AP Gov. Chapter 10

California’s famous Proposition 13, in which voters frustrated by a lack of action by their legislature forced an issue on the ballot and voted to limit the rise in property taxes, was an example of

a. an initiative.
b. a referendum.
c. a direct primary.
d. a voter override.
e. an indirect primary.

an initiative..
In which election was voter turnout at its highest point?

a. 2000
b. 1896
c. 1800
d. 2004
e. 1992

1896
Which of the following is TRUE of voters, according to Anthony Downs’ theory of rational voting behavior?

a. It is always rational for people to vote.
b. It is always irrational for people not to vote due to the small chance that their vote might actually matter.
c. People with higher levels of education are less likely to vote.
d. People who see policy differences between the parties are less likely to vote.
e. People who see policy differences between the parties are more likely to vote.

People who see policy differences between the parties are more likely to vote.
Highly educated individuals are more likely to vote because they

a. have a lower sense of political efficacy.
b. can better discern policy differences between candidates.
c. are usually white males.
d. are smarter.
e. have more influence in the political process.

can better discern policy differences between candidates
The Electoral College was originally established in order to

a. provide direct election of the president by the people, although its operation has had the opposite effect.
b. give legitimacy to the presidency, which was regarded suspiciously by most people as another potential monarchy.
c. give the nation’s elite, rather than the people directly, the power to choose the president and vice president.
d. merely certify the results of the people’s choice for president and vice president.
e. insure high voter turnouts in elections throughout the country.

give the nation’s elite, rather than the people directly, the power to choose the president and vice president
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The belief that in order to support democratic government a citizen should always vote is a belief in the notion of

a. suffrage.
b. civic duty.
c. the mandate theory of elections.
d. political efficacy.
e. political legitimacy.

civic duty..
In the 2000 presidential election,

a. Bush did especially well in less populous states possessing fewer than seven electoral votes.
b. All of the above are true.
c. Gore received more votes than did Bush.
d. Bush won the presidency without winning the popular vote, the first time a candidate did so since 1888.
e. Gore did especially well in states with greater than 18 electoral votes.

All of the above are true..
Which of the following does NOT characterize presidential elections around 1800?

a. Campaigns were directed at state legislators, not the voters.
b. The candidates barnstormed the country campaigning and giving speeches.
c. Most of the campaigning was done by state and local party organizations.
d. Newspaper coverage of the campaign was extremely partisan and dishonest.
e. The vice presidential nominee tried to usurp the presidential candidate’s nomination.

The candidates barnstormed the country campaigning and giving speeches
The high point of voter turnout in the United States was in

a. 1960.
b. 1932.
c. 1896.
d. 1972.
e. 1968.

1896
If you believe that “public officials don’t care much about what people like me think,” then you are expressing feelings of

a. low political efficacy.
b. rationality.
c. policy voting.
d. high political efficacy.
e. retrospective voting.

low political efficacy..
Who traveled through 26 states and logged 18,000 miles in his campaign for president?

a. William McKinley
b. William Jennings Bryan
c. Grover Cleveland
d. Thomas Jefferson
e. John Adams

William Jennings Bryan.
In the Electoral College vote in the election of 1800, there was a tie between

a. George Washington and Thomas Jefferson.
b. Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr.
c. Thomas Jefferson and John Adams.
d. John Adams and James Madison.
e. John Adams and Aaron Burr.

Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr
Which of the following statements is FALSE?

a. The initiative petition has been an insignificant form of election.
b. Citizens can use the initiative process to force decisions on issues that state legislatures have failed to act on or address.
c. Twenty-four states currently allow voters to propose and decide legislation through an initiative petition.
d. Initiative petitions are frequently the result of the actions of dedicated individuals, or policy entrepreneurs.
e. Most states require initiative petitions to gain signatures equal to about 10 percent of the voting population to put an issue on the state ballot.

The initiative petition has been an insignificant form of election.
Which of the following statements about voting in elections in the United States is FALSE?

a. Americans are expected to vote for a much narrower range of political offices than most democracies.
b. Unlike the United States, the governments of most democracies take the responsibility of seeing to it that all of their eligible citizens are on the voting lists.
c. American government asks citizens to vote far more often than most democracies.
d. Americans are less likely to vote than are citizens of other democracies.
e. The choice offered Americans at elections is not as great as in other democracies.

