We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy

See Pricing

What's Your Topic?

Hire a Professional Writer Now

The input space is limited by 250 symbols

What's Your Deadline?

Choose 3 Hours or More.
Back
2/4 steps

How Many Pages?

Back
3/4 steps

Sign Up and See Pricing

"You must agree to out terms of services and privacy policy"
Back
Get Offer

Battle of Kadesh: The Great War of Ancient Civilization

Hire a Professional Writer Now

The input space is limited by 250 symbols

Deadline:2 days left
"You must agree to out terms of services and privacy policy"
Write my paper

Battle of Kadesh: The Great War of Ancient Civilization      Figure 1.

map of ancient egyptGreen-egypt,yellow- Assyrianspurple- phoenicians In the ancient civilization, great kingdoms were known for their power, treasure and territories. The massive amount of resources that conquest can gain is important to further expand the kingdom and hold greater power and prestige against other nations. Vassals, strong relations to other state and magnificent number of manpower are the driving force for a nation’s victory.

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Battle of Kadesh: The Great War of Ancient Civilization
Just from $13,9/Page
Get custom paper

  In the center of it all was a visionary leader who claims the destiny of a great land towards fortune by development or with insurmountable power, raise an army of thousands that will conquer lands and leave other nations wealth for the taking.

In the time of Egypt’s reign, the Assyrians and the Hittites rule the neighboring lands. A rivalry between whose the most powerful is inevitable among these nations, since the Assyrians rule the land in the eastern side of Egypt and the Hittites ruling the north eastern side, just above the Assyrians homeland.

It is also by several occasions that dispute has surface between the nations since territorial campaigns can happen at the same time and resources is shared only by smaller provincial boundaries. For years the Hittites or Indo-Europeans has experienced internal problems of their own due to political instability, royalty’s assassination and palace intrigues.

Even though the campaign of their former king Mursilis I in Babylon was a complete success. Moreover it was in this time that they lost their territory in Anatolia and Syria.  By the turn of 15th century a restoration of the Hittite kingdom occurred under Telepinus which begun the two phases of restoration focusing on ending lawlessness and regulating royal succession. He also tries to bring forth old prestige by reconquestof previously held Anatolian territories and a military and political expansion to the eastern and southern regions.

Several campaigns also strengthened the Hittite kingdom by conquering Mintani by king Thudaliyas I. Although the later successors had been weak in protecting the land, it was under Suppiluliumas that gain back Hittites hold and finally breaking forth unto Syria.During those times, Akhenaten, the ruler of Egypt from 1370-1362 BC was also expanding his territory. After Egypt’s division by the Hyksos in the north and the Thebans in the south, a new insurgence of Egyptian rulers strive to bring back the diplomacy within the region.

As the creation of the New kingdom arises the primary goals of the leaders were to take back its lost territories and widen its horizon.Akhenaten who was known for his religious reforms, had also rallied a great campaign at Sudan. Nevertheless, the infiltration of Syria which is at the top most border of Egyptian territory by Suppiluliumas I, arouses old rivalry that was started inthe former Palestinian campaign when both nation crossed and met in the Euphrates.However, although the two state had been gnashing teeth at each other, and though war is inevitable, ever since the Palestinian campaign and along with the  recently victorious conquest of Mintani by the Hittites, which were a previous ally of Egypt; both forces were lashed back in relation to vassal problems of their own.

The territorial expansion didn’t falter in Egypt though, as Tutankhamen the deemed successor of Akhenaten, although several books theorize the succession of Smenkhkare, It was in his rule that a restoration of the polytheistic religion by his vizier Ay and steadied the territorial claim of Egypt, with his general Horemheb, by pacifying the growing Palestinian discord and setting up a centralized government.  After the death of Tutankhamen his vizier then later on his general took over the throne. Horemheb focused on rebuilding the Egyptian army who was affected by the pestilence that swept the region. On the other hand, the Hittites new leader Mursilis II solidified his father’s work Suppiluliumas I which was killed by the pestilence that affected the North East; Under his rule he ended internal chaos in the northern, eastern and western vassals of the country.

