Assignment Classification Table Essay
Visit Free Slides and Ebooks : http://downloadslide. blogspot. com CHAPTER 15 Equity ASSIGNMENT CLASSIFICATION TABLE (BY TOPIC) Topics 1. Shareholders’ rights; corporate form. 2. Equity. Questions 1, 2, 3 4, 5, 6, 16, 17, 18, 29, 30, 31 7, 10 8, 9 3 7, 10, 16, 17 1, 2, 4, 6, 9 3, 4, 5, 6 1, 2, 3, 9 Brief Exercises Exercises Problems Concepts for Analysis 1 3. Issuance of shares. 4. Noncash share transactions; lump sum sales. 5. Treasury share transactions, cost method. 6. Preference stock. 7. Equity accounts; classifications; terminology. 8. Dividend policy. 9. Cash and share dividends; share splits; property dividends; liquidating dividends. 0. Restrictions of retained earnings. 11. Presentation and analysis *12. Dividend preferences and book value. 1, 2, 6 4, 5 1, 3, 4 1, 4 2 11, 12, 17 7, 8 3, 6, 7, 9, 10, 18 2, 8 10, 11, 16, 17 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7 1, 3 9, 11, 12 7 3, 13, 14, 15 9 3 19, 20, 21, 22, 25, 26 22, 23, 24 10 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 12, 15 13, 14, 15, 18 7, 10 6, 7, 8, 10, 11 4, 5, 6 27, 28 17, 19, 20 32 15 21, 22, 23, 24 9 12 *This material is covered in an Appendix to the chapter. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Kieso Intermediate: IFRS Edition, Solutions Manual 15-1 Visit Free Slides and Ebooks : http://downloadslide. blogspot. om ASSIGNMENT CLASSIFICATION TABLE (BY LEARNING OBJECTIVE) Learning Objectives 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. *10. Discuss the characteristics of the corporate form of organization. Identify the key components of equity. Explain the accounting procedures for issuing shares. Describe the accounting for treasury shares. Explain the accounting for and reporting of preference shares. Describe the policies used in distributing dividends. Identify the various forms of dividend distributions. Explain the accounting for small and large share dividends, and for share splits. Indicate how to present and analyze equity.
Explain the different types of preference share dividends and their effect on book value per share. 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 3, 7, 8 9 10, 11, 12 11, 12 13, 14 3 15 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10 6, 7, 9, 10, 18 5, 8 16 11, 12, 15, 16, 18 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18 17, 19, 20 8, 21, 22, 23, 24 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12 3, 8, 10, 11, 12 1, 2, 6, 9, 11, 12 1, 3, 4, 9, 12 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 12 4 Brief Exercises Exercises Problems 15-2 Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Kieso, Intermediate: IFRS Edition, Solutions Manual Visit Free Slides and Ebooks : http://downloadslide. blogspot. com ASSIGNMENT CHARACTERISTICS TABLE
Item E15-1 E15-2 E15-3 E15-4 E15-5 E15-6 E15-7 E15-8 E15-9 E15-10 E15-11 E15-12 E15-13 E15-14 E15-15 E15-16 E15-17 E15-18 E15-19 E15-20 *E15-21 *E15-22 *E15-23 *E15-24 P15-1 P15-2 P15-3 P15-4 P15-5 P15-6 P15-7 P15-8 P15-9 P15-10 P15-11 P15-12 CA15-1 CA15-2 CA15-3 CA15-4 CA15-5 CA15-6 CA15-7 Description Recording the issuances of ordinary shares. Recording the issuance of ordinary and preference shares. Shares issued for land. Lump-sum sale of shares with bonds. Lump-sum sales of ordinary and preference shares. Share issuances and repurchase. Effect of treasury share transactions on financials. Preference share entries and dividends.
Correcting entries for equity transactions. Analysis of equity data and equity section preparation. Equity items on the statement of financial position. Cash dividend and liquidating dividend. Share split and share dividend. Entries for share dividends and share splits. Dividend entries. Computation of retained earnings. Equity section. Dividends and equity section. Comparison of alternative forms of financing. Trading on the equity analysis. Preference dividends. Preference dividends. Preference share dividends. Computation of book value per share. Equity transactions and statement preparation.
Treasury share transactions and presentation. Equity transactions and statement preparation. Share transactions—lump sum. Treasury shares—cost method. Treasury shares—cost method—equity section preparation. Cash dividend entries. Dividends and splits. Equity section of statement of financial position. Share dividends and share split. Share and cash dividends. Analysis and classification of equity transactions. Preemptive rights and dilution of ownership. Issuance of shares for land. Conceptual issues—equity. Share dividends and splits. Share dividends. Share dividend, cash dividend, and treasury shares. Treasury shares, ethics.
