A PROJECT REPORT ON “BRAND IMAGES” By RAVITEJA - Brand Image introduction. M (09141E0048) Carried out At BAJAJ AUTO COMPANY LIMITED. Under the esteemed guidance of Mr. GOVERDHAN REDDY sir M. B. A Department of Management Studies, S. R. T. I. S. T, Nalgonda. BRAND IMAGE According to Sengupta: “Brand Image” is the totality about the impressions about the brand. This according to him includes its physical, functional and psychological aspects of the brand. According to Christian Restall: “Brand Image is the measurable aspects of the brand” According to Oglivy “Personality and brand image are the same”
Joseph Plummer He indicates that brand image has three components: * Product attributes * Consumers benefit * Brand personality .Brand image would stem from three sources . These are: PROVIDER-DRIVEN IMAGE This is the image driven from the company/brand. The brand is what it is because of the company makes it. PRODUCT DRIVEN IMAGE This image is result of the product performance. This in turn depends on its ingredients. Santoor toilet soap promises skin care through it contents – sandal wood and turmeric. USER – DRIVEN IMAGE This image is driven by the lifestyle of the user.
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A particular lifestyle is south to be projected through a product. This is done through user-imagery. “ NEED OF THE STUDY: The study centered to take strategic decisions in support of Bajaj auto in the field of marketing. The main need of this study is to ascertain various methods to increase the sales volume of the concern. The method includes regular product information to the buyers, creating a brand position in the market and taking measures to make the brand remain in its position. One of the important aspects of this study is also to increase the market segment for the products.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: * To know the brand image towards Bajaj Auto * To understand consumer perception about Bajaj Auto * To evaluate the performance of Bajaj Auto in the market interims quality after sales services and other market variable SCOPE OF THE STUDY The scope of marketing research can be pointed out by a single word, “Consumer Preference”. It can be termed as the balance wheel as the marketing system which harmonies the study and demand factors. * Marketing survey has wide scope and covers all aspects of marketing.
Broadly its scope can be classified in the following categories :- * The study is confined on the selected customers in Nalgonda * It is concerned with product of Bajaj auto. * Research on Promotional Policies of Bajaj auto * It is concerned with buying behavior of Bajaj auto. * Brand Image of Bajaj auto. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY * Since the survey was done only in Nalgonda. So the result obtained may not be taken as universal suggestion. * Due to time constraints and busy schedules of the people it was difficult to interact with them completely * The sample size was limited RESEARCH METHODOLOGY SOURCE OF DATA
Primary data: Questionnaires were used for collecting primary data Secondary data: Secondary data were collected from figures, statistics and tables from the company’s annual publications websites and from library books SAMPLE DESIGN GEOGRAPHICAL AREA: The study is conducted in Nalgonda district. Sample size: The sample size chosen by the researcher for the purpose of this study is 100 working public in nalgonda district Sample method: Random and stratified INDUSTRY PROFILE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY IN INDIA The Automotive industry in India is one of the largest in the world and one of the fastest growing globally.
India is manufacturing over 11 million 2 and 4-wheeled vehicles and exporting about 1. 5 million every year. It is the world’s second largest manufacturer of motorcycles, with annual sales exceeding 8. 5 million in 2009. India’s passenger car and commercial vehicle manufacturing industry is the seventh largest in the world, with an annual production of more than 2. 6 million units in 2009. As of 2009, India is home to 40 million passenger vehicles and more than 1. 5 million autos were sold in India in 2009 (an increase of 26%), making the country the second fastest growing automobile market in the world.
By 2050, the country is expected to top the world in auto volumes with approximately 611 million vehicles on the nation’s roads. A major chunk of India’s auto manufacturing industry is based in and around the city of Chennai (also known as “Detroit of India”),with the Indian city accounting for 60 per cent of the country’s automotive exports. Chakan corridor near Pune. HISTORY Following economic liberalization in India in 1991, the Indian automotive industry has demonstrated sustained growth as a result of increased competitiveness and relaxed restrictions.
Several Indian automobile manufacturers such as Tata Motors, Mahindra and Mahindra, expanded their domestic and international operations. India’s robust economic growth led to the further expansion of its domestic automobile market which attracted significant India-specific investment by multinational automobile manufacturers. In February 2009, monthly sales of passenger autos in India exceeded 100,000 units. In the year 1769, a French engineer by the name of Nicolas J. Cugnot invented the first automobile to run on roads.
This automobile, in fact, was a self-powered, three-wheeled, military tractor that made the use of a steam engine. The range of the automobile, however, was very brief and at the most, it could only run at a stretch for fifteen minutes. In addition, these automobiles were not fit for the roads as the steam engines made them very heavy and large, and required ample starting time. Oliver Evans was the first to design a steam engine driven automobileintheU. S. A Scotsman, Robert Anderson, was the first to invent an electric carriage between 1832 and 1839.