Around 1300 BC, a new Hittite empire is finally firmly established and goodgovernance was widespread over its vassals, keeping good relations and a strong bond with other states. It was also in this time that a new seat of power was succeeded to Seti I in Egypt, after his father’s death Ramsses I who was a commander in Horemheb’s army.Figure 2. Seti I Stela at Beit SheanBy 1315 Muwatallis succeeded his father Mursilis II, and started ratifying treaties on his vassalage, extending his throne to the Lukka lands of the south and unto the Wilusa in the north.

Seti I on the other hand already set up a campaign in theCanaan to restore its hold of colonial administration and also todefeat the rebellion by King Hamath and Pahel in the town of Beth Shan (Beit Shean).He even forged an army unto Kadesh and leave a stella of his victory in the Beit Shean grounds. With the infantry advancing up to Kadesh in the Orontes river, A victory stela was once again erected, causing much discord in the nearby Hittite own lands and increasing the rivalry between the two nations in relation to Egypt’s support in the former rebellion of the Hittites territory in Syria. Although a standoff is unavoidable, a confrontation was dismissed as circumstances in the northern lands of the Hittite empire has gone awry as a result of the shift of capital from the north to the lower lands in the south.

 In contrast to the internal discord of the Hittite empire, a new succession was done in Egypt, giving Ramsses II the throne, who is at that time a well known builder of his father, Seti I. Under Ramesses II rule, Egyptian campaign advances further north and capturing Beruta and Ammuru. As a result, Ammuru a former vassal of the Hittites, changed sides and its leader Bentisina send a letter to Muwattalis declaring his conversion of loyalty to the Egyptian empire.Enraged with the betrayal of Bentisina, Muwattalis called upon his brother Hattusilis who had helped him secure the northern lands, and set up a plan to bring back Ammuru into their fold and capture the traitorous king Bentisina.

The specific number of forces that were brought by Muwattalis is unknown but in several studies the range was 47, 000 to 60,000, some were in chariots while others are on foot. Furthermore the Hittite army was consisted of men from their vassals in Allepo, Kizwadna and other Hittite contingents from the Mintani and the northern region.Similarly, the Egyptian troops who had found out about the beleaguered Ammuru, prepared an army composed of 41,000 to 50,000 troops to help protect its new vassal. At the start of the campaign, the Egyptian army were divided into four subdivisions, all named from their gods.

As a tactical scouting measure, Ramesses positioned his Suteh division in Sumur and has given orders to rejoin the army at Kadesh after securing the port. In addition to that the Ptah divison was sent to secure the south. Meanwhile, to the south of the ford of Orentes river, Ramesses encountered men who claimed that they were from the tribe of Shosu, who said to have betrayed the Hittite army and were seeking allegiance to the Egyptian to the king.  After asking them of the Hittites whereabouts, Ramesses Amen division further advances north to Kadesh, believing the Shosu’s recollection that the Hittite’s were still far and were camped in Haleb.

With a plan of securing Kadesh before the arrival of the Hittites, Ramesses left unaware of the treachery of the said Shosu tribe members who were in fact Hittite scouts led to trap the king.The Hittites armies were actually based in the northeast side of old Kadesh, leaving a separate subdivision in the valleys and mountains surrounding it.Figure 3.: the trap of the Hittite armyAs the rest of the Re division still on their way to Kadesh, a separate division of the Hittite army attack from the valleys that harbor the Orontes river; It was only at that time that the Amen division of Ramesses caught two Hittite scouts and were told of the real position of the Hittite army.

  In order to fix the problem strategically, Ramesses sent out his vizier further south to order the Ptah and Suteh division to rejoin the army back to the north.As the Re division left unprepared during the Hittite attack, only a remainder of the forces were able to rejoin the pharaoh’s camp. As the first wave of attack ended, a second wave begun in the northwest of Kadesh where the pharaoh’s camp was located. With a few men on his side, the camp was overpowered leaving the Amen division weak and near collapsed due to the pillaging of the Hittite army.

