Annotated Bibliography - Part 6

Annotated Bibliography

Thesis Statement: “The three most important components that create ocean acoustics are amplitude, wavelength, and frequency.”

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Payne, Roger - Annotated Bibliography introduction. Communication and Behavior of Whales. Colorado: Westview Press for the

Advancement of Science, 1983.

This reference material examines comprehensively the ocean acoustical vocalizations patterns and behavioral changes that different sub-species of whales across bodies of oceanic water have been characteristically doing and have been discovered doing through widespread research and discussion. Dr. Roger S. Payne has been renowned for his initial recognition and was indeed the first to propose that Humpback whales utilize their aquatic vocalizations in different forms of song and also in communication. Also, other studied sub-species of whales which include the Blue Whale and Fin have been identified to employ sound as their primary medium for correspondence, across distances near and far. There is an all-embracing research technique, study of theory, and investigation that classifies the complementary features of the manner and processes by which whales communicate as manifested through their behavior and relationships.

This book is a reliable resource for it contains concrete and factual pieces of evidence which focus on whale bioacoustics and activity. This reference book has been a staple as it has been almost consistently used in every other scientific literary work dealing with ocean bioacoustics. Hence, this would be of great reference material for research as it tackles the aquatic species that significantly contribute to the ocean acoustics as a whole. The thesis statement focuses on amplitude, frequency and wavelength which are all technical gauges and specificities of whale songs and their expression of sound and contact.

Munk, Walter H., Worcester, Peter, and Wunsch, Carl. Ocean Acoustic Tomography.

England: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

This reference material presents the issue of ocean acoustic tomography, the main purpose of which is to gather and analyze accurate measurements of travel time, properties that constitute acoustic dissemination and takes the ocean as being a resonance field that produces and even propagates sound. The is a series of technical and mathematical presentations of definitions, formulas, and processes which present various functions and designations of acoustic parameters that contribute to the ocean sound, how it travels, how specific factors such as earthquake activity contribute to sound, and much more in between, caused by man and nature. Through extensive graphs and methods, ocean acoustics is discussed thoroughly systematically. Valuable numerical inputs on how aquatic sound travels in imaging by sectioning are offered by tackling underlying oceanography and mathematics in the ocean’s system and behavior pertaining to sound.

In technical terminologies, facts on ocean acoustics can be both better and more theoretically understood and explained on how sound in oceanic bounds travel. Thus, it would be of great use and reference, for scientific claims of frequency, amplitude, and wavelength can be complemented with mathematical discussions.

Brekhovskikh, Leonid M., Lysanov, Yu,P., Lysanov, IUriĭ P. Germany: Springer Publishing,


With the newer version of this textbook, initial discussions on ocean sound propagation theory are offered by this reference material. It identifies the characteristics of sound travel, specifically and considerably when sound comes in contact with the various nature circumstances and situations below-sea level. In a series of data, research, and study, theories are thereafter presented and discussed such as plane waves, scattering of sound in rough surfaces, sound propagation in the random ocean, and more.

The reference material would be indeed helpful as the various data presented provide more angles into understanding the development of ocean sound parameters and metrics. It also has comprehensive and mathematic graph presentations that give better detail to discussion and theories.

This would objectively and technically contribute to the proving of the thesis statement, and its terminology and formula discussions are done in a textbook and academic manner which makes its comprehension more adaptable to a student/researcher.

Blue, Joseph, E. and Medwin, Herman. Sounds in the Sea: From Ocean Acoustics to

Acoustical Oceanography. England: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

The reference material is another textbook which delves into the comprehensive discussion on ocean acoustics and acoustical oceanography. It begins with the fundamental discussion of terms such as sound and interpretation of ocean sounds, ocean bioacoustics, and ocean waveguides. It also offers data to contributing ocean phenomena and theories pertaining to ocean acoustics study, such as the acoustical causes of collisions between marine mammals and vessels and specifically with whale monitoring.

There is a various offering of subject focus and theory data discussion that widens understanding in ocean acoustics and acoustical oceanography. With the different scenarios, a sense of interconnectivity of frequency, wavelength, and amplitude can be better explicated.

This would be another great reference material for answering the concerns that surround the thesis statement for it is a very accessible text for a student/researcher, and its many data studies would offer wide options and alternative that relate to the subject matter.

NOAA Ocean Explorer. 4 March 2009. National Oceanic and Atmospheric

Administration. 10 March 2009 <>.

The reference website features a definition of terms that any layman could be able to grasp and follow. This online source delivers an overview of ocean acoustics by presenting the relationship of sound in terms of frequency, wavelength and amplitude. The website also offers fields of ocean exploration with wide raining concerns that are not constricted to scientific issues, as it also delves into ocean nature caring concerns and issues. In addition, there is a section of the website which offers a selection of recordings of audio ocean activity—from whale to volcanic to man-made reverberations.

The website would be a useful a reference in establishing the key fundamentals of the subject matter. This could be the main reference for identifies where each key term undertakes its role in the sound relationship of frequency, wavelength, and amplitude. Thus, this would be of significant use for the exploration of thesis statement, for it gives the student/researcher sound fundamentals on the subject matter at hand and has files that could help the student/researcher form better audio-visual comprehension specifically with the sound, video, and animation images.

Marine Mammal Commission. 19 February 2009. 10 March 2009 <>.

The website offers numerous reference files in the form of symposium and conference reports that pertain to ocean noise. In various downloadable files and even in other links seen in the website, there is a wide selection of topics that could be deemed useful for research, reference and for knowledge expansion—from topic reports such as “Marine Mammals and Noise” and other website links such as “Sounding the Depths: The Rising Toll of Sonar, Shipping and Industrial Ocean Noise on Marine Life.”

The website provides rich resource alternatives, and there is focus on ocean acoustics among the wide-ranging topics which make the website most fitting for any researcher of the said subject matter. Thus, the website offers reports and other links that could significantly contribute to the completion of the thesis statement, for its gives light to diverse topics but still holds great focus in ocean acoustics.

Scripps Whale Acoustic Lab. 2007. Scripps Institution of Oceanography. 10 March 2009


The website offers reports, publications, and presentation of various whale activities across the many sub-species. The topics give light in the different whale activities across the globe for variety and wide discussion which seems to be boundless as it has reports such as “Listening for Large Whale in the Offshore Water of Alaska” and “Seasonal Occurrence Of Low Frequency Whale Vocalizations Across Eastern Antarctica and Southern Australian Waters “

The website would be helpful for the wide selection of topics it holds and the extensive and diverse information it has on whales and its different species. Thus, the issue of whale sounds could very well be discussed as various sub-species are noted and learned throughout the world and are well-documented studies.

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