However, Thomas Davenport of the U. S. A. and Scotsman Robert Davidson were amongst the first to invent more applicable automobiles, making use of non-rechargeable electric batteries in 1842. Development of roads made travelling comfortable and as a result, the short ranged, electric battery driven automobiles were no more the best option for travelling over longer distances. The Automobile Industry finally came of age with Henry Ford in 1914 for the bulk production of cars. This lead to the development of the industry and it first begun in the assembly lines of his car factory.
The several methods adopted by Ford, made the new invention (that is, the car) popular amongst the rich as well as the masses. | According the History of Automobile Industry US, dominated the automobile markets around the globe with no notable competitors. However, after the end of the Second World War in 1945, the Automobile Industry of other technologically advanced nations such as Japan and certain European nations gained momentum and within a very short period, beginning in the early 1980s, the U. S Automobile Industry was flooded with foreign automobile companies, especially those of Japan and Germany.
The current trends of the Global Automobile Industry reveal that in the developed countries the Automobile Industries are stagnating as a result of the drooping car markets, whereas the Automobile Industry in the developing nations, such as, India and Brazil, have been consistently registering higher growth rates every passing year for their flourishing domestic automobile markets. Those who are interested in gathering more information about the Automobile Industry, may browse through the following links * World Automobile Industry * Automobile Industry Trends
* India Automobile Market * India Automobile Industry The World Automobile Industry is turned to the developing markets. With the developed markets almost saturated, the World Automobile Industry is now focused on the developing markets of South America and Asia, and Eastern Europe with special emphasis on BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, and China). As per the reports of the International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers or OICA(the association of the companies involved in World Automobile Industry), for the fiscal end in 2006, the automobile manufacturers in the U. S.
have been overtaken by those in Japan, in terms of the total volume of automobile units manufactured worldwide. However, the struggling General Motors of the U. S. still remain the worldwide leaders of the World Automobile Industry, ahead of the rapidly growing Toyota Motor Corporation of Japan, by a substantial margin. Measures to be adopted by global leaders of the World Automobile Industry. Several significant economic measures are being considered by the major players of the World Automobile Industry in order to make a smooth entry into the markets of the developing countries, and to make a name for themselves.
The effective measures include : * Reducing the selling prices of the automobiles manufactured in their factories * Improving the levels of after-sales services to keep customers satisfied * Opening manufacturing factories in the developing nations, to reduce effective costs of production as well as saving shipping charges, and enhancing prompt delivery of automobile units. Automobile Industry Trends In keeping with the Automobile Industry Trends, the leading automobile manufacturers are turning to the Asian markets that appear set to grow immensely over the next decade.
The automobile markets in the U. S. , Europe and the Japan have almost matured as a result of saturation and appear set to decline through the next decade. In contrast, the automobile markets spread over the entire Asian continent (with the exception of Japan), are constantly increasing in size and will be the destination for most of the globally leading automobile manufacturers. | The Automobile Industry Trends reveal that the emerging markets of the developing nations of Asia especially China, and India are backed by their huge population growth rate, to add to the growing national economy of these two nations.
The rapid growth of the national economy of the BRIC countries (including Brazil, Russia, India, and China) have enabled a growing section of the population of these countries to purchase automobiles. Global surveys conducted recently reveal that within the next ten years, these emerging automobile markets will account for nearly a whooping 90 percent of the global automobile sales growth. As a result of this, leading Automobile manufacturers of the world are setting up factories in the emerging markets, in order to serve the potential consumers better as well as reduce
manufacturing and shipping costs. In addition, these arrangements are enabling the leading global automobile manufacturers to compete with the local automobile manufacturers that were flourishing in the absence of quality competition. The prosperity of the national economy is reflected in the rising per capita income of the developing nations. Therefore, increasing Gross Domestic Product and per capita income have raised the purchasing ability of the population that constitutes these emerging markets
as a growing percentage of the population in the developed nation’s age rapidly, in comparison to the rest of the world; these aging numbers necessitate automobiles to fit the physiological change of the world population. The India Automobile Market is a promising industrial sector that is growing immensely every passing year. The passenger cars are referred to, through the use of the word “automobile. ” The whooping growth experienced by the Indian Automobile Market in the last financial year itself that is the financial year end in February, 2007 was very close to a 18 percent over the previous fiscal.
This statistical fact is a glittering example of the potential of the growing Automobile Industry in India. | As per the survey conducted by the Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers, the total number of automobiles manufactured by the Automobile Industry in India, throughout the financial year 2006-07, was very close to the 15. 5 lakh (1. 5 million) margin. The huge of number of automobiles manufactured by the Automobile Industry in India was an enormous growth upon the number of automobiles manufactured during the previous fiscal that ended in 2006.
The total number of cars that were exported from India were very close to the 2. 0 lakh (2. 0 hundred thousand) margin, an encouraging sign for the Automobile Industry in India. The export of cars manufactured in India comprised nearly 13 percent of the total number of cars manufactured domestically by the Automobile Industry in India. The India Automobile Market looks set to prosper, largely due to the growing market for automobiles that is developing in India.