Ramesses, who was surrounded by the Hittite army, said to have prayed to his god Amun, before fighting for his life.“For behold! now, Ammon, I, In the midst of many peoples, all unknown,Unnumbered as the sand, Here I stand, All alone; There is no one at my side,my warriors and chariots afeared, Have deserted me, none heard My voice,         hen to the cravens I, their king, for succor, cried.” (Tappan (1914) 154-160)It was said to have been a sure victory for the Hittites, however a chariot of men who said to have come from Ammuru or some called them as nearin, came into the rescue of the pharaoh giving Ramesses sometime to organize his men. As Muwatalli men left surprised by the rear counter attack of the Ammuru chariots, an army of 1000 chariots led by his brother and the kings of his vassals helped in the battle.

It was after awhile that the continuous surge of Muwattali army, dwindle as the Ptah division came hurdling towards the Pharaoh’s rescue. The result was the untimely retreat of the Hittite army toward the Kadesh unto the Orontes river.Figure 4:  The counterattack by the EgyptianAs the Hittite fled toward Kadesh, the Egyptian chariots were not able to purse them leaving Ramesses men to soak on their immature victory. Although, in some Egyptian text it was said that Muwattalis begged for his armies retreat from the pharaoh through a letter (refashim.

org), the battle still remained inconclusive of a real winner; Since Ramesses troops were greatly defeated leaving a third of his army to round up. At near dusk the last of Ramesses army, the Suteh division arrived, leaving them the job to round up the carcass and booty of the fallen army.As the day of infamy subsided, it came known to Ramesses that further conquest into the Hittite territory will bring no result and with a said letter from Muwattalisventuring for peace, as discussed earlier; it leaves him all the reason to disengage in the campaign and return to Egypt. After the battle of Kadesh, Muwatallis consequently continue his campaign towards the Damascus and remained as the ruler of Syria.

Resulting to Ammuru becoming a vassal of the Hittites once again with the former king banished and replaced with Sapilli. With his two goals met, it was also been said that the Hittites also claimed victory over the war (Beck (1975) from ancienthistory.com). On the other hand, Ramesses, advances his kingdom across Negev, as far as the Dead sea, it was during this years that he was with his son Amon-hir-h?epešef, thus splitting the two forces to invade Syria.

Taking Moab, Edom-Seir, and then Apa, which is a strong Hittite domain. Ramesses conquest to invade Syria lasted till his 9th years of rule, he marches to Dapur, and up to the far end of Ammuru and Kadesh. 8Figure 5. The Hittite KingdomRed- hittites,yellow- Egypt*bordering the Egypt and Hittite land is Ammuru and KadeshAlthough a war once again flared up in the Syrian land of Ammuru, the same things happen as the first war, since the city was returned to the Hittites control within a year.

It had been also misgiving in Ramesses sake that most of his colonial lands had a revolt, prior to the king’s decision in giving up the campaign during the Battle of Kadesh. It even took eight years for the Egyptian army to claim any territories since internal dispute crippled its resources (Schmidt (1960)115). Over at the Hittite kingdom, the passing of Muwatallis and the ascension of power to his son Urhi-Teshub (Mursilis III), resulted to an internal dispute among royalty, it had been said that the son was in cahoots over the death of his father, although no clear records were shown (hittites.info).

The battle for the throne went from bad to awry as Hattulissis II, the brother and former commander of Muwatallis, engaged Mursillis III in a war, causing him to be killed by treachery in the land of Samuha. Upon Hattusilis reign, he started a different tackle with Egypt. With his succession from Mursillis II, the Hittite kingdom was in disarray as they were loosing ground in several of their vassals. In addition to that, the ascendancy of the Assyrians, were also considered to be a big threat to the weakened Hittite army.

On the first day of the first month of 1259, Hattusilis III and Ramesses II both kings received a messenger with tablets that signs in a treaty of brotherhood and security of9the Levant state. The treaty said to have fostered a defensive act of the two towards the growing Assyrian empire, under Adad-nirans kingship. In the tablet it was said: “Behold, H?attušili, the Great Prince of H?atti, hasset himself in a regulation with User-maat-Re Setep-en-Re, the Great Ruler of Egypt, beginning from this            day, to cause that good peace and brotherhood occur between us forever, while he is in brotherhood with me and he is at peace with me, and I am in       brotherhood with him and I am at peace with him forever.”(ANET 199, hittites.

info)Figure 5:  Marriage of Rameses II. at Abu Simbel H?attušili on the far right presenting his daughter to Rameses, who rests under a canopy(Photograph: Oriental Institute)The treaty were said to have solidified by the carvingson the Hypostle hall that Ramesses built and later on awedding on one of Hattusilis daughter to Ramesses in his 34th year of reign.Accordingly, the treaty had helped both countries massively as resources such as wheat and fruits were given by the Egyptians during the famine in the Hittite kingdom. A second wedding also occurred, although any specific date was not written.