Americans are expected to vote for a much narrower range of political offices than most democracies
A theory of voting according to which voters make their decisions based on their answer to the question “What have you done for me lately?” is called

a. the mandate theory of elections.
b. prospective voting.
c. retrospective voting.
d. policy voting.
e. political efficacy.

retrospective voting..
The most frequent reason nonvoters give for not voting on election day is that they

a. believed their vote would not make a difference.
b. did not know where their polling place was.
c. did not have transportation to their polling place.
d. could not take time off from work or school to go vote.
e. forgot that it was Election Day.

could not take time off from work or school to go vote..
When, after his 2008 win, President Obama stated, “I don’t think there’s any question that we have a mandate to move the country in a new direction and not continue the same old practices that have gotten us into the fix that we are in,” he was expressing

a. the mandate theory of elections.
b. partisanship.
c. policy voting.
d. bipartisanship.
e. a call to arms.

the mandate theory of elections.
If you believe that citizens should vote in order to support democratic government, then you believe in

a. suffrage.
b. policy voting.
c. rationality.
d. civic duty.
e. political efficacy.

civic duty.
The winner of the presidential election of 1896 was

a. Theodore Roosevelt.
b. Grover Cleveland.
c. Ulysses Grant.
d. William McKinley.
e. William Jennings Bryan.

William McKinley.
Which of the following statements about voter registration is FALSE?

a. In North Dakota, you don’t have to register to vote.
b. States with same-day registration tended to have higher voter turnout rates in the 2008 election.
c. The Motor Voter Act allows eligible voters to register by checking a box on their driver’s license application.
d. Congress requires voter registration nationwide.
e. In a few states, you can register to vote on Election Day.

Congress requires voter registration nationwide.
The state level method of direct legislation that gives voters a chance to approve or disapprove proposed legislation or a state constitutional amendment is called a(n)

a. initiative petition.
b. primary election.
c. referendum.
d. stakeholder election.
e. secondary election.

referendum
Suffrage refers to

a. a type of election unique to the United States.
b. voter turnout rates.
c. voting procedures in the Electoral College.
d. the right to vote.
e. a voter registration system.

the right to vote.
The Motor Voter Act of 1993

a. requires states to provide transportation for citizens who are unable to get to the polls on their own efforts.
b. requires states to mail voter registration forms to all individuals holding driver’s licenses.
c. requires states to register individuals to vote when they apply for, or renew, their driver’s license.
d. requires the federal government to register individuals to vote when they apply for or renew their driver’s license.
e. established drive-in polling places to make voting more convenient and increase voter turnout.

requires states to register individuals to vote when they apply for, or renew, their driver’s license.
Which of the following is NOT true of the 2008 presidential election?

a. Obama won 365 electoral votes, compared to 173 for McCain.
b. The Democrats won nine states that they had lost in 2004.
c. Among the states that Democrats won in 2008 were Florida, Ohio, and Virginia.
d. Obama carried 53 percent of the popular vote, compared to 46 percent for McCain.
e. The Republicans won nine states that they had lost in 2004.

The Republicans won nine states that they had lost in 2004
The impact of the Motor Voter Act of 1993 was evidenced in

a. higher registration and lower turnout in 2008 compared to 1992.
b. no changes in either registration or turnout between 1992 and 2008.
c. lower registration and higher turnout in 2008 compared to 1992.
d. lower registration and lower turnout in 2008 compared to 1992.
e. higher registration and higher turnout in 2008 compared to 1992.

no changes in either registration or turnout between 1992 and 2008
Just over ____ of the population votes.

a. one-quarter
b. one-third
c. three-quarters
d. one-half
e. two-thirds

one-half.
Compared to other industrialized democracies, the United States has a ________ voter turnout.

a. much lower
b. rising
c. slightly higher
d. much higher
e. slightly lower

much lower.
When _____ is high, as it is in the U.S., even losers of elections accept the results peacefully.

