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    In preaching there can be a breakdown in communication at any stage of the seven step. Communication gap only occurs if there is a contact between people and exposure to one another and to ideas. Analysis shows that preaching in an oral transmission of a biblical message in a sermon is not always a process without any problem. People live in different ways, experience thongs in different ways and process things in different ways from each other. Cultural difference, languages differences and might changes things for people.

    Some of the problems that are present at preaching includes; selective understanding; selective orientation which has three subcategories 1, influence of primary groups, 2, respect for the preacher, 3, cognitive consonance. We will also look at selective perception, and selective retention. Selective understanding; It has been shown that people in fact listen at different levels. Without having contact at some level the message that is being conveyed is not heard. Most people only listen to and pay attention to things that the preacher says, these are usually the things the person feels they have a persona view of or have experiences.

    Clapper started a theory that recipients of mass communication expose homeless to it selectively. Clapper called his theory “selective exposure”. This means that the recipients of the message decide for themselves what sermon they are going to listen to. The recipient will then filter what they hear or see, and this they will remember selected points. People also understand and apply the sermon to their life’s in different ways. This process of understanding can be divided into selective orientation, selective perception and selective retention. Selective orientation: One can find selective orientations when it comes to music.

    In 1989 Dryer proved that that this also applied to viewers of religious programmer. It says that that people open their minds only when they hear something they feel like that have a connection with. People stop listening to things said in a sermon. There are 3 aspects that particularly pertinent to this selective orientation to the message; 1 , influence of primary group; 2, listener’s image of the preacher; 3, need for cognitive consonance. Influence of primary group: Selective orientation of listening to a sermon is greatly influenced by the opinions of the leader.

    Listeners to a sermon are determined by notions, norms and attitudes of the group in which they belong. It is a small group in which individuals are either socialized or accepted. People try to adapt to their experiences and their expectations to the attitudes of these primary groups. When they hear something that conflicts with their standards they tend to deny it. The opinion leaders play a major role in primary groups and the communities in which they people lives in. Respect for the preacher When there is a trustful relationship between the preacher and the congregation hey will listen to his preach.

    Their attitude might be positive or negative. If their attitude is negative they will be skeptical towards the message brought to them and will probably accept very little of the preach. They will still only be selectively oriented even to preacher with whom they have a good relationship with. An important issue which calls for attention from the church as a whole is an image of preacher in the minds of the population. Cognitive consonance It is when people strive for harmony between their disposition and the unwanted messages that they receive.

    Even if they trust the preacher, they accept his message but at some level they cannot accommodate it. This is where cognitive consonance comes in. When their mental harmony is disturbed and they try unconsciously to put an end to this dissonance by distorting the message and by rationalizing it. One way to try and achieve cognitive consonance is to dismiss the message as unimportant. One can also cite a greater evil. Resolving the tension by accepting the message and changing one’s behavior. Selective perception Selection process is determined by past experiences and ideas stored in the rain.

    Thus people perceive and interpret selectively. 2. Notes concerning the manner in which the dialog power of the sermon can be strengthened. It is important to follow the following points when preparing a ideological sermon. Phrasing of the sermon Sermon forms Discussion of the sermon Preaching workshops Preaching workshops with opinion leader It has to do with the structure, wording and formulation of the sermon. The wording of the sermon will communicate more or less effectively depends on the preachers choice of words and sentences.

    The clarity of the built-in dialogue and inking up with ordinary but relevant human experience, all of these factors are important for good communicating. Sermon Form The sermon can be in different formats: 1 . Text-thematic sermons. Text format. Communicated by way of argumentation. 2. Narrative sermons. Story telling element. Communicate through listeners identification with characters or experiences recounted. 3. Homilies in which a periscope from the Bible is chosen, which is then discussed mad expounded verse by verse. Discussion of sermon By engaging the congregation in dialogue about the sermon can improve the communication.

    Sermon workshops By having sermon workshops one can get together as a group. It should always be the preacher not the group who composes the sermon. Both the community and the preacher must take part to understand the messages that was conveyed in the sermon. The congregation plays a role in the exposition and understanding of a text in the corporate community of a sermon workshop. The workshops provide a valuable opportunity to test whether preacher and congregation understand each other. These workshops are usually composed of representative of all the groups in the congregation.

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