Another great result of the brotherhood was the sharing of knowledge of Egyptian medicine to the Hittites king Tarhuntassa in Kurunta and trips to Egypt were even bequeathed by the pharaoh to the land of Canaan and to his capital Pi-Rameses.The good relation were said to have lasted until the son of Hattusilis, although in the following years the influence of the Egyptian were no longer written in the Hittites script. 10The Hittite and the Egypt, the rise and fall of two kingdoms were somewhat the same that one could inadvertently call them as twins. With a few squabbles and war for territory and land possessions, it was only Ramesses II that was able to bridge the gap and firmly made them as brothers.

 Ramesses II, known as a master builder in the side of his father, became also known for his vigorous military campaigns. He had led Egypt into victorious campaigns, reaching his territory far south to Nubia, until the far east of Dapur. Although his name spells of greater grandeur to the art community with his architectural and edifice visions; one of the most well known military escapades was the Battle of Kadesh.In the Battle of Kadesh, Ramesses had shown the world one of the greatest war in the ancient civilization, procuring thousands of men, using a vast resource that runs more than a mile and having two of the greatest empire in the 13th century to battle it out.

Ramesses ascension to a military life also have several misgivings that were notice in the tactical decision of the great king. The long miles of distance between each division show lesser knowledge of scouting abilities and foresight to any rear attack from the enemies; Impulsiveness in decision making and lack of investigatory knowledge in confirming details, and  last but not the least pride that deflect the truth in most of the writings on the real situation in the Battle of Kadesh. But beyond all that errors, the Battle of Kadesh, ascends Ramesses into one of the most powerful and influential ruler of the Egyptian empire. Having the ability to bounce off from any uncertainty and influencing other nations via its treaty, Ramesses not only showed his religiosity and valor but also spread the Egyptian culture.

Work Cited Egypt, ancient. Lexicon Universal Encyclopedia. 1989.“Dynasties XVIII to XX The reassertion of Egyptian power and the building of an        empire.

” An introduction to the history and culture of Pharaonic Egypt.            November 8, 2007. <http://www.reshafim.

org.il/ad/egypt/index.html>.Guisepi, Robert A.

“The Hittites: A history of the Hittites including their cities, kings,    art and contributions to civilization.” International World History Project.           2003. November 10, 2007.

<http://history-world.org/hittites.htm>.Hittites.

Lexicon Universal Encyclopedia.. 1989.“Late Empire.

” Hittites.info. November 8, 2007.     <http://www.

hittites.info/history.aspx?text=history%2fEarly+Late+Empire.ht        m>.

Ramesses II, King of Egypt. Lexicon Universal Encyclopedia. 1989.Ramesses II: Battle of Kadesh.

An introduction to the history and culture ofPharaonic Egypt. September 2007. Retrieved on November 9, 2007.<http://www.

reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/index.html>.

Work CitedSanderson, Beck. “Hittites” Middle East & Africa to 1875. November 10, 2007.             <http://ancienthistory.

about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?zi=1/XJ/Ya&sdn=an            cienthistory&cdn=education&tm=3&f=00&tt=14&bt=1&bts=0&zu=http%3A            //www.san.

beck.org/EC3-Sumer.html>.Schmidt, John D.

“Ramesses II.”  The Inscriptions of Ramesses II. 1960. .

.: Oxford       University Press. Trans. Alan Gardiner.

Oxford.Tappan Eva March, ed., “The World’s Story: A History of the World in Story, Song       and Art.” Egypt, Africa, and Arabia.

Vol. III: pp. 154-162.trans.