a. voter registration
b. legitimacy
c. the degree of clarity of the idea in a party platform
d. voter participation
e. policy voting

legitimacy
A major reason cited for America’s level of voter turnout compared to other industrialized countries is

a. registration is more cumbersome in the United States.
b. registration is more cumbersome in other nations.
c. greater interest in democracy in the United States.
d. Americans’ high sense of political efficacy.
e. bad weather in certain parts of the United States on Election Day.

registration is more cumbersome in the United States
The three kinds of elections in the U.S. are

a. primary elections, competitive elections, and noncompetitive elections.
b. primary elections, general elections, and elections on specific policy questions.
c. primary elections, general elections, and competitive elections.
d. primary elections, secondary elections, and tertiary elections.
e. primary elections, ancillary elections, and corollary elections.

primary elections, general elections, and elections on specific policy questions.
Which of these groups did NOT support William Jennings Bryan in 1896?

a. Eastern manufacturers
b. Westerners in the silver-producing states
c. Rural doctors
d. All of the groups above supported William Jennings Bryan in 1896.
e. White southerners

Eastern manufacturers.
Which of the following statements about voter turnout in the U.S. is FALSE?

a. Older people are less likely than younger people to vote.
b. African Americans are less likely than whites to vote.
c. Women are more likely to vote than men.
d. People with higher than average education levels have a higher voter participation rate.
e. Americans’ voter participation rate is far lower than voter turnout in other democracies.

Older people are less likely than younger people to vote.
The presidential election of 1800 was

a. the first use of direct primaries in the United States.
b. notable for the importance of key convention speeches to swing the votes in the Electoral College.
c. decided by the House of Representatives after a tie in the Electoral College.
d. the first transition of power between parties accomplished by voters’ ballots in the history of the world.
e. influenced by media intent on forcing the incumbent out of office.

decided by the House of Representatives after a tie in the Electoral College
Which of the following is NOT a factor that increases a person’s likelihood of voting?

a. Discerning the ways in which policy differences affect one’s interests
b. Having a sense of civic duty
c. Possessing political efficacy
d. Believing that some policies of one party are balanced by other policies of the other party
e. Believing that the benefits of voting outweigh the costs

Believing that some policies of one party are balanced by other policies of the other party.
The issue of free silver (to increase the amount of currency in circulation) was championed in the election of 1896 by ________, who made a famous speech at the Democratic National Convention.

a. Grover Cleveland
b. Woodrow Wilson
c. William McKinley
d. Theodore Roosevelt
e. William Jennings Bryan

William Jennings Bryan.
The initiative petition

a. enables voters to put proposed legislation on the ballot.
b. is used to select party nominees for congressional and state offices.
c. is a petition that initiates a recall election to determine whether an elected official shall be removed from office.
d. is an election in which voters approve or disapprove a legislative act.
e. is needed for a candidate to get his or her name on the ballot.

enables voters to put proposed legislation on the ballot.
Who became president with the election of 1800?

a. Aaron Burr
b. James Madison
c. George Washington
d. John Adams
e. Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson.
Anthony Downs’ theory of rational voting behavior predicts that people will vote if they

a. think one party will give them more policy benefits than the other.
b. feel obligated to do so.
c. identify with a particular candidate, even though they doubt that one vote can make a difference.
d. think their vote will make the difference for a particular candidate.
e. can afford the time and energy to do so.

think one party will give them more policy benefits than the other..
A referendum is

a. a state level method of direct legislation that gives voters a chance to approve or disapprove proposed legislation or a constitutional amendment.
b. a constitutional provision for policy questions to be decided by a nationwide vote.
c. another name for an open primary.
d. a form of primary election.
e. A referendum is none of these.

a state level method of direct legislation that gives voters a chance to approve or disapprove proposed legislation or a constitutional amendment
Which of the following groups was eligible to vote in 1800?

a. African Americans
b. Property-owning males over the age of 21
c. White male and female property owners
d. Women
e. Anyone over the age of 18

Property-owning males over the age of 21.
The Electoral College system can introduce bias in the electoral process because it overrepresents

a. states with big cities.
b. urban states.
c. more populous states.
d. Both a and c are true.
e. less populous states.

less populous states..
Which of the following is TRUE about the Electoral College?

a. It is used in nearly half of the democratic nations around the world.
b. It is scheduled to be phased out in 2011, though some still argue its usefulness and want to rescind the phase-out.
c. All 50 states employ a winner-take-all system in which all of their electors are awarded to the presidential candidate who wins the most votes statewide.
d. An elector has never voted differently from the popular vote winner of his state.
e. It overrepresents small states.