In the financial year that ended in February, 2004, the Indian automobile markets were the fastest growing in the world, with the registered growth rate touching nearly 20 percent. The Automobile Industry in India mainly comprises of the small car section, which enjoys nearly a 2/3rd market share of the entire market for automobiles in India. In this respect, the Indian markets are the largest in the world for small cars, behind Japan. The Indian passenger car market which ranks amongst the largest in the world, is poised to become even larger and enter the top five passenger car markets in the world in the next decade.
India Automobile Industry Following India’s growing openness, the arrival of new and existing models, easy availability of finance at relatively low rate of interest and price discounts offered by the dealers and manufacturers all have stirred the demand for vehicles and a strong growth of the Indian automobile industry. The data obtained from ministry of commerce and industry, shows high growth obtained since 2001- 02 in automobile production continuing in the first three quarters of the 2004-05. Annual growth was 16. 0 per cent in April-December, 2004; the growth rate in 2003-04 was 15.
1 per cent The automobile industry grew at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 22 per cent between 1992 and 1997. With investment exceeding Rs. 50,000 crore, the turnover of the automobile industry exceeded Rs. 59,518 crore in 2002-03. Including turnover of the auto-component sector, the automotive industry’s turnover, which was above Rs. 84,000 crore in 2002-03, is estimated to have exceeded Rs. 1,00,000 crore ( USD 22. 74 billion) in 2003-04. India Auto rickshaws parked on the streets of Mumbai Auto rickshaws (often called just auto) are common all over India, and provide cheap and efficient transportation.
New auto richshaws run on CNG and are environment friendly. Typical mileage for an Indian-made auto rickshaw is around 35 kilometers per liter of petrol (about 2. 9 L per 100 km, or 82 miles per gallon [United States (wet measure), 100 miles per gallon Imperial (United Kingdom, Canada)]. Many major nationalized banks in India offer loans to self-employed individuals seeking to buy auto rickshaws. Auto rickshaw manufacturers in India include Bajaj Auto, Kumar Motors, Kerala Auto Limited, Piaggio , Force Motors (previously Bajaj Tempo), Mahindra & Mahindra Ape and TVS Motors.
Auto rickshaws are found in cities, villages and in the countryside. In July 1998, the Supreme Court of India ordered the Delhi government to implement CNG or LPG (Autogas) fuel for all autos and for the entire bus fleet in and around the city. Delhi’s air quality has improved with the switch to CNG. Initially, auto rickshaw drivers in Delhi had to wait in long queues for CNG refueling, but the situation has improved with the increase of CNG stations. CNG autos were distinguishable from the erstwhile petrol-powered autos by having a green and yellow livery as opposed to the earlier black and yellow.
Certain local governments are pushing for four-stroke engines instead of the current two-stroke versions. We are a renowned whole-seller and exporter of 3Wheeler Auto parts and Accessories. Our wide product range includes All Bajaj 3 Wheeler & 2 Wheeler Spare Parts, Piaggio Vehicles spare parts & Accessories for 3 Wheelers & 2 Wheelers, Vira Gears and Gear Parts. Apart from this, we are also offering Cylinder Blocks, Wheel Rims and Silencers, Aluminum Die Casting Products and A Full House for ALL Leading Brands for 3 Wheelers & 2 Wheelers.
These products are catering to the various needs of automobile industry. Our products are highly appreciated by our clients for their durability, low maintenance. Corrosion & abrasion resistance and heat resistance. COMPANY’S HISTORY: Bajaj Auto came into existence on November 29, 1945 as M/s Bachraj Trading Corporation Private Limited. It started off by selling imported two- and three wheelers in India. In 1959, it obtained license from the Government of India to manufacture two- and three-wheelers and it went public in 1960. In 1970, it rolled out its 100,000th vehicle.
In 1977, it managed to produce and sell 100,000 vehicles in a single financial year. In 1985, it started producing at Waluj in Aurangabad. In 1986, it managed to produce and sell 500,000 vehicles in a single financial year. Company Profile: Founder Jamnalal Bajaj Year of Establishment 1926 Industry Automotive – Two & Three Wheelers Business Group The Bajaj Group Listings & its codes BSE – Code: 500490; NSE – Code:BA JA JAU TO Presence Distribution network covers 50 countries. Dominant presence in Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Columbia, Guatemala, Peru, Egypt, Iran and Indonesia.
Joint Venture Kawasaki Heavy Industries of Japan Registered & Head Office Akurdi , Pune – 411035, India Tel. : +(91)-(20)-27472851 Fax: +(91)-(20)-27473398 Works Akurdi, Pune 411035 Bajaj Nagar, Waluj Aurangabad 431136 Chakan Industrial Area, Chakan, Pune 411501 E-mail [email protected] co. in Website www. bajajauto. com About Bajaj The Bajaj Group is amongst the top 10 business houses in India. Its footprint stretches over a wide range of industries, spanning automobiles (two-wheelers and three-wheelers), home appliances, lighting, iron and steel, insurance, travel and finance.