W. K. Flinders Petrie, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1914.;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;1Battle of Kadesh:The Great War of Ancient Civilization;;;;;;Figure 1.

map of ancient egyptGreen-egypt,yellow- Assyrianspurple- phoenicians;In the ancient civilization, great kingdoms were known for their power, treasure and territories. The massive amount of resources that conquest can gain is important to further expand the kingdom and hold greater power and prestige against other nations. Vassals, strong relations to other state and magnificent number of manpower are the driving force for a nation’s victory.  In the center of it all was a visionary leader who claims the destiny of a great land towards fortune by development or with insurmountable power, raise an army of thousands that will conquer lands and leave other nations wealth for the taking.

In the time of Egypt’s reign, the Assyrians and the Hittites rule the neighboring lands. A rivalry between whose the most powerful is inevitable among these nations, since the Assyrians rule the land in the eastern side of Egypt and the Hittites ruling the north eastern side, just above the Assyrians homeland. It is also by several occasions that dispute has surface between the nations since territorial campaigns can happen at the same time and resources is shared only by smaller provincial boundaries.;For years the Hittites or Indo-Europeans has experienced internal problems of their own due to political instability, royalty’s assassination and palace intrigues.

Even though the campaign of their former king Mursilis I in Babylon was a complete;2success. Moreover it was in this time that they lost their territory in Anatolia and Syria.  By the turn of 15th century a restoration of the Hittite kingdom occurred under Telepinus which begun the two phases of restoration focusing on ending lawlessness and regulating royal succession. He also tries to bring forth old prestige by reconquestof previously held Anatolian territories and a military and political expansion to the eastern and southern regions.

Several campaigns also strengthened the Hittite kingdom by conquering Mintani by king Thudaliyas I. Although the later successors had been weak in protecting the land, it was under Suppiluliumas that gain back Hittites hold and finally breaking forth unto Syria.;During those times, Akhenaten, the ruler of Egypt from 1370-1362 BC was also expanding his territory. After Egypt’s division by the Hyksos in the north and the Thebans in the south, a new insurgence of Egyptian rulers strive to bring back the diplomacy within the region.

As the creation of the New kingdom arises the primary goals of the leaders were to take back its lost territories and widen its horizon.Akhenaten who was known for his religious reforms, had also rallied a great campaign at Sudan. Nevertheless, the infiltration of Syria which is at the top most border of Egyptian territory by Suppiluliumas I, arouses old rivalry that was started inthe former Palestinian campaign when both nation crossed and met in the Euphrates.However, although the two state had been gnashing teeth at each other, and though war is inevitable, ever since the Palestinian campaign and along with the  recently victorious conquest of Mintani by the Hittites, which were a previous ally of Egypt; both forces were lashed back in relation to vassal problems of their own.

;3The territorial expansion didn’t falter in Egypt though, as Tutankhamen the deemed successor of Akhenaten, although several books theorize the succession of Smenkhkare, It was in his rule that a restoration of the polytheistic religion by his vizier Ay and steadied the territorial claim of Egypt, with his general Horemheb, by pacifying the growing Palestinian discord and setting up a centralized government.  After the death of Tutankhamen his vizier then later on his general took over the throne. Horemheb focused on rebuilding the Egyptian army who was affected by the pestilence that swept the region. On the other hand, the Hittites new leader Mursilis II solidified his father’s work Suppiluliumas I which was killed by the pestilence that affected the North East; Under his rule he ended internal chaos in the northern, eastern and western vassals of the country.

;Around 1300 BC, a new Hittite empire is finally firmly established and goodgovernance was widespread over its vassals, keeping good relations and a strong bond with other states. It was also in this time that a new seat of power was succeeded to Seti I in Egypt, after his father’s death Ramsses I who was a commander in Horemheb’s army.Figure 2. Seti I Stela at Beit SheanBy 1315 Muwatallis succeeded his father Mursilis II, and started ratifying treaties on his vassalage, extending his throne to the Lukka lands of the south and unto the Wilusa in the north.

