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Byzantine Empire

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    Justinian became emperor in527, he was determined to revive the ancient Roman Empire, to build a new Rome. He established Constantinople as the capital of the Byzantine, or Eastern RomarL Empire. Justiniar{s actions preserved Roman heritage for more than a thousand years.

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    Directions: The following question is based on the accompanying documents Part A. As you analyze the documents, take into account both the in source of each document and the author’s point of view. Be sure to do each of the following stePs:
    1. Carefully read the document-based question. Consider what you already know about this topic. How would you answer the question if you had no documents to examine?

    2. Head each document carefully, underlining key phrases and words that address the document-based question. You rnay also wish to use the margin to make brief notes. Answer the questions that follow each document before moving on to the next

    document.
    3. Based on your own knowledge and on the information found the documents, formulate a thesis that directly answers the document-based question.

    4. Organize supportive and relevant information into a brief outline. 5. Write a well-organized essay proving your thesis. You should present your essay logically. lnclude information both from the documents and from your own knowledge beyond the documents. The following documents deal with the reign of Justinian and the Byzantine Empire. Examine each document carefully. ln the space provided, answer the questions that follow each document.

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    In this adapted excerpt, Procopius describes Justininian. Justinian created countless cities which did not exist before. And finding that the

    beliefinGodwas…strayingintoerrors…he…broughtitaboutthatitstoodon the firm foundation of a single faith. Moreover, finding the laws obscure because they had become far more numerous than they should be, and in obvious confusion because they disagreed with each othe(, he preserved them [in the Code of Justinian, 529-5341. . . by controlling their discrepancies with the greatest firmness. Source: Procopius, Buildings, Loeb Classical Library, 1940 (adapted)

    According to Procopius, what were three contributions of Justinian?

    Document 2
    Procopius also described Justinian in a different book, The Secret History. Wisely, this book was published after Justinian s death. Justinian was . . . crafty, hypocritical, secretive by temperament two-faced: a clever fellow with marvelous ability to conceal his real opinion . . . lyi.g all the time. . . ” Source: Procopius, The Secret History, translated by Richard Atwater, 1927 (adapted)

    Which characteristics of Justinian did Procopius stress rnThe Secret History?

    \Mhy was this description so different from what Document 1 says about Justinian?

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    Justinian ruled like earlier Roman emperors. This is a description of him by a Byzantine official. The emperor is equal to ali men in the nature of his body, but in the authority of his rank he is similar to God, who rules all.

    How did this official explain Justiniarls power?

    Document 4
    In this adapted excerpt, Procopius describes the Hagia Sophia, a magnificent churctu upon its completion in 537. In height it rises to the very heavens. . . . A spherical-shaped dome . . . makes it exceedingly beautiful: from the lightness of the building it does not appear to rest upon a solid foundation, but to . . . be suspended from heaven by the fabled golden chain. . . . The entire ceiling is covered with pure gold, which adds glory to the bearty, though the rays of light reflected upon the gold from the marble surpass it in beauty. . . . And whenever anyone enters this church to pray, he understands at once that it is not by any human strength or skill, but by the influence of God, that this work has been perfected. And so his mind is lifted up toward God. . . . Moreover, it is impossible to describe the treasure of gold and silver plate and gems/ which the Emperor Justinian has presented to it. . . .

    \A/hat were the distinctive characteristics of the Hagia Sophia?

    What impact did the church have on a visitor?

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    Justinian was a great builder. This is evident from the fortifications and buildings he constructed in Constantinople, shown on the map below.

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    Study this map and describe the building projects that made Constantinople the center of power. In addition, discuss Constantinople’s strategic location for trade and defense.

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    The Byzantine Empire reached its greatest size under Justinian. From 565 until the empire’s collapse in1.453, several invaders took sections of it.

    The Byzantine Empire in 527

    \A/hat areas were included in the Byzantine Empire?

    I4trhat

    problems did Justiniarfs reconquests cause for the empire?

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