Bus 642 -Ethics in Business Research
A Competitive Coup in the In-Flight Magazine What are the most prudent decisions she can make about her responsibilities to herself and others? The most prudent decisions the Manager has to make are that of her ethical standards and behavior and how it will affect the company. Cooper and Schindler (2011) states that” the goal of ethics in research is to ensure that no one is harmed or suffers adverse consequences from research activities” (p. 32). She must decide if she uses this information if she will debrief the company on the deception of the research since it unauthorized.
She must also decide on protecting the right of the researcher and ensure that she is providing the sponsor with ethically conducted and reported research. What are the implications of those decisions even if there is no violation of law or regulation? Even if there is no violation of law or regulation, the fact that the research is obtained under unethical circumstances leaves the company and the manager open to unfavorable implications. If it is found out how the manager obtained the information, she can lose her job and tarnish her reputation.
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The company can face liability for using stolen or unauthorized research. 1. Distinguish between the following: a. Exploratory and formal studies Exploratory is a way a study may be viewed, its immediate use is usually to develop hypotheses or questions for further research. Cooper and Schindler (2011) state that “exploratory studies tend toward loose structures with the objective of discovering future research tasks” (p. 140). Formal studies are another way a study may be viewed and picks up where exploratory studies left off.
Cooper and Schindler (2011) also note that “the goal of the formal studies is to test the hypotheses or answer the research questions posed” (p. 140). b. Experimental and ex post facto research designs In an experimental research design, the research attempts to control and or manipulate the variables in the study. It is most appropriate when the wish is to discover whether certain variables produce effects in other variables. In an ex post facto design the researchers have no control over the variables in that they can’t manipulate them.
This research is important in producing an unbiased research, by only reporting what has happened or what is happening. c. Descriptive and causal studies Cooper and Schindler (2011) state that “descriptive studies are used to describe phenomena associated with a subject population or to estimate proportions of the population that have certain characteristics” (p. 149). Questions of who, what, when, where, and how are usually answered in this type study. Causal studies on the other hand “seek to discover the effect that a variable has on another or why certain outcomes are obtained” (p. 54). 2. Establishing causality is difficult, whether conclusions have been derived inductively or deductively. a. Explain and elaborate on the implications of this statement. The statement implies that inductive and deductive conclusions are not certain because they derive from probability. b. Why is ascribing causality more difficult when conclusions have been reached through induction? Cooper and Schindler (2011) view inductive conclusions as inferences, which are “statements of the probability based on what we observe and measure” (p. 151). c. Correlation does not imply causation.
Illustrate this point with examples from business. Correlation is simultaneous occurrence while causation refers to one factor having a direct effect on an outcome. Recently there was a role change in which the person doing the Accounts Payable (A/P) position was deemed ineffective and transferred to a different role and someone with a degree in Accounting was hired as the replacement. The transition has proved successful and it is being heralded with the correlation that because the replacement has an Accounting degree that is why performance is up.
The causal conclusion leans to the fact that the new A/P role was redesigned to give the person more time on focus on the job by doing only A/P tasks while the previous person in the role actually performed multiple functions not relating to A/P, which took up a lot of time and left her with little time to focus and be effective in the A/P position. 3. Using yourself as the subject, give an example of each of the following asymmetrical relationships: a. Stimulus-response I recently bought a product and after seeing the less than stellar reviews, I decided to return the product to the store. b.
Property-disposition Even though my current financial situation is not so favorable, I have decided to contribute to my 401K account because of my age. c. Disposition-behavior My drive for job satisfaction has propelled my performance to exemplary standards which have in return rewarded me with a promotion. d. Property-behavior When we expanded our family from two to three, we decided to by a 4-door sedan than would be easier for transporting a car seat, than it would be for a 2-door car. 4. Why not use more control variables rather than depend on randomization as the means of controlling extraneous variables?
As per Cooper and Schindler (2011), depending on randomization as the means of controlling extraneous variables allows us to “measure relationships as accurately and objectively as possible” (p. 154). 5. Researchers seek causal relationships by either experimental or ex post facto research designs. a. In what ways are these two approaches similar? These two research designs are similar in that the researchers are able to report results or effects in the variables being studied. b. In what ways are they different? An experimental research design manipulates and controls independent variables and then observes the effect on dependent variables.
While ex-post facto research design measures the cause and effect relationship without manipulating the independent variable. What type of sample would you draw if it was to be an unrestricted sample? A simple random sampling would be drawn in order for it to be an unrestricted sample. This is the simplest type of probability approach in which each member of the population has an equal chance of being included in a sample. References Cooper, D. R. and Schindler, P. S. (2011). Business research methods (11th ed. ). New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin. ISBN: 9780073373706