Seti I on the other hand already set up a campaign in theCanaan to restore its hold of colonial administration and also todefeat the rebellion by King Hamath and Pahel in the town of Beth Shan (Beit Shean).4He even forged an army unto Kadesh and leave a stella of his victory in the Beit Shean grounds. With the infantry advancing up to Kadesh in the Orontes river, A victory stela was once again erected, causing much discord in the nearby Hittite own lands and increasing the rivalry between the two nations in relation to Egypt’s support in the former rebellion of the Hittites territory in Syria. Although a standoff is unavoidable, a confrontation was dismissed as circumstances in the northern lands of the Hittite empire has gone awry as a result of the shift of capital from the north to the lower lands in the south.

;In contrast to the internal discord of the Hittite empire, a new succession was done in Egypt, giving Ramsses II the throne, who is at that time a well known builder of his father, Seti I. Under Ramesses II rule, Egyptian campaign advances further north and capturing Beruta and Ammuru. As a result, Ammuru a former vassal of the Hittites, changed sides and its leader Bentisina send a letter to Muwattalis declaring his conversion of loyalty to the Egyptian empire.Enraged with the betrayal of Bentisina, Muwattalis called upon his brother Hattusilis who had helped him secure the northern lands, and set up a plan to bring back Ammuru into their fold and capture the traitorous king Bentisina.

The specific number of forces that were brought by Muwattalis is unknown but in several studies the range was 47, 000 to 60,000, some were in chariots while others are on foot. Furthermore the Hittite army was consisted of men from their vassals in Allepo, Kizwadna and other Hittite contingents from the Mintani and the northern region.;5Similarly, the Egyptian troops who had found out about the beleaguered Ammuru, prepared an army composed of 41,000 to 50,000 troops to help protect its new vassal. At the start of the campaign, the Egyptian army were divided into four subdivisions, all named from their gods.

As a tactical scouting measure, Ramesses positioned his Suteh division in Sumur and has given orders to rejoin the army at Kadesh after securing the port. In addition to that the Ptah divison was sent to secure the south. Meanwhile, to the south of the ford of Orentes river, Ramesses encountered men who claimed that they were from the tribe of Shosu, who said to have betrayed the Hittite army and were seeking allegiance to the Egyptian to the king.  After asking them of the Hittites whereabouts, Ramesses Amen division further advances north to Kadesh, believing the Shosu’s recollection that the Hittite’s were still far and were camped in Haleb.

With a plan of securing Kadesh before the arrival of the Hittites, Ramesses left unaware of the treachery of the said Shosu tribe members who were in fact Hittite scouts led to trap the king.The Hittites armies were actually based in the northeast side of old Kadesh, leaving a separate subdivision in the valleys and mountains surrounding it.Figure 3.: the trap of the Hittite armyAs the rest of the Re division still on their way to Kadesh, a separate division of the Hittite army attack from the valleys that harbor the Orontes river; It was only at that time that the Amen division of Ramesses caught two Hittite scouts and were told of the real position of the Hittite army.

  In order to fix the problem strategically, Ramesses sent out his vizier further6south to order the Ptah and Suteh division to rejoin the army back to the north.As the Re division left unprepared during the Hittite attack, only a remainder of the forces were able to rejoin the pharaoh’s camp. As the first wave of attack ended, a second wave begun in the northwest of Kadesh where the pharaoh’s camp was located. With a few men on his side, the camp was overpowered leaving the Amen division weak and near collapsed due to the pillaging of the Hittite army.

Ramesses, who was surrounded by the Hittite army, said to have prayed to his god Amun, before fighting for his life.“For behold! now, Ammon, I, In the midst of many peoples, all unknown,Unnumbered as the sand, Here I stand, All alone; There is no one at my side,my warriors and chariots afeared, Have deserted me, none heard My voice,         hen to the cravens I, their king, for succor, cried.” (Tappan (1914) 154-160)It was said to have been a sure victory for the Hittites, however a chariot of men who said to have come from Ammuru or some called them as nearin, came into the rescue of the pharaoh giving Ramesses sometime to organize his men. As Muwatalli men left surprised by the rear counter attack of the Ammuru chariots, an army of 1000 chariots led by his brother and the kings of his vassals helped in the battle.