It overrepresents small states..
A process permitted in some states whereby voters may put proposed changes in the state constitution to a vote if sufficient signatures are obtained on a petition calling for such a vote is called a(n)

a. initiative petition.
b. policy choice election.
c. primary election.
d. referendum.
e. constitutional convention.

initiative petition..
In the original constitutional system,

a. each presidential elector cast two ballots, with the top vote-getter named president and the runner-up named vice president.
b. the Senate elected the president, and the House of Representatives elected the vice president.
c. the state legislatures elected the president and vice president, with the candidate getting the second-most votes becoming vice president.
d. the president, once elected by the Electoral College, chose the vice president.
e. each presidential elector cast one ballot for one of the president/vice president teams running.

each presidential elector cast two ballots, with the top vote-getter named president and the runner-up named vice president..
The greater one’s sense of political efficacy, the

a. less likely one is to view the election process in the United States as legitimate.
b. more likely one is to vote.
c. less likely one is to vote.
d. more likely one is to see differences between the parties.
e. greater one’s chance of being defeated in an election.

more likely one is to vote
The nearly two centuries of American electoral history has been characterized by

a. All of the above are true.
b. increasing voter turnouts.
c. expansion of the right to vote.
d. a proliferation of presidential candidates.
e. consistently close elections.

expansion of the right to vote
According to a 2008 Census Bureau survey, the most common response given by nonvoters for not voting in the 2008 election was that they

a. forgot that it was Election Day.
b. could not take off time from work or school that day.
c. forgot to register in time for the election.
d. did not know who the candidates were.
e. could not find their polling place.

could not take off time from work or school that day
As the right to vote has been extended,

a. the number of candidates running for office has increased.
b. proportionately fewer of those eligible have chosen to vote.
c. the scope of American government has shrunk.
d. voter turnout has increased proportionately.
e. voter turnout has actually remained about the same.

proportionately fewer of those eligible have chosen to vote.
As provided in the Constitution, how are electoral votes allocated for each state?

a. Each state is proportioned to its population, with all states having at least one vote.
b. Each state has as many electoral votes as it has members in both the House and the Senate.
c. Each state casts two electoral votes.
d. Each state has as many electoral votes as it has members in the House of Representatives.
e. Each state has as many electoral votes as it has members in the Senate.

Each state has as many electoral votes as it has members in both the House and the Senate
In order to qualify to be put on the ballot, initiative petitions usually require signatures equal to about

a. 10 percent of the entire population.
b. 10 percent of registered voters.
c. 10 percent of the number of voters from the previous election.
d. 10 percent of eligible voters.
e. a minimum of 500 signatures.

10 percent of the number of voters from the previous election
Which of the following statements about voter turnout in 2008 is TRUE?

a. Young voters aged 18-20 had the lowest turnout.
b. Women had a higher turnout than men.
c. College-educated voters had the highest turnout.
d. All of these are true.
e. White voters had the highest turnout.

All of these are true..
When President Herbert Hoover and the Republicans were crushed in the election of 1932, voters were responding to the severity of the Great Depression under Hoover’s presidency by

a. irrational choice voting.
b. initiative.
c. retrospective voting.
d. indirect primary voting.
e. direct primary voting.

retrospective voting.
Among the states that allow voter registration at the polls on Election Day, voter turnout rates are

a. declining over time and at a higher rate than in other states.
b. no different than in other states.
c. lower than the national average.
d. higher than in other states.
e. impossible to compute.

