A&P 10 Nervous System

The _______ Nervous System consists of the brain and spinal cord.
Central
The Central Nervous System consists of the _____ and ______ ____.
Brain, Spinal Cord
The __________ Nervous System consists of the vast network of nerves throughout the body.
Peripheral
The Peripheral Nervous System divides into the _______ (________) Division and the _____ (________) Division
Sensory, Afferent, Motor, Efferent
The _______ (________) Division carries signals from the nerve endings to the Central Nervous System.
Sensory, Afferent
The _____ (________) Division transmits information from the Central Nervous System to the rest of the body.

Motor, Efferent
The Afferent Division subdivides into the _______ sensory and ________ sensory systems.
Somatic, Visceral
The _______ sensory system carries signals from skin, bones, joints, and muscles.
Somatic
The ________ sensory system carries signals from the heart, lungs, stomach, and bladder.
Visceral
The Efferent Division subdivides into the _______ motor and _________ motor systems.
Somatic, Autonomic
The _______ motor system allows voluntary movements of skeletal muscles.
Somatic
The _________ motor system provides automatic activities such as control of blood pressure and heart rate.
Autonomic
The Autonomic Motor System subdivides into the ___________ division and _______________ division.
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Sympathetic, Parasympathetic
The ___________ motor division arouses the body for action.
Sympathetic
The _______________ motor division has a calming affect.
Parasympathetic
The two types of cells making up the nervous system are _______ and _________.
Neurons, Neuroglia
_______ are the excitable, impulse-conducting cells performing the work of the nervous system.
Neurons
_________ support the nervous system and protect the neurons.
Neuroglia
_________________ form myelin sheath in the brain and spinal cord and speed signal conduction
Oligodendrocytes
_________ cells line spinal cord and cavities of the brain; some secrete cerebrospinal fluid.
Ependymal
_________ perform phagocytosis
Microglia
__________ extend through brain tissue; nourish neurons; help form blood-brain barrier; attach neurons to blood vessels; provide structural support.
Astrocytes
_______ cells form myelin sheath around nerves in the peripheral nervous system; form neurilemma.
Schwann
_______, or ________ neurons, detect stimuli and transmit information to the CNS.
Sensory, Afferent
_____, or ________ neurons, relay messages from the brain to muscles or glands.
Motor, Efferent
____________ connect the incoming sensory pathways with the outgoing motor pathways.
Interneurons
Neurons have 3 basic parts: a ____ ____ and two extensions called an ____ and a _______.
Cell Body, Axon, Dendrite
The ____ ____, also called the ____, is the control center of the neuron and contains the nucleus.
Cell Body, Soma
_________ receive signals from other neurons and conduct the information to the cell body.
Dendrites
The ____ carries nerve signals away from the cell body.
Axon
The Axons of many neurons are encased in a ______ sheath.
Myelin
______ acts to insulate the axon ad helps speed impulse conduction.
Myelin
Gaps in the myelin sheath, called _____ __ _______, occur at evenly spaced intervals.
Nodes of Ranvier
Each axon terminates in a ________ ____.
Synaptic Knob
The outermost layer of the Schwann Cell is called the __________ which is essential for an injured nerve to regenerate.
Neurilemma
____ matter contains mostly the cell bodies of motor neurons and interneurons.
Gray
_____ matter contains bundles of axons that carry impulses form one part of the nervous system to another.
White
Gray matter appears gray because of a lack of ______.
Myelin
White matter appears white because of an abundance of ______.
Myelin
The small space between the outer covering of the spinal cord and the vertebrae is called the _______ _____.
Epidural Space
The _________ _____ contains a cushioning layer of fat as well as blood vessels and connective tissue.
Epidural Space
The _______ _____ carries cerebrospinal fluid through the spinal cord.
Central Canal
The ______ (posterior) nerve root carries sensory information into the spinal cord and enters at the ______ ____ of the spinal cord.
Dorsal, Dorsal Horn
The _______ (anterior) nerve roots exit from the _______ ____ to carry motor information out of the spinal cord.
Ventral, Ventral Horn
A ______ _____ results from the fusion of the dorsal and ventral nerve roots.
Spinal Nerve
Cell bodies of the dorsal neurons are clustered in a knot-like structure called a ________.
Ganglion
The spinal cord is protected by three layers of connective tissue called ________.
Meninges
The innermost meninges layer is the ___ _____.
Pia Mater
The middle meninges layer is the _________ _____.
Arachnoid Mater
The outer meninges layer is the ____ _____.
Dura Mater
The ____________ _____ is filled with cerebrospinal fluid.
Subarachnoid Space
Bundles of axons called ______ serve as the routes of communication to and from the brain.
Tracts
The ______ ______ relays sensations of deep pressure and vibration as well as those needed to create awareness of the body’s position.
Dorsal Column
The ______________ tract is responsible for prioprioception.
Spinocerebellar
The _____________ tract relays sensations of temperature, pressure, pain, and touch.
Spinothalamic
The _____________ tract (_________ tract) is responsible for fine movements of hands, fingers, feet, and toes on the opposite side of the body.
Corticospinal, Pyramidal
The ______________ tracts are a group of tracts associated with balance and muscle tone.
Extrapyramidal
__ pairs of spinal nerves connect to the spinal cord.
31
The ________ plexus contains nerves supplying the muscles and skin of the neck, tops of the shoulders, and part of the head.
Cervical
The _______ _____ stimulates the diaphragm for breathing and is located in the ________ plexus.
Phrenic Nerve, Cervical
The ________ plexus innervates the lower part of the shoulder and the arm.
Brachial
The ______ plexus supplies the thigh and leg.
Lumbar
Each spinal nerve innervates a specific area of the skin, areas called __________.
Dermatones
Reflexes employ a neural circuit called a ______ ___ which bypasses regions of the brain where conscious decisions are made.
Reflex Arc
_______ ________ involve the contraction of a skeletal muscle after being stimulated by a somatic motor neuron.
Somatic Reflexes
The ________ is the largest portion of the brain.
Cerebrum
The brain’s surface is marked by thick ridges called ____.
Gyri
Shallow grooves called _____ divide gyri in the brain.
Sulci
Deep sulci are called ________.
Fissures
The __________ is the second largest region of the brain and, although smaller than the cerebrum, contains more neurons than the rest of the brain combined.
Cerebellum
The _________ makes up the rest of the brain and consists of the three structures: ________, ____, and _______ _________.
Midbrain, Pons, Medulla Oblongata
A deep groove called the ____________ ______ divides the cerebrum into right and left cerebral hemispheres.
Longitudinal Fissure
A thick bundle of nerves called the ______ ________ runs along the bottom of the longitudinal fissure and serves to connect the left and right hemispheres.
Corpus Callosum
Two _______ ventricles arch through each cerebral hemisphere.
Lateral
Each of the lateral ventricles connects to a _____ ventricle.
Third
A canal from the third ventricle leads to the ______ ventricle and narrows to form the central canal which extends through the spinal cord.
Fourth
A clear, colorless fluid called ____________ fluid fills the ventricles and central canal.
Cerebrospinal
Cerebrospinal Fluid is formed from blood by the _______ ______, a network of blood vessels lining the floor or wall of each ventricle.
Choroid Plexus
Cereprospinal Fluid is reabsorbed into the venous bloodstream by projections of the arachnoid matter into the dural sinuses, called _________ _____.
Arachnoid Villi
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