It was after awhile that the continuous surge of Muwattali army, dwindle as the Ptah division came hurdling towards the Pharaoh’s rescue. The result was the untimely retreat of the Hittite army toward the Kadesh unto the Orontes river.Figure 4:  The counterattack by the Egyptian7As the Hittite fled toward Kadesh, the Egyptian chariots were not able to purse them leaving Ramesses men to soak on their immature victory. Although, in some Egyptian text it was said that Muwattalis begged for his armies retreat from the pharaoh through a letter (refashim.

org), the battle still remained inconclusive of a real winner; Since Ramesses troops were greatly defeated leaving a third of his army to round up. At near dusk the last of Ramesses army, the Suteh division arrived, leaving them the job to round up the carcass and booty of the fallen army.As the day of infamy subsided, it came known to Ramesses that further conquest into the Hittite territory will bring no result and with a said letter from Muwattalisventuring for peace, as discussed earlier; it leaves him all the reason to disengage in the campaign and return to Egypt.;After the battle of Kadesh, Muwatallis consequently continue his campaign towards the Damascus and remained as the ruler of Syria.

Resulting to Ammuru becoming a vassal of the Hittites once again with the former king banished and replaced with Sapilli. With his two goals met, it was also been said that the Hittites also claimed victory over the war (Beck (1975) from ancienthistory.com).;On the other hand, Ramesses, advances his kingdom across Negev, as far as the Dead sea, it was during this years that he was with his son Amon-hir-h?epešef, thus splitting the two forces to invade Syria.

Taking Moab, Edom-Seir, and then Apa, which is a strong Hittite domain. Ramesses conquest to invade Syria lasted till his 9th years of rule, he marches to Dapur, and up to the far end of Ammuru and Kadesh.;8Figure 5. The Hittite KingdomRed- hittites,yellow- Egypt*bordering the Egypt and Hittite land is Ammuru and KadeshAlthough a war once again flared up in the Syrian land of Ammuru, the same things happen as the first war, since the city was returned to the Hittites control within a year.

It had been also misgiving in Ramesses sake that most of his colonial lands had a revolt, prior to the king’s decision in giving up the campaign during the Battle of Kadesh. It even took eight years for the Egyptian army to claim any territories since internal dispute crippled its resources (Schmidt (1960)115).;Over at the Hittite kingdom, the passing of Muwatallis and the ascension of power to his son Urhi-Teshub (Mursilis III), resulted to an internal dispute among royalty, it had been said that the son was in cahoots over the death of his father, although no clear records were shown (hittites.info).

The battle for the throne went from bad to awry as Hattulissis II, the brother and former commander of Muwatallis, engaged Mursillis III in a war, causing him to be killed by treachery in the land of Samuha.;Upon Hattusilis reign, he started a different tackle with Egypt. With his succession from Mursillis II, the Hittite kingdom was in disarray as they were loosing ground in several of their vassals. In addition to that, the ascendancy of the Assyrians, were also considered to be a big threat to the weakened Hittite army.

On the first day of the first month of 1259, Hattusilis III and Ramesses II both kings received a messenger with tablets that signs in a treaty of brotherhood and security of9the Levant state. The treaty said to have fostered a defensive act of the two towards the growing Assyrian empire, under Adad-nirans kingship. In the tablet it was said:;“Behold, H?attušili, the Great Prince of H?atti, hasset himself in a regulation with User-maat-Re Setep-en-Re, the Great Ruler of Egypt, beginning from this            day, to cause that good peace and brotherhood occur between us forever, while he is in brotherhood with me and he is at peace with me, and I am in       brotherhood with him and I am at peace with him forever.”(ANET 199, hittites.

info)Figure 5:  Marriage of Rameses II. at Abu Simbel H?attušili on the far right presenting his daughter to Rameses, who rests under a canopy(Photograph: Oriental Institute)The treaty were said to have solidified by the carvingson the Hypostle hall that Ramesses built and later on awedding on one of Hattusilis daughter to Ramesses in his 34th year of reign.Accordingly, the treaty had helped both countries massively as resources such as wheat and fruits were given by the Egyptians during the famine in the Hittite kingdom. A second wedding also occurred, although any specific date was not written.

