A bond between non-polar r-groups Quaternary Structure Highest level of organization The bonding of two or more tertiary proteins, making a lot of proteins into functional proteins. Dehydration synthesis- removal of h2o and putting two molecules together Hydrolysis- adding of water and breaking apart two molecules Redo- give an electron away = oxidized, getting an electron = reduced Homeostasis The constant state cells try to be Certain things pass in and out of the cell at specific times and rates so that the internal environment stays stable.
Concentration gradient- difference between and are of high and an area of low concentration Brownian motion- the continuous movement and collision between molecules in a liquid Passive transport – needs no energy Simple diffusion- the movement of molecules from an area of high to low concentration. Small uncharged molecules like oxygen are passed through the membrane of a cell easily so that the cell can have oxygen. Osmosis- movement of water across a semi permeable membrane from and area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration Facilitated diffusion- movement of molecules that are too big to be passed through the phosphoric belayed or are not lipid soluble. Proteins throughout the membrane assist with the movement Carrier proteins – move only specific molecules.
Bind to that molecule and go through a series of movements and shape changing to move the molecule into the cell and hen goes through those steps again to return to its original shape. Channel proteins- proteins with a hole in the middle that allows bigger molecules to pass in and out of the cell. Active transport- requires extra energy Cells need higher concentrations of certain nutrients to survive so sometimes molecules are moved against the concentration gradient using applied energy. Moving them against the concentration gradient is active transport Sodium potassium pump Bulk transportation Not many materials are too big to pass through the cell membrane.
For those that can, the cell membrane can wrap around the molecule to absorb it. Endometriosis -when the cell wraps around the molecule to absorb it -ponytails- cell “drinking”, small drop of extracurricular fluid with small molecules within it (most common) -phagocytes- cell “eating”, large drop of extracurricular fluid with organic or bacterial molecules Cytosine -when the vesicle moves to the outside.