The group’s flagship company, Bajaj Auto, is ranked as the world’s fourth largest two- and three- wheeler manufacturer and the Bajaj brand is well-known in over a dozen countries in Europe, Latin America, the US and Asia. Founded in 1926, at the height of India’s movement for independence from the British, the group has an illustrious history. The integrity, dedication, resourcefulness and determination to succeed which are characteristic of the group today, are often traced back to its birth during those days of relentless devotion to a common cause.
Jamnalal Bajaj, founder of the group, was a close confidant and disciple of Mahatma Gandhi. In fact, Gandhiji had adopted him as his son. This close relationship and his deep involvement in the independence movement did not leave Jamnalal Bajaj with much time to spend on his newly launched business venture. His son, Kamalnayan Bajaj, then 27, took over the reins of business in 1942. He too was close to Gandhiji and it was only after Independence in 1947, that he was able to give his full attention to the business.
Kamalnayan Bajaj not only consolidated the group, but also diversified into various manufacturing activities. The present Chairman and Managing Director of the group, Rahul Bajaj, took charge of the business in 1965. Under his leadership, the turnover of the Bajaj Auto the flagship company has gone up from Rs. 72 million to Rs. 46. 16 billion (USD5 936 million), its product portfolio has expanded from one to and the brand has found a global market. He is one of India’s most distinguished business leaders and internationally respected for his business acumen and entrepreneurial spirit.
Managing Director Rajiv Bajaj, who took charge as Managing Director on 1st April 2005, is a Mechanical Engineer from Pune University. He later did his Masters in Manufacturing Systems Engineering from the University of Warwick. He Joined as Officer on Special Duty in 1990, took over as General Manager (Products) in February 1993, Vice President (Products) in June 1995, President in May 2000, President & Whole Time Director in March 2002 and as JointManaging Director in March 2003. Sanjiv Bajaj Executive Director Mr. Sanjiv Bajaj, who took charge as the Executive Director in April 2004, is
a Mechanical Engineer from Pune University. He obtained a Masters Degree in Manufacturing Systems from the University of Warwick and an MBA degree from Harvard Business School. Mr. Sanjiv Bajaj joined as an Officer on Special Duty in 1994, took over as the General Manager (CF7) in 1997 and Vice President (Finance) in April 2001. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The objective of the study is “Company image Bajaj and Survey research to measure customer satisfaction towards Bajaj Pulsar in Chennai” during the period of MAY – JUNE 2009 •To determine the effects of the company image on the sales.
•To understand customer attitude towards Bajaj motorcycles and Bajajauto. To measure customer satisfaction of Bajaj pulsar motorcycle owners. •To know the market share of Bajaj auto in Chennai. •To predict the boom of automobile industry. To know the tastes and preferences of people of Chennai when it comes to motorcycles. COMMERCIAL VEHICLES Goods Carriers GC Max Diesel GC Max CNG RE600 Passenger Carriers RE 2S RE 2S CNG RE 2S LPG RE 4S RE 4S CNG RE 4S LPG RE Diesel RE GDI Mega M Bajaj Three Wheelers We are one of the authorized traders and exclusive suppliers of various models of three wheelers from Bajaj & Piaggio.
These are extensively used for varied commercial transportation. | Bajaj Auto Rickshaw 2 Stroke & 4 Stroke Bajaj Auto Rickshaw 2 Stroke 2 stroke Bajaj auto rickshaw are popular and extensively used category of three wheelers. Engine | Type| 2 Stroke | Cooling Type| Forced Air Cooled | Displacement| 145. 45 cc| Max Power| 7 bhp( 5. 15 kW) @ 5000 rpm| Max Torque| 12. 1 Nm @ 3500 rpm| Ignition Type| CDI | Transmission Type| 4 forward and one reverse| Clutch Type| Wet multidisc type | Electrical System | System| 12V AC + DC | Head Light| 35/35W | Horn| 12 V AC | Chassis | Chassis Type| Monocoque |
Maximum Payload| 333 kg| Suspension | Front Suspension | Helical spring and hydraulic shock absorber with antidive link | Rear Suspension | Independent suspension with spring and hydraulic shock absorber | Tyres | Front Tyre Size| 4. 00-8, 4PR | Rear Tyre Size| 4. 00-8, 4PR 2 Nos. | Brakes | Front Brakes| Drum Hydraulic | Rear Brakes| Drum Hydraulic| Fuel Tank | Fuel Tank Capacity| 8 litres| Dimensions | Overall length| 2625 mm| Overall width| 1300 mm| Overall height| 1710 mm| Wheel Base| 2000 mm| Ground Clearance | 180 mm| Minimum Turning Radius | 2. 88 m| GVW| 277 kg| » Send Enquiry| .| | |
REVIEW OF LITERATURE: * “Brand Image is the impression left in the mind of the prospect by the brand” * A brand is a collection of images and ideas representing an economic producer; more specifically, it refers to the descriptive verbal attributes and concrete symbols such as a name, logo, slogan, and design scheme that convey the essence of a company, product or service. Brand recognition and other reactions are created by the accumulation of experiences with the specific product or service, both directly relating to its use, and through the influence of advertising, design, and media commentary.
