Applying the Background and Methodology of the Research Process - Part 2

Jonathan Hoffsuemmer

A serious problem seen by nurse practitioners that work in rural areas is teen pregnancy - Applying the Background and Methodology of the Research Process introduction. A peer-reviewed research paper published by The Journal for Nurse Practitioners entitled “Who Will Listen? Rural Teen Pregnancy Reflections.” There are both medical and social concerns that occur with teen pregnancy. Teen pregnancy statistic shows that teen mothers give birth to premature babies with low birth weight. The social aspect is teen mothers do not complete high school and lives in poverty. These situations rank high in abuse and neglect with teen parents.

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Definition of the Problem

Rural areas show the highest rate of teen pregnancy compared to state rates, which produces a problem that researchers are questioning why this rate is higher in the rural areas. The Theory of Adolescent Sexual Decision Making (TASDM) is the basis this research was conducted to resolve. This theory has two main objectives that include the risk-promoting environments teens experience and exposure to risky situation that create the situations teens use to justify sexual behavior (Weiss, 2012).

The problem with teen pregnancy produces premature birth and low birth weight in the babies. A medical problem with teen pregnancy is the medical expenses incurred with both teenager and infant. These statistics indicate that teen pregnancy result from family with no insurance and no means to pay the medical expenses teen pregnancy incurs. The social problem teen pregnancy presents are that teen mothers tend not finish high school. Teen pregnancy results in low income rates, the need for higher public assistance, poor educational, behavioral, and health problem in children.

Study Purpose

The purpose of the study is to understand the decision-making of teens and why teen pregnancy is higher in the rural areas of the country. The TASDM theory indicates that environment promotes the situation of peer influences, substance use, and media influences (Weiss, 2012). The study will focus on the thought process of teens as to why teens make the choice become sexually activity and risk the consequence of becoming pregnant.

Research Question

The researchers are studying the question of why teen pregnancy is higher in rural areas. Teen pregnancy occurs because of the lack of prevention that teens do not use and why teens make these types of decisions. The essay directions were for students to indicating if the teens thought there was a teen pregnancy problem in the community (Weiss, 2012). The researchers’ directions were only one question to determine the thought processes of both male and female teens regarding teen pregnancy.

Hypothesis

The study does not state a hypothesis, but strives to understand why there is a higher rate of teen pregnancies in rural areas. The study will evaluate the difference between boys and girls views about teen pregnancy. The study only has one main focus, but the study derives different variables of the hypothesis. The study reviews the thoughts as to how teens perceive sex as good, bad, or ambivalent.

Study Variables

The two variables in the study are independent and dependent variables. The independent variables in the study are the essays that the students wrote defining their views about teen pregnancy in rural areas. The dependent variables are the reasons teen pregnancies occur, which include the idea of whether sexual activity is good or bad. The study reviews the conception teens have of sexual activities, which studies the prevalence regarding beliefs, consequences to actions, and consequences to others (Weiss, 2012).

Conceptual Model or Theoretical Framework

This study uses the theoretical framework for the study. The theoretical perspective of study analyzes the answers obtained from participates against the Theory of Adolescent Sexual Decision Making theories. These theories measure the decision-making teens use in determining the risk of teen pregnancy. The theoretical framework weights the consequences associated with the risks and how teenage boys and girls perceive teen pregnancy. These perceptions that teens are reporting in the study are weighted against the two ground theories of risk-promoting environments and risky sexual behavior. “Using constant comparative methods, the data were analyzed using the MAX Qualitative Data Analysis© software” (Weiss, 2012, p. 805).

Review of Literature

The literature review of the article addresses the issues of low parental guidance as a significant factor to teen making risky behavior decisions. The fact that rural areas indicate that teens view there is nothing much to do is a contributing factor to teen pregnancy. The education regarding sexual behavior and prevention methods were noted to be lacking in the rural areas. This factor indicates that financial support to provide for after school programs contributes to the notation that there is nothing to do for teens. This is a contributing factor to the higher rate of teen pregnancy in rural communities.

Study Design

The study design was conducted in Florida involving 125 10th grade students. These students consisted of both male and female from age 15 to 17. The students were from an English class and were asked to write an essay on if they thought teen pregnancy was a problem in their community. The teens wrote the essay during an English class in high school. This study was conducted with the approval of the institutional review board, teacher, and administrator.

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