APUSH Chapter 8
Second Bank of the United States
Was needed because of more wartime experience, and the charter on the other one expiring. So Congress chartered this in 1816, it was much like the other but with more capital. This could not forbid state banks from issuing notes, but its size and power enabled it to compel the state banks to issue only sound notes or risk being forced out of business.
Francis Cabot Lowell
A Boston merchant who, after exaiming the textile machinery in England, developed a power loom better than its English counterpart. Also in 1813, in Waltham, Massachusetts, he founded the first mill in America to carry on the process of spinning and weaving under a single roof.
In 1807, Congress enacted a law propsed by the Jefferson administration that permitted using revenues from Ohio land sales to finance this, it was supposed to go from the Potomic River to the Ohio. By 1818, this ran as far as Wheeling, Virginia, on the Ohio River; and the Lancaster Pike, financed in part by the state of Pennsylvania, extened westward to Pittsburgh.
John Jacob Astor
Head of America’s Fur Company, who extened his operations from the Great Lakes area westward to the Rockies in hopes for new commerce.
Fur traders and trappers who began trading in the Far West even though there were few of them. The developed important relationships with the existing residents of the West and altered the character and society there. These men where mostly white, young, and single men. A lot of them, about 2/3, married Indian or Hispanic women.
Andrew and William Ashley
In 1822, they founded the Rocky Mountain Fur Company and recruited white trappers to move permanently into the Rockies. They dispatched supplies annually to their trappers in exchange for furs and skins.
Ever since 1800, the presidency seemed to have been the special possession of Virginians such as,Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe, it upset the North, became very impatient with Virginia ruling over the executive position.
From Virginia, originally James Madison’s Secratary of State, but was then elected as the 5th president of the United States with a total of 183 ballets in the electoral college. He was 61 years old when he became president, and had remarkably favorable circumstances, there a decline in the Federalists and the War of 1812 had ended. After his inaugeration he made a good-will tour through the country. He was accepted and recieved by New Englanders with enthusiasm. The Columbian Centinel, a Federalist newspaper in Boston, observed than an “era of good feelings” had arrived. And on the surface, at least, Monroe’s years in presidency did seem to be an era of good fellings. In 1820, he was reelected without opposition. For all practical purposes, the Federalists party had ceased to exist.
The Seminole War
When Andrew Jackson received orders from Calhoun to stop the raids on American territory by Seminole Indians, he used it as an ecuse to invade Florida and seize the Spanish forts at St. Marks and Penascola, an operation which became known as the Seminole war. The American Government assumed responsibility for Jackson’s raid, saying that they had done what was necessary to stop threats from across the borders, and demonstrated to the Spanish that the United States could easily take Florida by force, and that they might consider doing so.
Made in 1819, where Spain ceded all of Florida to the United States and gave up its claim to territory north of the 42nd parallel in the Pacific Northwest. In return, the American government gave up its claim to Texas.
This made it easy for settlers and speculators to get easy credit, this also fueled the land bloom.
Panic of 1819
Begining in 1819, new management at the national bank began tightening credit, calling in loans, and foreclosing mortgages. This precipitated a series of failures by state banks, and the result was a financial panic. Six years of dpression followed. This caused widespread panic and distress that followed as a warning that rapid economic growth and territorial expansian would destabalize the nation.
In 1820, The issue was that Missouri wanted to join the Union as a slave state, therefore unbalancing the Union so there would be more slave states then free states. The compromise set it up so that Maine joined as a free state and Missouri joined as a slave state. Congress also made a line across the southern border of Missouri saying except for the state of Missouri, all states north of that line must be free states or states without slavery.
In 1819, Representative Tallmadge proposed an amendment to the bill for Missouri’s admission to the Union, which the House passed but the Senate blocked. The amendment would have prohibited the further introduction of slaves into Missouri and would have mandated the emancipation of slaves’ offspring born after the state was admitted.
Fletcher v. Peck
Arouse out of a series of notorious land frauds in Georgia, the Court had to decide whether the Georgia legislature of 1796 could repeal the act of the previous legislature granting lands under shady circumstances to the Yazoo Lands Companies. In a unanimous decision, Marshall said that a land grant was a valid contract and could not be repealed even if corruption was involved.
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
In 1810, this further expanded the meaning of the contract clause of the Constitution. After the Republicans gained control of the New Hampshire government, they tried to revise the Dartmouth College charter, to make it a public school instead of private. Daniel Webster defended the college, he argued that the charter was in fact a contract that was protected by the same doctrine that the court had already upheld in Fletcher v. Peck. The Court ruled for Dartmouth, proclaiming the corporation charters such as the one the colonial legislature had granted the college were contracts and this inavidable. This decision placed important restrictions on the ability of state governments to control corporations.