A brand is a symbolic embodiment of all the information connected to a company, product or service. A brand serves to create associations and expectations among products made by a producer. A brand often includes an explicit logo, fonts, color schemes, symbols and sound which may be developed to represent implicit values, ideas, and even personality. The key objective is to create a relationship of trust. * The brand, and “branding” and brand equity have become increasingly important components of culture and the economy, now being described as “cultural accessories and personal philosophies”.
Brands are represented in the mind of the consumers through images. Consumers do not live in an objective and real world. Rather their world is tending to be subjective and personal. It is the image of the world that mediates between the consumer and the external real world. A brand is not what actually it is, rather what it perceived as. Hence image building is crucial task for marketers. It is the brand image which would either ‘steer away” or “steer towards” a consumer from a brand. Imagery perspective lays stress on symbolism and imagery aspect of a brand.
It is the imagery overhand above the physical product that may make brand more relevant and meaningful to the consumers in certain cases. Brand Image building is “The effort to differentiate the brand psychologically rather than physically” According to Sengupta “Brand Image” is the totality of the impressions about the brand” This according to him includes its physical, functional and psychological aspects of the brand. Branding began much before the term entered in the jargon of marketing thought. It can be traced to ancient civilizations. The Greeks and Romans and people before them employed various ways to promote their wares.
These were wines, ointments or metals. The Greeks also uses town criers to announce the arrival of ships with particular cargos Branding becomes an imperative when identity is lost due to homogeneity, branding in the simplest form a differentiator. If one traces the etymology the word brand has its origin in the old news word”brandr”. IT means “to burn”. Inthe early times ,the farmers used to burn a mark or a symbol on the animals to identify ones live stock. Branding has always an important aspect of marketing . In the sixteenth century distillers uses branding in their own way. They burned or branded their name on the wooden containers.
It is the purpose that the whiskey of one distiller could be identified from that of others . Consumer identification practices with the product and protection continues to be guides of branding practices today. The brand concept evolved further in the eighteen century. Earlier the producers name identified the products. It is some kind of corporate umbrella branding. In fact identity of the producer is used to the brand name. For instance, Smirnoff vodka takes its name from Smirnoff family which went into vodka business in the year 1818, Ford automobiles adorned the name that came from the Ford family.
The real boost to branding came in the middle of the twentieth century. Originally the production was craft based and localized. Since the craft is producer specific, the output was automatically differentiated. Also craft is time-consuming, it limited production to low level. Hence markets were small and localized. But dawning to industrial wave altered the production methodologies. The industrialization brought assembly lines, large corporations and standardization. The plants began to use similar technology, churning out similar products. This left one product virtually Brand Image According to Sengupta:
“Brand Image” is the totality about the impressions about the brand. This according to him includes its physical, functional and psychological aspects of the brand. According to Christian Restall: “ Brand Image is the measurable aspects of the brand” According to Oglivy “personality and brand image are the same” Aaker has the following say about brand image, ”An association and image both represent perceptions which may or may not reflect objective reality……. as image of competence based upon the appearance of a doctors office and the manners of his staff rather than on the objective measure of the health of former patients”.
Kapferer thinks that brand identity is from the sender’s side while brand image is from receiver’s side. Meryl Paule Gardner He examines the constituents of brand image and calls them “brand thoughts”. For instance, many may not evaluate the company or even the product while evaluating a brand. Blind test conducted for soft drinks, instant coffee and perfumes reveals that the consumers could not really differentiate the brands when their name was concealed from them. But certain things like bran features and information obviously affect the brand image.
Communication which includes advertising seems to be every important influence of the brand image besides the product or brand itself. Joseph Plummer He indicates that brand image has three components: * Product attributes * Consumers benefit * Brand personality That is Plummer treats Brand image as a subset of image . Brand image would stem from three sources . These are: * Provider driven image * Product driven image * User driven image Provider-driven image This is the image driven from the company/brand. The brand is what it is because of the company makes it.
For instance, brand name like Tata signals quality in everything it makes from steel to salt. In fact it is likely a couple of percentage points about the market share acquired by any Tata brand is owed to the brand name Tata itself. Sometimes the CEOs positive image enhances the brands appeal. JRD Tatas image has a favorable impact von the groups name. The same could be true of brand names. Amul is synonyms with dairy products. Sometimes, brand image is influenced by the manufactures name besides the brands own personality.
Research in US shows that Crest (P&G Toothpaste) was seen as anticavity toothpaste while Levers brands-Close-Up, Aim Mint where all clustered together and viewed as cosmetic rather than medicinal tooth pastes. Studies conducted by marketing research agencies shows that brand image is not significantly affected by the company’s name unless the organization name itself has been used as the brand name. What it means is that not many care as to who manufactures Bagpiper Whisky or Kingfisher Beer. The fact is that UB manufactures Kingfisher is immaterial to the brand image of the beer.