higher than in other states
The greater the policy differences between the candidates,

a. the more likely voters will provide an “echo” rather than a “voice” on Election Day.
b. the more likely citizens will feel a sense of civic duty.
c. the less likely voters will be able to steer government policies by their choices.
d. the less likely voters will turn out on Election Day.
e. the more likely voters will be able to steer government policies by their choices.

the more likely voters will be able to steer government policies by their choices
The idea that a winning candidate has a mandate from the people to carry out his or her platform and politics is called

a. policy voting.
b. mandate theory of elections.
c. civic duty.
d. suffrage.
e. political efficacy.

mandate theory of elections.
Which of the following is TRUE of changing patterns in voting behavior among Catholics and Protestants.

a. Fewer African Americans supported Obama in 2008 than supported Kennedy in 1960.
b. Men were more likely than women to support Democratic candidates in 1960 and 2008.
c. In 1960, Catholics were much more likely to support the Democratic Party than were Protestants; in 2008, there was only a slight difference between Catholic and Protestant support for the Democrats.
d. Protestants were more likely to support Obama in 2008 than were Catholics.
e. Women were more likely than men to support Democratic candidates in 1960 and 2008.

In 1960, Catholics were much more likely to support the Democratic Party than were Protestants; in 2008, there was only a slight difference between Catholic and Protestant support for the Democrats.
Elections serve the purpose of

a. providing regular access to political power.
b. helping to guide the policy direction of the government.
c. Elections serve the purpose of all of the above.
d. socializing and institutionalizing political activity.
e. providing a legitimate means to replace leaders.

Elections serve the purpose of all of the above.
Largely to prevent corruption associated with stuffing ballot boxes, states adopted ________ around the turn of the twentieth century.

a. voter registration
b. voting machines
c. primary elections
d. the secret ballot
e. the Electoral College

voter registration.
Which of the following statements about the 1800 presidential election is TRUE?

a. The candidates in the 1800 election vigorously campaigned in each of the states.
b. For the first time, the focus of the 1800 election was on the citizen voters.
c. The 1800 election was ultimately decided in the House of Representatives.
d. The 1800 election was the first one in which the candidates were chosen by party conventions.
e. All of the above are true.

The 1800 election was ultimately decided in the House of Representatives.
In the election of 1800,

a. candidates were nominated at the national convention.
b. the candidate with the second-highest number of electoral votes became the vice president.
c. the focus of the campaign was on the voters.
d. media coverage was extensive.
e. a large entourage of reporters accompanied the candidates during their national campaign.

the candidate with the second-highest number of electoral votes became the vice president
Which of the following is TRUE of the presidential election of 1800?

a. The candidates traveled throughout the smaller number of United States at the time to campaign for votes.
b. It was the first peaceful transfer of power between parties via the electoral process in the history of the world.
c. All of the above are true.
d. It was a gentlemanly contest in which partisans on both sides showed respect for the opposition.
e. It was carefully and objectively covered in the newspapers of the day, with logical reasoning and respect for both candidates in articles and editorials.

It was the first peaceful transfer of power between parties via the electoral process in the history of the world.
People with higher than average education

a. are somewhat less likely to vote than people of lower educational levels.
b. are no more and no less likely to vote than people of lower educational levels.
c. are much less likely to vote than people of lower educational levels because they know it won’t do any good.
d. are more likely to vote than high school dropouts but less likely to vote than those with high school diplomas.
e. are more likely to vote than people of lower educational levels.

are more likely to vote than people of lower educational levels..
________ occurs when people base their electoral choices on the basis of their own policy preferences and the candidates’ stand on policy issues.

a. Agenda setting
b. Suffrage
c. Retrospective voting
d. Policy voting
e. Civic duty

Policy voting.
An initiative is put on the ballot as a result of

a. the governor’s order.
b. a petition signed by a certain percentage of the voters in the previous election.
c. public opinion polls showing strong support for a certain measure not acted upon by the legislature.
d. a special, legally constituted convention voting to place it there.
e. a Supreme Court ruling.

a petition signed by a certain percentage of the voters in the previous election.
Suffrage means

a. voting for the loser.
b. the struggle for equal rights for women.
c. turning out to vote.
d. voting for the winner.
e. the legal right to vote.

the legal right to vote.
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