Level of Difficulty Simple Simple Simple Moderate Simple Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Simple Simple Simple Simple Simple Simple Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Simple Moderate Complex Moderate Moderate Simple Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Simple Moderate Simple Complex Moderate Moderate Moderate Simple Simple Moderate Moderate Time (minutes) 15–20 15–20 10–15 20–25 10–15 25–30 15–20 15–20 15–20 20–25 15–20 10–15 10–15 10–12 10–15 05–10 20–25 30–35 20–25 15–20 10–15 15–20 15–20 10–20 50–60 25–35 25–30 20–30 30–40 30–40 15–20 20–25 20–25 35–45 25–35 35–45 10–20 15–20 25–30 25–30 15–20 20–25 10–15 This material is presented in an appendix to the chapter. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Kieso Intermediate: IFRS Edition, Solutions Manual 15-3 Visit Free Slides and Ebooks : http://downloadslide. blogspot. com ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. The basic rights of each shareholder (unless otherwise restricted) are to share proportionately: (1) in profits, (2) in management (the right to vote for directors), (3) in corporate assets upon liquidation, and (4) in any new issues of shares of the same class (preemptive right).
The preemptive right protects existing shareholders from dilution of their ownership share in the event the corporation issues new shares. Preference shares commonly have preference to dividends in the form of a fixed dividend rate and a preference over ordinary shares to remaining corporate assets in the event of liquidation. Preference shares usually do not give the holder the right to share in the management of the company.
Ordinary shares are the residual security possessing the greater risk of loss and the greater potential for gain; they are guaranteed neither dividends nor assets upon dissolution but they generally control the management. The distinction between contributed (paid-in) capital and retained earnings is important for both legal and economic points of view. Legally, dividends can be declared out of retained earnings in all countries, but in many countries dividends cannot be declared out of contributed (paid-in) capital. Economically, management, shareholders, and others look to earnings for the continued existence and growth of the corporation.
Authorized ordinary shares—the total number of shares authorized by the country of incorporation for issuance. Unissued ordinary shares—the total number of shares authorized but not issued. Issued ordinary shares—the total number of shares issued (distributed to shareholders). Outstanding ordinary shares—the total number of shares issued and still in the hands of shareholders (issued less treasury shares). Treasury shares—shares issued and repurchased by the issuing corporation but not retired. Par value is an arbitrary, fixed per share amount assigned to a share by the incorporators.
It is recognized as the amount that must be paid in for each share if the shares are to be fully paid when issued. If not fully paid, the shareholder has a contingent liability for the discount results. The issuance for cash of no-par value ordinary shares at a price in excess of the stated value of the ordinary shares is accounted for as follows: (1) Cash is debited for the proceeds from the issuance of the ordinary shares. (2) Share Capital—Ordinary is credited for the stated value of the ordinary shares. (3) Share Premium—Ordinary is credited for the excess of the proceeds from the issuance of the ordinary shares over their stated value.
The proportional method is used to allocate the lump sum received on sales of two or more classes of securities when the fair value or other sound basis for determining relative value is available for each class of security. In instances where the fair value of all classes of securities is not determinable in a lump-sum sale, the incremental method must be used. The value of the securities is used for those classes that are known and the remainder is allocated to the class for which the value is not known. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 15-4 Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Kieso, Intermediate: IFRS Edition, Solutions Manual
Visit Free Slides and Ebooks : http://downloadslide. blogspot. com Questions Chapter 15 (Continued) 9. The general rule to be applied when shares are issued for services or property other than cash is that companies should record the shares issued at the fair value of the goods or services received, unless that fair value cannot be measured reliably. If the fair value of the goods or services cannot be measured reliably, use the fair value of the shares issued. If a company cannot readily determine either the fair value of the shares it issues or the property or services it receives, it should employ an appropriate valuation technique.
Depending on available data, the valuation may be based on market transactions involving comparable assets or the use of discounted expected future cash flows. Companies should avoid the use of the book, par, or stated values as a basis of valuation for these transactions. 10. The direct costs of issuing shares, such as underwriting costs, accounting and legal fees, printing costs, and taxes, should be reported as a reduction of the amounts paid in. Issue costs are therefore debited to Share Premium because they are unrelated to corporate operations. 11.
The major reasons for purchasing its own shares are: (1) to provide tax-efficient distributions of excess cash to shareholders, (2) to increase earnings per share and return on equity, (3) to provide shares for employee compensation contracts, (4) to thwart takeover attempts or to reduce the number of shareholders, (5) to make a market in the company’s shares. 12. (a) (b) Treasury shares should not be classified as an asset since a corporation cannot own itself. The ? gain? or ? loss? on sale of treasury shares should not be treated as additions to or deductions from income.