The western consumers who at least in FMCGs tend to read the relationship between the company’s image and the brand image. Product Driven Image This image is result of the product performance. This in turn depends on its ingredients. Santoor toilet soap promises skin care through it contents – sandal wood and turmeric. Carrier AirCon which recently executed a turnaround saves a specific market because of its midrange tonnage. This is directly related to the product category that it’s identified with, i. e. “SPLIT AIR CONDITIONARS”. 7 O’clock platinum edge derives its durability from the material of manufacture.
User – driven image This image is driven by the lifestyle of the user. A particular lifestyle is south to be projected through a product. This is done through user-imagery. “Naughty Boy” shoe has more to do with a school boy’s image rather than the product’s characteristics. Van Heusen shirts are an expression of particular lifestyle, just as DH shirts are of another. Aramusk tried, though unsuccessfully to communicate the idea of a male soap to the customers. “Men can be soft” is the idea that Nivea cream innovately communicates through its positioning “Men who dare to care”.
Here, Nivea banks more on the profile of men who use the product rather than on the product features them. Brand Image-Established Products and New Products Brand image of most established products is difficult to change. The hypothesis appeals intuitively. This is because the brand would have acquired a personality step by step over a period of time. Any time that disturbs the core values of the personality shall be summarily rejected. This has been powerfully demonstrated by New Coke – Old Coke episode. Observe that n India too, some established brands have successfully changed the brand image while other has not.
Witness the positioning shifts in “Red Label Tea” which was at one time the largest selling tea brand in the country. The brand is today being seen as less exciting than stable-mate Taaza. The same problem might haunt Bata which is finding it difficult to compete with younger brands like Woodland, Mescos, Action etc.. The trick is to contemporaries brand image incrementally. This was done pretty deftly in the case of Lifebuoy. Its “Tandurusti-Ki-Raksha” platform has not been abandoned since the 60’s, but the executions, the props, ambience of the advertisement have been steadily modified to suit the present times.
Cintol successfully changed its image from a deodorant soap to a head-on competitor of Liril. New brands do not have to carry that baggage of heritage but they also lag a clear image in the mind of the consumer. Today if a brand has to create an image for itself which has to market itself in a radically different fashion. This can be observed in the case of Close-up toothpaste. Some times a brand can run into serious image-related problems because of the product. Cadbury’s Chocolates received adverse publicity because of their nickel content which was supposedly harmful.
Same type of problem has been suffered by the Cola giant Coca-Cola recently. For instance Union Carbide earned a bad image due to Bhopal gas tragedy. But the brand it manufactured namely Eveready was only marginally affected. These examples show that brand image is for ever in danger and even established brands can bite the dust in the face of adverse publicity. Brand Image and Country of Origin It has been observed that hedonistic products (perfume, wine) fare better when they are manufactured by French companies. Similarly, Japanese products are preferred in categories like cars, digital cameras and Plasma TV sets.
German products are preferred in certain niche industrial products (Karor, the German company produces 90% of cigarette making machines in the world) Several studies showed that brand image has a correlation with the country of origin. Patriotic advertisements can for instances affect the image of a brand and may bring in some loyal consumers. However it this is true one cannot see how French perfumes, Japanese cars and Korean ships sell all over the world. MinHan, of course points out that the influence of patriotic advertising is tentative. This means that the brand will have to stand on its own in the long run.
Not many companies in India try to sell brand on the strength of their product being Indian, especially in India. Dabur, Vico Vajrandanti, Kayam Churan are few such brands that hint at ayurvedic heritage rather than on the fact that the product is of Indian origin. However, some products have been sold abroad especially in the Middle East using the maid in India tag. In the US, however, patriotic advertising become a necessity, thanks to tough competition provided by the Japanese. Other researches found that the country of origin has nominal effect on the consumers ‘Perception of the brand’.
American cars are rated high on mileage and German cars on driving comfort but even this cannot be stereo typed. The change in brand image for the product manufactured in other countries in the perception of Japanese consumers has interesting lessons to offer. It points out that in the perception of Japanese consumers, the mage of US products have fallen between 1967 and 1975. Also they no longer see products of their own country as value-for-money products but perceive them to be as good as European or American product. Overall, research seems to point out that the country of origin has an impact on the brand image.
Brand image and Celebrity Research on image built through endorsement of celebrities show that there are three aspects that affect the consumer’s attitude of a brand. They are: * Attractiveness * Trustworthiness * Expertise Examples of how celebrities in India have been used in advertising to enhance the brand image are listed below. A film actress like Kareena Kapoor is a credible source of information for soap. Khaitan, the owner of the brand himself assures 100% reliability of the brand in the advertisement thus making the information dependable.
In US, perceived expertise mattered more than the other two sources of influence, namely, attractiveness and trustworthiness in shaping a consumers attitude for product. Conclusive evidence on this is unavailable on India. However, it is improbable that the above holes true in India. For instance, the attractive ness of the model was a very important reason for the phenomenon success of LUX soap in its introduction stage. An easy way to develop a brand image is to highlight something unique in the brand.
