sociological viewpoints on the matter. In this book, human motivation is explored by determining how it is significantly related to economic psychology, and in turn how the economic development in various nations is impacted by a specific kind of human motivation – that is achievement motivation. McClelland asserted that from observations, the increased rate of achievement motivation in nations was precursors to economic growth and development. McClelland utilized various forms of measurement in determining the correlation of achievement motivation and economic growth and development, and included in his study the rate of economic growth and development in various key countries, such as Japan, Germany, Brazil, and such. In comparing the attitudes of behavior of populations in various nations and noting the rate of economic growth and development in each country, McClelland was able to map out how the standard scores obtained through measurements and analysis determined the significant effect of human motivation that either stumps or fuels the economy of nations.
Lambert, L., Walker, D., Zimmerman, D., Cooper, J., Lambert, M., Gardner, M.,
et al. (2002). The Constructivist Leader. New York: Teachers College
In Lambert’s book, the dimensions of efficient leadership was discussed paying attention to how it guides or directs the educational landscape. The author criticizes traditional leadership styles that are structured on the rigid design of hierarchy and recommends a constructivist model of leadership instead. The constructivist model of leadership was intended to abolish stagnancy in the educational sphere, and develop the industry as a growing community that will frequently need development and improvements, particularly on the knowledge and competencies of educational leaders and authorities as leaders of the educational community. The remainder of the book discusses constructivist views of leadership, the standards and guidelines in implementing constructivism, the characteristics that constructivist leaders should exhibit, from the kind of language and actions, as well as how schools are to be transformed to follow the model of constructivism.
Piaget, J. (1961, December). The Genetic Approach to the Psychology of Thought.. Journal of Educational Psychology, 52(6), 275-281. Retrieved November 10,
Piaget’s take on the psychology of thought differs from other references mentioned in this bibliography. The author focuses on how the genetic dimensions of human beings contribute to one’s thinking and behavior. Piaget’s observations and illustrations were based on his backgrounds on psychology and biology. According to the author, the process of thinking and the behavior born out of thinking are influenced by a series of biological constructs of the human organism. The author explored stages of biological development of a human organism and relates how changes or developments in each stage are precursors to a human being’s psychological dimensions.
Roeckelein, J. E. (1998). Dictionary of Theories, Laws, & Concepts in
Psychology. Westport: Greenwood Press.
Roeckelein’s Dictionary consists of more than one thousand words or terms in Psychology. Majority of these terms cover the basic and the most significant psychological laws, theories, concepts, principles, hypotheses, and such. For each entry discussed in the dictionary, Roeckelein’s provides specific details, including important names, dates, and other related terms or events. In addition, the author provides a brief discussion and annotations on each term. The reliability and validity of Roeckelein’s dictionary is fueled by how the terms were deeply researched through the review and analysis of various resources to back-up the dictionary as seen after the overall discussion of each term.
Schunk, D. (2003). Learning Theories: An Educational Perspective (4th Edition
ed.). Princeton: North Carolina.
Schunk provides a comprehensive guide for educators and psychologists alike in his book as it details various learning theories that were modeled under the perspective of academic learning. The book, like any other books on theories of learning in education, details the foundations of learning under the context of psychology and learning such as the conditioning theories (Pavlov, Skinner, etc.), Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura), Cognitive Information Processing Theory, Cognitive Learning Processes (Piaget), and the Constructivist theory in learning. Schunk also adds some theoretical perspectives about learning through discussion of human development, the relationships of neurological science to learning, motivation, and the future of education under the context of psychology and learning.
Skinner, B. (1969, November). Contingency Management in the Classroom. Education, 90(2), 93. Retrieved November 18, 2008, from Academic Search Premier
Skinner’s work is centered on some of the unforeseen events or situations that influence classroom management. For the author, efficient learning is based on how teachers are able to implement classroom management in all learning situations. Skinner emphasizes the importance of looking into various questions that will help teachers answer what factors are being overlooked in the process of classroom management that leads to the failure to the teaching-learning process to accomplish its goal. Moreover, throughout the text, the author has presented various specific questions that are precursors to improvement, and answering these questions will help educators understand how to explore the workings of the mind of the learners, the kind of learning situations, and the proper use of available resources in order to ensure knowledge and familiarity of how a classroom will be managed.
Dantonio, M., & Beisenherz, P. (2001). Learning to Question, Questioning to
Learn. Boston: Pearson Custom Publishing.
Dantonio and Beisenherz’ book is centered on how teacher questioning practices are to be improved through the application of the Qu:Est model. This particular model should be part of instructional strategies being applied within the classroom setting, particularly during the process of questioning as a means of employing high standards of questioning that may be considered meaningful and worthwhile, while at the same time develops the cognitive thinking skills of the students. For the authors, questioning is more than a technique for evaluating learning, but as a means to facilitate learning by strengthening the thinking skills of the students. The book provides extensive information on how questioning practices are to be improved by educators through the presentation of Facilitative Sets, Teacher Vignettes, Self-Study Questions, samples of Instructional Designs or Lesson Plans, and a separate section allowing teachers to reflect on the vignettes.
Gardner, H. (1991). The Unschooled Mind: How Children Think & How Schools
Should Teach. New York: BasicBooks.
The general intention of Gardner in his book was to establish a proposal that will initiate educational form in schools. Gardner views the education milieu as something that is supposed to be centered on the learning. Based on the cognitive dimensions of education, Gardner made a pragmatic and sensible analysis of the mind of a child, determining how children who never underwent formal education are able to learn, obtain, and retain knowledge or information through education. Learning for children is commonly fuelled by symbolic or graphical teaching, learning through intuition, and the kind of environment within the school setting. The cognitive process of learning was utilized to explicate observations and measurements. From the results of Gardner’s research, he was able to formulate a theoretical framework of education that was intended to change the face of education towards “education for understanding.”
Taylor, L. (1994). Reflecting on Teaching: The Benefits of Self-evaluation.
Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 19(2), 109, Retrieved
December 18, 2008, from Academic Source Premiere Database.
According to Taylor, one of the most important factors that influence the development of teaching is self-evaluation. Through self-evaluation or introspection, teachers are able to determine what they need to change or improve in their teaching styles or techniques in order to further the development of education. Taylor has provided a reference for teachers guiding self-evaluation through the presentation of different types of evaluation, the definitive meaning of self-evaluation and self-assessment, and the role that motivation plays in influencing the involvement of teachers to self-evaluation. Types of self-evaluation mentioned include checklists, video playback, and course log.