Cohens v. Virginia
In 1821, in this case Marshall explicitly affirmed the constitutionality of federal review of state court decisions. The states had given up part of their sovereignty in ratifying the Constitution, he explained, and their courts must submit to federal jurdisdiction.
McCulloch v. Maryland
In 1819, in this case Marshall confirmed the “implied powers” of Congress by upholding the constitutionality of the Bank of the United States, even thought it had become very unpopular in the south and west. This case presented two constitutional questions to the Surpreme Court: Could Congress charter a bank? And if so, could individual states ban it or tax it? Daniel Webster defended the bank, and argued that establishing such an institution came withit the “necessary and proper” clause of the Constitution and that the power to tax involved a “power to destroy.” What he was saying was that if the states could tax the Bank at all, they would tax it to death. Marshall ended up deciding for the Bank.
An attorny that defended Dartmouth College and won his case, and also defended the Bank in McCulloh v. Maryland. He won that case as well. He was also a senator for Massachusetts.
Gibbons v. Ogden
Happend in 1824, in this case the Court strengthend Congress’s power to regulate interstate commerce. The state of New York had granted the steamboat company of Robert Fulton and Robert Livingston the exclusive right to carry passangers on the Hudson River to New York City. They then gave Aaron Ogden the business of carrying passangers across the river between New York and New Jersey. But Thomas Gibson, with a lisence granted under an act of Congress, began competing with Odgen for ferry traffic. Ogden brought a suit against him and won in the New York Courts. Gibbson then appealed to the Surpreme Court. The important question in this case was whether Congress had the power to give Gibbson a lisence to operate his ferry superseded the state of New Yorks power to grant Ogden a monopoly. Marshall claimed that the power of Congress to regulate interstate commerce was “complete in itself” and might be “exercised to its utmost extent.” Ogden’s state-granted monopoly was void.
Johnson v. McIntosh
In 1823, leaders of the Illinois and Pinakeshaw tribes had sold parcels of their land to a group of white settlers, incluing Johnson, but had later signed a treaty with the federral govt. ceding territory that included those same parcels to the United States. The govt. proceded to grant homestead rights to new white settlers, McIntosh, on the land claimed by Johnson. The court was asked to decide which claim had precedence. Marshall’s ruling favored the United States. But in explaining it, he offered a preliminary definition of the place of Indians within the nation. He said that the tribes had basic rights to their tribal lands and that preceded all other American law. Individual American citizens could not buy of take land from the tribes, only the federal government could do that.
Worcester v. Georgia
In 1832, when the court invalidated a Georgia law that attempted to regulate access by U.S. citizens to Cherokee counrty. Marshall claimed only the federal govt. could do that. He explained that the tribes were sovereign entities in much the same way Georgia was a sovereign entity. In defending the power of the federal government, he was also affirming and explaining the rights of the tribes to remain free from the authority of state governments.
The Monroe Doctrine
In 1823, Monroe announced a new policy that would become known as this, even though it was mostley the work of John Quincy Adams. In it Monroe stated “The American continents are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers.” The U.S. would then see any foreign challenge to the sovereignity of existing American nations as an unfriendly act. At the same time, he proclaimed “Our policy in regard to Europe is not to interfere in the internal concerns fo any of its powers. This had few immediate effects, but it was important as an expression of growing nationalism in the U.S.
Up until 1820, presidential candidates were nominated by caucuses of the two parties in Congress, but in 1824, this idea was overthrown.
William H. Crawford
From Georgia was nominated by the Republican caucus, as he was the favorite of the extreme states’ rights faction of the party. But other candidates received nominations from state legislatures and won endorsements from mass meetings throughout the country., of Georgia was nominated by the Republican caucus(last caucus selection), as he was the favorite of the extreme states’ rights faction of the party. But other candidates received nominations from state legislatures and won endorsements from mass meetings throughout the country.
Proposed creating a great home market for factory and farm producers by raising the protective tariffs, strengthening the national bank, and financing internal improvments.
Refers to the presidential election of 1824 in which Henry Clay, the Speaker of the House, convinced the House of Representatives to elect Adams rather than Jackson. This outraged Jacksonians and they called it this.
The Tariff of Abominations
Was a bill cursed as this by southerners after Adams signed it. It was a bill for a new tariff on imported goods in 1828. It originated with New England states’ woolen manufacturers. To gain support from middle and western states, the administration had to accept duties on other items as well. This antagonized the origninal New England supporters of the bill, so adams just signed the bill.
When Adam’s supporters were ranting against Jackson, they called him a murderer and distributed this, which listed names, withit coffin-shaped outlines, the names of militiamen whom Jackson was said to have shot in cold blood during the War of 1812. The men had actually been deserters who were legally executed after a sentence by a court-martial.
Era of the Common Man
When Jackson was elected over Adams, Jacksonians claimed that America had entered a new era of democracy, also known as this.