Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

Bovine Spongiform

– Chemical Properties: Aromatic
-Toxicity: when given to mice
intraperitoneally, at doses
>1450mg/kg, Tyrosine is said to be
toxic. In humans, prolonged exposure
to Tyrosine could cause urinary
system, blood and behavior
problems.Prolonged skin exposure
could cause dermatitis. National Fire
Protection rates health hazard of
Tyrosine a 1.
-Flammability: May be combustible at
high temperatures. No available
flammability limits, but the flash point
is 348.8 degrees Farenheit in closed
cup. National Fire Protection rates
flammability of Tyrosine a 1.
(“Msds Safety data”, 2005)

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Primary, Seconday, Tertiary & Quaternary

Dehydration & Hydrolysis

4 Bonds Of The Tertiary Structure
-Hydrophobic: when amino acids come
together to form the interior of a molecule to
repel contact with water.
-Van der Waals interacion: weak electrical bond
that attracts molecules to each other.
-Ionic: the attraction between positive and
negative charges in an R group.
-Disulfide bridge: strong covalent bond between
two molecules.
(Wolfe, 2000)

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy:
-Prion:the improper folding of a protein in the
brain named PrPc.
2 important properties:
-It is an infectious protein (PrPSc) that destroys
nerve cells in the amyloid plaques of the brain
and can lead to loss of brain function or
-Has the ability to make more copies of the
same misfolded protein over and over again.
(Ahern & Rajagopal,2012)

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy:
Chaperone Protein
-misfolding of PrPc -> PrPSc = BSE

-PrPSc passes on misfolding of prion and
spreads to the PrPc which acts as the
-Cells job is to make PrPc, the PrPc gets
converted to PrPSc and the chaperone cannot
convert back to PrPC
(Hudon-Miller, 2012)

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy:
Protein Misfolding & Aggregation
-PrPSc = hydrophobic

-Proteosome = a protein destroyer. However,it
is unable to rid PrPSc.
-Aggegation of PrPSc inside the cell occurs
secondary to the protein being hydrophobic,
unable to convert back to PrPc and it’s inability
to be destroyed by the proteosome.
-BSE has spongey appearance because the
cell is dying
(Hudon-Miller, 2012)

Decreasing the risk of BSE
-Farmers should assess their cattle feed
ingredients for animal sources, and refrain from
using feed with other animal meat in it to prevent
-Any cattle that shows signs or symptoms of
neurological issues should not be slaughtered for
food consumption.
-Tissue from the cattle should be tested prior to
meat being issued to the markets to sell to the
general public.
(“The sourcing and,” 1997)

Ahern, K., & Rajagopal, I. (2012). Structure & function. Retrieved from http: //, S. (2012, 08 30). Bse. Retrieved from v=TE8e5rRreSE&

-Hudon-Miller, S. (2012, 08 30). Dehydration & hydrolysis. Retrieved from
– MSDS safety data sheet: Tyrosine. (2005). Retrieved from www.sciencelab. com/msds.php?msdssld=9927316
-The sourcing and processing of gelatin to reduce the potential risk posed by
bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) in fda-regulated products for human use. (1997, 09). Retrieved from http://www.fda.

– Wolfe, G. (2000). Protein structure. Retrieved from

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