If treasury shares are carried in the accounts at cost, these socalled gains or losses arise when the treasury shares are sold. These ? gains? or ? losses? should be considered as additions to or reductions of equity. In some instances, the ? loss? should be charged to Retained Earnings. ?Gains? or ? losses? arising from treasury shares transactions are not included as a component of net income since dealings in treasury shares represent equity transactions. Dividends on treasury shares should never be included as income, but should be credited directly to retained earnings, against which they were incorrectly charged.
Since treasury shares cannot be considered an asset, dividends on treasury shares are not properly included in net income. (c) 13. The character of preference shares can be altered by being cumulative or non-cumulative, participating or non-participating, convertible or non-convertible, and/or callable or non-callable. 14. Nonparticipating means the security holder is entitled to no more than the specified fixed dividend. If the security is partially participating, it means that in addition to the specified fixed dividend the security may participate with the ordinary shares in dividends up to a certain stated rate or amount.
A fully participating security shares pro rata with the ordinary shares dividends declared without limitation. In this case, Kim Inc. has fully participating preference shares. Cumulative means dividends not paid in any year must be made up in a later year before any profits can be distributed to ordinary shareholders. Any dividends not paid on cumulative preference shares constitute a dividend in arrears. A dividend in arrears is not a liability until the board of directors declares a dividend. 15. Preference shares are generally reported at par value as the first item in the equity section of a company’s statement of financial position.
Any excess over par value is reported as share premium-preference. 16. Sources of equity include (1) share capital, (2) share premium, (3) retained earnings, (4) accumulated other comprehensive income, and reduced by (5) treasury shares. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Kieso Intermediate: IFRS Edition, Solutions Manual 15-5 Visit Free Slides and Ebooks : http://downloadslide. blogspot. com Questions Chapter 15 (Continued) 17. When treasury shares are purchased, the Treasury Shares account is debited and Cash is credited at cost (€290,000 in this case).
Treasury Shares is a contra equity account and Cash is an asset. Thus, this transaction has: (a) no effect on net income, (b) decreases total assets, (c) has no effect on retained earnings, and (d) decreases total equity. 18. The answers are summarized in the table below: Account (a) Share capital—ordinary (b) Retained Earnings (c) Share Premium—Ordinary (d) Treasury Shares (e) Share Premium—Treasury (f) Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (g) Share capital—preference Classification Share capital Retained earnings Share premium Deducted from total equity Share premium Added to total equity Share capital 9. The dividend policy of a company is influenced by (1) the availability of cash, (2) the stability of earnings, (3) current earnings, (4) prospective earnings, (5) the existence or absence of contractual restrictions on working capital or retained earnings, and (6) a retained earnings balance. 20. In declaring a dividend, the board of directors must consider the condition of the corporation such that a dividend is (1) legally permissible and (2) economically sound.
In general, directors should give consideration to the following factors in determining the legality of a dividend declaration: (1) Retained earnings, unless legally encumbered in some manner, is usually the correct basis for dividend distribution. (2) Dividends in some jurisdictions may not reduce retained earnings below the cost of treasury shares held. In addition, in some jurisdictions, share premium may be used for dividends, although such dividends may be limited to preference shares. Generally, deficits in retained earnings and debits in contributed (paid-in) capital accounts must be restored before payment of any dividends.
In order that dividends be economically sound, the board of directors should consider: (1) the availability (liquidity) of assets for distribution; (2) agreements with creditors; (3) the effect of a dividend on investor perceptions (e. g. maintaining an expected ? pay-out ratio? ); and (4) the size of the dividend with respect to the possibility of paying dividends in future bad years. In addition, the ability to expand or replace existing facilities should be considered. 21. Cash dividends are paid out of cash.
A balance must exist in retained earnings to permit a legal distribution of profits, but having a balance in retained earnings does not ensure the ability to pay a dividend if the cash situation does not permit it. 22. A cash dividend is a distribution in cash while a property dividend is a distribution in assets other than cash. Any dividend not based on retained earnings is a liquidating dividend. A share dividend is the issuance of additional shares in a nonreciprocal exchange involving existing shareholders with no change in the par or stated value. 23.
