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Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Essays

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

Tyrosine - Chemical Properties: Aromatic -Toxicity: when given to mice intraperitoneally, at doses >1450mg/kg, Tyrosine is said to be toxic. In humans, prolonged exposure to Tyrosine could cause urinary system, blood and behavior problems.Prolonged skin exposure could cause dermatitis. National Fire Protection rates health hazard of Tyrosine a 1. -Flammability: May be combustible at high temperatures. No available flammability limits, but the flash point is 348.8 degrees Farenheit in closed cup. National Fire Protection rates flammability of Tyrosine a 1. (“Msds Safety data”, 2005)

Primary, Seconday, Tertiary & Quaternary Structures

Dehydration & Hydrolysis

4 Bonds Of The Tertiary Structure -Hydrophobic: when amino acids come together to form the interior of a molecule to repel contact with water. -Van der Waals interacion: weak electrical bond that attracts molecules to each other. -Ionic: the attraction between positive and negative charges in an R group. -Disulfide bridge: strong covalent bond between two molecules. (Wolfe, 2000)

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: Prions -Prion:the improper folding of a protein in the brain named PrPc. 2 important properties: -It is an infectious protein (PrPSc) that destroys nerve cells in the amyloid plaques of the brain and can lead to loss of brain function or dementia. -Has the ability to make more copies of the same misfolded protein over and over again. (Ahern & Rajagopal,2012)

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: Chaperone Protein -misfolding of PrPc -> PrPSc = BSE

-PrPSc passes on misfolding of prion and spreads to the PrPc which acts as the chaperone. -Cells job is to make PrPc, the PrPc gets converted to PrPSc and the chaperone cannot convert back to PrPC (Hudon-Miller, 2012)

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: Protein Misfolding & Aggregation -PrPSc = hydrophobic

-Proteosome = a protein destroyer. However,it is unable to rid PrPSc. -Aggegation of PrPSc inside the cell occurs secondary to the protein being hydrophobic, unable to convert back to PrPc and it’s inability to be destroyed by the proteosome. -BSE has spongey appearance because the cell is dying (Hudon-Miller, 2012)

Decreasing the risk of BSE -Farmers should assess their cattle feed ingredients for animal sources, and refrain from using feed with other animal meat in it to prevent contamination. -Any cattle that shows signs or symptoms of neurological issues should not be slaughtered for food consumption. -Tissue from the cattle should be tested prior to meat being issued to the markets to sell to the general public. ("The sourcing and," 1997)

Sources Ahern, K., & Rajagopal, I. (2012). Structure & function. Retrieved from http: //oregonstate.edu/dept/biochem/BFEChapters/BFESection3.pdf-Hudon-Miller, S. (2012, 08 30). Bse. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=TE8e5rRreSE&feature=youtu.be

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-Hudon-Miller, S. (2012, 08 30). Dehydration & hydrolysis. Retrieved from www.youtube.com/watch?=jcQw_AXV7EO&feature=youtu.be - MSDS safety data sheet: Tyrosine. (2005). Retrieved from www.sciencelab. com/msds.php?msdssld=9927316 -The sourcing and processing of gelatin to reduce the potential risk posed by bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) in fda-regulated products for human use. (1997, 09). Retrieved from http://www.fda.

gov/RegulatoryInformation/Guidances/ucm125182.htm - Wolfe, G. (2000). Protein structure. Retrieved from wgu.thinkwell.com

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