Approach to Organizational design Essay


Organizational design is the design and the implementation of the organizations infrastructure or the alteration, change or formulation of anew organizational structure - Approach to Organizational design Essay introduction. It includes the roles of the workers, their behavior at work, their skill in different field and the jobs that are needed to contribute to the strategic business and transformational goals. In order for an organization to come up with an excellent organizational structure, the manager has to be familiar with the approaches to a good organizational design.

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There are various forms of approach to the organizational design which will determine the type of the organizational structure that the organization will have in order to adapt its needs. The major approaches used are:

Classical Bureaucratic Theory:  this approach tends to base it organization in a more logic order, and the use of formal authority. It consists of a clear defined division of labor, formal rules and regulations and procedure, strict hierarchy and its promotion are normally based on ones competency. It only gives a worker one area specialty. Today, organizations tend implement this form as it gives the workers their work limits and thus avoids the unbalance of work sharing.

Contingency Theories: basing on this form of approach, there are two main considerations, which are environment and the technology around the organization that may affect them in whichever way. In order for a company to attain their goal, it has to be organized in such a way that in accommodates all it internal and external environment factors. The external factors will include; their competitors, customer, supplier, the financial market and the political system.  Where as the internal ones are the size of the organization and the type of the employees in the organization. This form of approach is also known as the rational view of organizing. This form of design has been adapted by majority of organization because of its effectiveness in performance.

Open System Theory: this is an organizational theory that does not look at organizations as simple “closed” bureaucratic structures separated from their environment, but as highly complex entities, undergoing considerable uncertainties in their operations and frequently interacting with their environment. This form of approach also tries to seek equality among the forces pressing on them.

Japanese Management: this form of approach h is limited to only the Japan’s large companies. None the less, it tends to provide the workers with excellent salaries and good working environment. In this form of approach, the recruitment and the promotion are normally based upon ones educational background. This form of approach is not commonly used in many organizations.

Therefore, for a more effective organizational design, the structure has to be more effective on both the clients and the members’ needs. A good example of this is the use of the contingency theory where by the organization concentrate more on their employees and even the external forces thus being able to satisfy their clients and the members needs.

To departmentalize a human service organization, the managers will have to consider; high level of customer service, cooperation within the members, flexibility of the employees and the performance in time of deciding on which design to use in coming up with an organizational structure. Thus, matrix structure might be the most effective form to be use as it combines both functional specialization with divisional structure, causing the employees to belong to at least two formal groups at the same time thus reporting to two bosses. this structure will also be adequate as it increases the employees motivation, it allow technical and general management training across the whole functional areas, there is better co-operation among the members, it tends to increase the workers flexibility, it has better customer service and performance.


For a better performing organization, the managers have to use a good organizational design depending on the mode of the business that they are carrying out. This is because; different organizations need different type of organizational structure, e.g. for amore progressed organization, will tend to use the contingency theory in coming up with their structure where as a local business need a simple structure thus the use of open system theory.


McKenna, E.F, 2000, Business Psychology & Organization, Psychology Press.

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