Captain Cook insists on “FREE-FLOWING” quality of its salt and promotes it with a comparative advertisement to hit out against Tata Salt. Marlboro cigarette did a turn around and made itself a “MACHO-MAN”cigerette owing to its Wild West imagery. Brand Image and Imagery Image is the product seen from the consumer’s perspective. It’s what the consumers think about the product. Imagery is the consumer seen from the product’s perspective. Hirschimin argues that its possible to create images of brands and nurture them through consistent communication. Typically these imageries fall in three categories namely * Sacred * Secular * Mediating
A sacred image is where the products gets elevated to the meta physical blue sky’s because of the setting and ritual of consumption. (E. g. Chyavanaprash and Parachute Hair oil-everybody from grand parents to grand children uses them). Brand Image and User Status An interesting observation is that brand images are formed irrespective of whether the brand is being considered of purchase or not. Whether one is likely to purchase a Maruthi or not, one is likely to have a brand image of the product. This inurn has been shown to be linked to the execution of the advertisement besides other modes of information available to the customer.
In some, it appears that while there is a lot of variation in the definition available for brand personality, most experts seem to be agreed on the definition of brand image. A definition on which there is broad agreement is given below. “Brand Image is the impression left in the mind of the prospect by the brand” Brand Image and Brand Personality The different dimensions of a brand should come together to give it a unique personality. The free flowing nature of its salt, its distinctive logo and communication, its premium price are all part of Captain Cook salt’s personality.
Aggressive selling in the replacement market for tyres, unique communication and promotion, the anti-skid product are all part of Apollo Black Cat tyres. (Unfortunately the branch failed because the product did not deliver. ) When the different dimensions of personality do not match, the product does not take off. For instance, Savage blade had been positioned as a premium product and it was functionally effective as well. But it was seen as too expensive by the market. The same is true for Ariel. The image of Red Label Tea has been that of a conservative hundred year old brand which is why the company went in for a repositioning.
A representational product has more to do with the aspirations, roles, role models, and life-style of the user. Here, Coke gets transformed from sweetened fizz water to the great American dream. “Brand personality is the sum total of all the significant tangible and intangible assets that a brand possesses. ” “Brand image is how the brand is perceived by the consumers. In the words, brand personality is the cause while brand image is the effect. ” 1. Are you having an Auto? (a) Yes (b) No TABLE: S. No| Criteria| No.
of respondents| % of respondents| 1. | Yes | 62| 62%| 2. | No| 38| 38%| | Total| 100| 100| GRAPH: INTERPRETAION: The above table shows that the numbers of respondents are said that 62% is yes and 38% is no. 2. If yes with which company are you having an Auto? (a) Bajaj (b) Piaggio ape (c) Atul (d)Mahindra TABLE: S. No| Criteria| No. of respondents| % of respondents| 1. | Bajaj| 35| 35%| 2. | Piaggio ape| 30| 305| 3. | Atul | 20| 20%| 4. | Mahindra| 15| 15%| | Total| 100| 100| INTERPRETAION:
The above table shows that the number of respondents are given preference to Bajaj is 35, next preference given to Piaggio ape is 30, next preference to Atul is 20 remaining are followed by Mahindra is15. 3. Are you aware of Other Companies Auto in India? (a) Yes (b) No TABLE: S. No| Criteria| No. of respondents| % of respondents| 1. | Yes | 50| 50%| 2. | No| 50| 50%| | Total| 100| 100| GRAPH: INTERPRETAION: The above table shows that the numbers of respondents are said that the aware of Other Companies Auto in India 75% is yes and 25% is no.
4. What are the motives to purchase the product? a. Media b. Discussion c. Friends d. Wall paints TABLE: S. No| Criteria| No. of respondents| % of respondents| 1. | Media | 35| 35%| 2. | Discussion | 30| 30%| 3. | Friends | 20| 20%| 4. | Wall paints | 15| 15%| | Total| 100| 100| INTERPRETAION: The above table shows that the number of respondents is said that they know by Media is 35, next preference given to Discussion is 30, and next preference to Friends is 20 remaining are followed by Wall paints is15. 5.
What are the parameters on which you choose this auto? (a)Brand Image (b) Reliability (c) Service (d) Mileage (e) Price (f) Quality TABLE: S. No| Criteria| No. of respondents| % of respondents| 1. | Brand Image | 30| 30%| 2. | Reliability| 20| 20%| 3. | Service | 15| 15%| 4. | Mileage| 10| 10%| 5. | Price| 10| 10%| 6. | Quality| 15| 15%| | Total| 100| 100| | | | | INTERPRETAION:
The above table shows that the number of respondents are given preference to Brand Image is 30; next preference given to Reliability is20, next preference to Service and Quality is 15, Mileage and Prices are10 respectively. 6. Which is the most important factor that represents the Brand Image of Auto Company? (a)Advertisement (b) Service (c)Price (d) Market Share TABLE: S. No| Criteria| No. of respondents| % of respondents| 1. | Advertisement| 20| 20%| 2. | Service| 40| 40%| 3.