Another great result of the brotherhood was the sharing of knowledge of Egyptian medicine to the Hittites king Tarhuntassa in Kurunta and trips to Egypt were even bequeathed by the pharaoh to the land of Canaan and to his capital Pi-Rameses.The good relation were said to have lasted until the son of Hattusilis, although in the following years the influence of the Egyptian were no longer written in the Hittites script. 10The Hittite and the Egypt, the rise and fall of two kingdoms were somewhat the same that one could inadvertently call them as twins. With a few squabbles and war for territory and land possessions, it was only Ramesses II that was able to bridge the gap and firmly made them as brothers.

 Ramesses II, known as a master builder in the side of his father, became also known for his vigorous military campaigns. He had led Egypt into victorious campaigns, reaching his territory far south to Nubia, until the far east of Dapur. Although his name spells of greater grandeur to the art community with his architectural and edifice visions; one of the most well known military escapades was the Battle of Kadesh.In the Battle of Kadesh, Ramesses had shown the world one of the greatest war in the ancient civilization, procuring thousands of men, using a vast resource that runs more than a mile and having two of the greatest empire in the 13th century to battle it out.

Ramesses ascension to a military life also have several misgivings that were notice in the tactical decision of the great king. The long miles of distance between each division show lesser knowledge of scouting abilities and foresight to any rear attack from the enemies; Impulsiveness in decision making and lack of investigatory knowledge in confirming details, and  last but not the least pride that deflect the truth in most of the writings on the real situation in the Battle of Kadesh. But beyond all that errors, the Battle of Kadesh, ascends Ramesses into one of the most powerful and influential ruler of the Egyptian empire. Having the ability to bounce off from any uncertainty and influencing other nations via its treaty, Ramesses not only showed his religiosity and valor but also spread the Egyptian culture.

Work Cited Egypt, ancient. Lexicon Universal Encyclopedia. 1989.“Dynasties XVIII to XX The reassertion of Egyptian power and the building of an        empire.

” An introduction to the history and culture of Pharaonic Egypt.            November 8, 2007. <http://www.reshafim.

org.il/ad/egypt/index.html>.Guisepi, Robert A.

“The Hittites: A history of the Hittites including their cities, kings,    art and contributions to civilization.” International World History Project.           2003. November 10, 2007.

<http://history-world.org/hittites.htm>.Hittites.

Lexicon Universal Encyclopedia.. 1989.“Late Empire.

” Hittites.info. November 8, 2007.     <http://www.

hittites.info/history.aspx?text=history%2fEarly+Late+Empire.ht        m>.

Ramesses II, King of Egypt. Lexicon Universal Encyclopedia. 1989.Ramesses II: Battle of Kadesh.

An introduction to the history and culture ofPharaonic Egypt. September 2007. Retrieved on November 9, 2007.<http://www.

reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/index.html>.

Work CitedSanderson, Beck. “Hittites” Middle East & Africa to 1875. November 10, 2007.             <http://ancienthistory.

about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?zi=1/XJ/Ya&sdn=an            cienthistory&cdn=education&tm=3&f=00&tt=14&bt=1&bts=0&zu=http%3A            //www.san.

beck.org/EC3-Sumer.html>.Schmidt, John D.

“Ramesses II.”  The Inscriptions of Ramesses II. 1960. .

.: Oxford       University Press. Trans. Alan Gardiner.

Oxford.Tappan Eva March, ed., “The World’s Story: A History of the World in Story, Song       and Art.” Egypt, Africa, and Arabia.

Vol. III: pp. 154-162.trans.

W. K. Flinders Petrie, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1914.                                                          

Cite this Battle of Kadesh: The Great War of Ancient Civilization

Battle of Kadesh: The Great War of Ancient Civilization. (2017, Mar 14). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/battle-of-kadesh-the-great-war-of-ancient-civilization/

Show less
  • Use multiple resourses when assembling your essay
  • Get help form professional writers when not sure you can do it yourself
  • Use Plagiarism Checker to double check your essay
  • Do not copy and paste free to download essays
Get plagiarism free essay

Search for essay samples now

Haven't found the Essay You Want?

Get my paper now

For Only $13.90/page