A share dividend results in the transfer from retained earnings to share capital and share premium of an amount equal to the market value of each share (if the dividend is less than 20– 25%) or the par value of each share (if the dividend is greater than 20–25%). No formal journal entries are required for a share split, but a notation in the ledger accounts would be appropriate to show that the par value of the shares has changed. 15-6 Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Kieso, Intermediate: IFRS Edition, Solutions Manual Visit Free Slides and Ebooks : http://downloadslide. blogspot. om Questions Chapter 15 (Continued) 24. (a) A share split effected in the form of a dividend is a distribution of corporate shares to present shareholders in proportion to each shareholder’s current holdings and can be expected to cause a material decrease in the market value per share. IFRS specifies that a distribution in excess of 20% to 25% of the number of shares previously outstanding would cause a material decrease in the market value. This is a characteristic of a share split as opposed to a share dividend, but, for legal reasons, the term ? dividend? must be used for this distribution.
From an accounting viewpoint, it should be disclosed as a share split effected in the form of a dividend because it meets the accounting definition of a share split as explained above. (b) The share split effected in the form of a dividend differs from an ordinary share dividend in the amount of retained earnings to be capitalized. An ordinary share dividend involves capitalizing (charging) retained earnings equal to the fair value of the shares distributed. A share split effected in the form of a dividend involves charging retained earnings for the par (stated) value of the additional shares issued.
Another distinction between a share dividend and a share split is that a share dividend usually involves distributing additional shares of the same class with the same par or stated value. A share split usually involves distributing additional shares of the same class but with a proportionate reduction in par or stated value. The aggregate par or stated value would then be the same before and after the share split. (c) A declared but unissued share dividend should be classified as part of equity rather than as a liability in a statement of financial position.
A share dividend affects only equity accounts; that is, retained earnings is decreased and share capital and share premium are increased. Thus, there is no debt to be paid, and, consequently, there is no severance of corporate assets when a share dividend is issued. Furthermore, share dividends declared can be revoked by a corporation’s board of directors any time prior to issuance. Finally, the corporation usually will formally announce its intent to issue a specific number of additional shares, and these shares must be reserved for this purpose. 5. A partially liquidating dividend will be debited both to Retained Earnings and Share Premium. The portion of dividends that is a return of capital should be debited to Share Premium. 26. A property dividend is a nonreciprocal transfer of nonmonetary assets between an enterprise and its owners. A transfer of a nonmonetary asset to a shareholder or to another entity in a nonreciprocal transfer should be recorded at the fair value of the asset transferred, and a gain or loss should be recognized on the disposition of the asset. 27.
Retained earnings are restricted because of legal or contractual restrictions, or the necessity to protect the working capital position. 28. Restrictions of retained earnings are best disclosed in a note to the financial statements. This allows a more complete explanation of the restriction. 29. No, Mary should not make that conclusion. While IFRS allows unrealized losses on non-trading equity investments to be reported under ? Reserves? , U. S. GAAP requires these losses to be reported as other comprehensive income. Specifically, unrealized losses are reported in the Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss) account under U.
S. GAAP. 30. Key similarities between IFRS and U. S. GAAP for transactions related to equity pertain to (1) issuance of shares, (2) purchase of treasury shares, (3) declaration and payment of dividends, (4), the costs associated with issuing shares reduce the proceeds from the issuance and reduce contributed (paid-in) capital, and (5) the accounting for par, no par and no par shares with a stated value. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Kieso Intermediate: IFRS Edition, Solutions Manual 15-7 Visit Free Slides and Ebooks : http://downloadslide. logspot. com Questions Chapter 15 (Continued) Major differences relate to terminology used, introduction of items such as revaluation surplus, and presentation of stockholder equity information. In addition, the accounting for treasury stock retirements differs between IFRS and U. S. GAAP. Under U. S. GAAP a company has the option of charging the excess of the cost of treasury stock over par value to (1) retained earnings, (2) allocate the difference between paid in capital and retained earnings, or (3) charge the entire amount to paid-in capital.
Under IFRS, the excess may have to be charged to paid-in capital, depending on the original transaction related to the issuance of the stock. An IFRS/U. S. GAAP difference relates to the account Revaluation Surplus. Revaluation surplus arises under IFRS because of increases or decreases in property, plant and equipment, mineral resources, and intangible assets. This account is part of general reserves under IFRS and is not considered contributed capital. 31.
It is likely that the statement of stockholders’ equity and its presentation will be examined closely in the financial statement presentation project. In addition the options of how to present other comprehensive income under U. S. GAAP will change in any converged standard in this area. *32. (a) Current year’s dividend, 7% Participating dividend of 9% Totals a Preference $ 7,000 9,000 $16,000 Ordinary $21,000a 27,000 $48,000 Total $28,000 36,000 $64,000 (see schedule below for computation of amounts)