| Price| 10| 10%| 4. | Market Share| 30| 30%| | Total| 100| 100| INTERPRETAION: The above table shows that the number of respondents are given preference to Service is 40, next preference given to Market Share is 30, next preference to Advertisement is 20 remaining are followed by Price is10 8. What according to you is the most important factor that Bajaj Auto should concentrate more to withstand competition? (a)Increase efficiency of Mileage (b) Increase Ads (c)Technology Up gradation (d) Promotional activities of Bajaj Auto TABLE:
S. No| Criteria| No. of respondents| % of respondents| 1. | Increase efficiency of Mileage | 45| 45%| 2. | Increase Ads | 15| 15%| 3. | Technology Up gradation | 25| 25%| 4. | Promotional activities of Bajaj Auto | 15| 15%| | Total| 100| 100| INTERPRETAION: The above table shows that the number of respondents are given preference to Increase efficiency of Mileage is 45, next preference given to Technology Up gradation 25, next preference to Increase Ads and Promotional activities of Bajaj Auto is15. 12.
Kindly rate following factors of the Bajaj Brand? A) Excellent B) Good C) Average D) Poor TABLE: S. No| Criteria| No. of respondents| % of respondents| 1. | Excellent| 35| 35%| 2. | Good| 30| 30%| 3. | Average| 20| 20%| 4. | Poor| 15| 15%| | Total| 100| 100| INTERPRETAION: The above table shows that the number of respondents are given preference to Excellent is 35, next preference given to Good is 30, next preference to Average is 20 remaining are followed by Poor is15. 13. Please give any additional suggestions for improving the trading volume of Bajaj Auto?
.……………………………………………… FINDINGS OF THE STUDY * Most of the respondents are aware of Bajaj Auto Company. * 50 Cent percent of the respondents are aware of the other Auto companies in India. * Baja is the company that majority of the respondents are able to recall based on their awareness, followed by ape and atul respectively. * The study shows that Advertisement does play an important role in Marketing Communication for it is the major source through which majority of the respondents have come to know of various Auto companies operating in India, followed by friend and broker.
* Majority of the respondents have rated Bajaj as the best Auto Company. * It is based on the parameters like Brand image, Reliability, with acceptance to respondents. * The study shows that increasing ads and promotional activities are some of the ways by which Bajaj Auto can withstand competition in the market. * The study shows that ethics, advertisement, market share and Service are the important factors that represent the Brand Image of a company. SUGGESTIONS * Advertisement is one of the most effective means for communicating with customers.
If Bajaj Auto concentrates more on ads it will be able to attract more customers and this will also help the company to withstand competition in the industry. * The company will be able to improve its brand awareness and brand image through effective marketing communication. (Advertisements) * Concentrating more on, Service, advertisement and Technology Up gradation of workforce would help Bajaj Auto to be the market leader. * Services such as Customer Meet, etc should be encouraged. * The company has to provide more favorable Service and Quality for achieving customer satisfaction.
CONCLUSION Bajaj auto Company is the first largest Auto Company in India. The study reveals that the company has achieved this position because of its efficient market operation and, the service and quality adopted by it. In order to improve its growth and to expand its market share in future the company should concentrate more on advertisement, technology up gradation, and also improve the efficiency of its workforce.. From the survey it was found out that a company can improve its brand image only if it has good market share, advertisement, and efficient work force.
So it is one of the areas where the firm should be more alert so as to improve as well as maintain its Brand Image. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. PHILIP KOTLER , Marketing Management, Prentice Hall , 2001 2. PHILIP KOTLER , Marketing Management, Pearson Education, New Delhi, 11th Edition 2002 3. CR KOTHARI , Research Methodology Methods And Techniques, New Age International Publishers, New Delhi 4. GC BERI, Marketing Research, Tata Mc Graw Hill, New Delhi, 3rd Edition-2003 5. MATHEW, Insurance: Principles and Practice 6. WEBSITES www. encyclopedia. com www. bajajauto. com 1. Name of the Respondent: 2.
Are you having an Auto? a. Yes b. No 3. If yes with which company are you having an Auto? a. Bajaj b. Piaggio ape c. Atul d. Mahindra 4. How did you become aware of Bajaj Auto? a. Advertisement b. Friends /Relatives c. Broker d. Others 5. What are the motives to purchase the product? a. Media b. Discussion c. Friends d. Wall paints 6. What are the parameters on which you choose this Auto? a. Brand Image b. Service c. Mileage d. Price e. quality 7. Which is the most important factor that represents the brand image of Auto Company? a.
Advertisement b. service c. Price d. Market share 8. What according to you is the most important factor that Bajaj Auto should concentrate more to with stand competition? a. Increase efficiency of mileage b. Increase ads c. Technology up gradation d. Promotional activities of Bajaj Auto 9. Kindly rate fallowing factors of the Bajaj Brand? a. Excellent b. Good c. Average d. Poor 10. Please give any additional suggestions for improving the trading volume of Bajaj Auto. —————————————————————————————————–