In order to debate between Capitalism and Socialism, it is necessary to understand what the differences, advantages, and disadvantages are of both systems. Basically, Capitalism advocates private property, and that society does better when an individual can purchase and produce as they see fit.
Socialism, in essence, is the theory that property ownership should reside in the hands of the government, and that the government can do more with the assets than individuals can.The difference between Capitalism and Socialism can be summed up by their definitions. They are based upon completely opposite philosophies. Capitalism is a political and economic system in which factories, companies, land, etc.
are owned privately in order to create profit for the owners. Prices of goods and services fluctuate depending on the desire of the consumer and the availability of the goods (the law of supply and demand).In a capitalist society, there will be significant differences in wealth and power between those who have capital (machines, factories, ships, land, etc.) and those who do not.
Capitalism is the only politico-economic system based on the doctrine of individual rights. This means that capitalism recognizes that each and every person is the owner of his own life, and has the right to live his life in any manner he chooses as long as he does not violate the rights of others.Socialism is a political and economic system which advocates collective or governmental ownership and the administration of the means of production and distribution of goods. In a socialist society, there is no private property and, at least theoretically, everyone cares for those less fortunate.
In this form of government everyone has generally the same amount of money, which means the rich persons money goes to the poor so that everyone can be middle class.Socialism upholds that man is not an end in himself, and that he must sacrifice his own convictions for the sake of the greater good of the collective entity. There are advantages under capitalism. The individual’s pursuits of his own economic self-interest simultaneously benefits the economic self-interests of all others in the society.
In allowing each individual to act unhampered by government regulations, capitalism causes wealth to be created in the most efficient manner possible which ultimately raises the standard of living, increases the economic opportunities, and makes available a growing supply of products for everyone.The free-market operates in such a way so that as one man creates more wealth for himself, he simultaneously creates more wealth and opportunities for everyone else, which means that as the rich become richer, the even poor become richer. Capitalism serves the economic self-interests of everyone, including non-capitalists in the society. Accelerated economic growth, prosperity and rapid progress in science and technology are all benefits of Capitalism.
Capitalism naturally divides into certain stratas, but they will be much less authoritative than in a centralized government as under Socialism.More people will have access to wealth which means more power. Capitalism does not command people how to use their power or wealth. In theory, there are advantages to Socialism.
It sounds noble to advocate the equality of everyone, and supply national retirement and health care systems to make ordinary people better off. Theoretically, under Socialism, there should be no unemployment, no inflation, and no disparity of wealth, status, or power. However, in actuality, the under-privileged in most socialist countries have benefits that are expensive, substandard and hard to obtain.Although Marx, the Father of Modern Socialism predicted that Capitalism would fail, actually Socialism has been the greater failure historically.
Since the socialist state holds a universal monopoly on labor and production, no economic incentive exists for the socialist state to provide anything more than minimum physical subsistence for the workers. Exploitation is inherent to the nature of socialism because individuals cannot live for their own sake, rather, they exist merely as means to whatever ends the socialist rulers may have in mind.Capitalism has its disadvantages as well: high unemployment, the boom-slump cycle, poverty and crime. Despite those disadvantages, however, capitalist societies, historically, have done remarkably well in improving the human condition as a whole over the long run, while strict socialist societies have had severe declines in economic welfare.
In conclusion, it has been proven by history that a free-market economy (Capitalism) increases the living standards of most people more than an economy controlled by the command of the state (Socialism). An excellent natural example of this is East and West Germany.During the middle of this century, West Germany was a capitalistic free society, while East Germany was controlled by a socialistic government. Living conditions in East Germany were deplorable and East Germans routinely tried to escape to West Germany.
The Berlin Wall was erected by the East German government to keep their own people from defecting. However, eventually, the socialistic East German government and the Berlin Wall both failed and Capitalism and freedom prevailed. Personally, I am very glad to live in a free, Capitalistic society.