CH 15 – The Autonomic Nervous System and Visceral Reflexes
Somatic reflexes act faster than visceral reflexes. What is NOT a reason for this?
Effector organs in the somatic reflex are closer to the spinal cord
True or False: The autonomic nervous system carries out many somatic reflexes that are crucial to homeostasis
True or False: Both divisions of the autonomic nervous system are normally active simultaneously
True or False: The autonomic nervous system is composed of ganglia in the central nervous system and ganglia in the periphery
True or False: Most preganglionic fibers synapse with postganglionic fibers in the dorsal root ganglia
True or False: Binding of norepinephrine (NE) to an alpha-adrenergic receptor is usually excitatory, and binding to a beta-adrenergic receptor is usually inhibitory
Autonomic Nervous System fibers are NOT involved in
Maintaining tonicity of the muscles in the neck
Best describes the order of a visceral reflex
Sensory receptor > Afferent nerve fiber > interneuron > efferent nerve fiber > gland
Parasympathetic Tone does what…
Holds the resting heart rate below its intrinsic rate
The neurotransmitter associated with autonomic ganglia is
Antagonistic effects of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system are exemplified in the control of
____ is an example of the cooperative effect between the two autonomic nervous system divisions.
Sympathetic fibers do NOT release
Nitric Oxide (NO)
Sympathetic Effects tend to last ____ than parasympathetic effects.
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One reason is that ____
Longer; Norepinephrine can diffuse into the bloodstream without being broken down.
This enzyme breaks down norepinephrine (NE)
Monoamine Oxidase (MAO)
A neuron that synapses in the adrenal medulla is a ____ neuron, and releases the neurotransmitter ____
The ____ is an especially important center of autonomic control
Autonomic function does NOT receive input from
___ nerve passes throughout sympathetic ganglia without synapsing
True or False: All preganglionic fibers pass through the sympathetic chain of ganglia synapsing at least once there
True or False: The adrenal medulla is a modified sympathetic ganglion
True or False: Fibers of the vagus nerve end very near or within their target organs
True or False: The autonomic effect on a target cell depends only on the neurotransmitter reaching that target
True or False: Most sympathetic postganglionic adrenergic fibers secrete adrenaline
True or False: Acetylcholine binds to both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors
True or False: Acetylcholine always has an excitatory effect
True or False: All autonomic output originates in teh central nervous system
The autonomic nervous system does NOT control the
skeletal muscle in the rectus abdominis
Sympathetic nerve fibers are not associated with situations involving
___ is the background rate of sympatheitc and parasympathetic activity
The effect of autonomic fibers on target cells is ___, and/whereas the effect of somatic fibers is ___.
excitatory or inhibitory; always excitatory
In the autonomic nervous system, denervation would cause
In response to high blood pressure, stretch receptors called ___ in the walls of arteries carrying blood to the head will trigger a reflex that causes the heart to ___ its beats per minute
The motor pathway of the autonomic nervous system usually involves ___ neurons
Preganglionic fibers run from
gray matter to autonomic ganglia
Preganglionic fibers of the autonomic efferent pathway are ___ and secrete ___
Most fibers of the paraysmpathetic nervous system travel in
the vagus nerve
Sympathetic fibers arise only from the ___ region of the spinal cord
thoracic and lumbar
The sympathetic chain of ganglia (paravertebral ganglia) is found at the ___ levels of the spinal cord
cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal
This is NOT a feature of the sympathetic division
it has long preganglionic fibers
This is NOT a feature of the parasympathetic division
is has short preganglionic fibers
This figure shows the neural pathway through the autonomic nervous system. What structure(s) is(are) not associated with the autonomic nervous system?
This figure shows the neural pathway through the autonomic nervous system. What does structure “3” represent?
preganglionic sympathetic fiber
Most preganglionic fibers in the sympathetic nervous system synapse with 10 to 20 postganglionic neurons. This results in
the sympathetic nervous system having a relative widespread effect
The solar plexus is used as a name for
either the celiac and mesenteric ganglia or with celiac ganglia only
The adrenal medulla secretes mostly
This figure shows a division of the autonomic nervous system. The label___ represents the Vagus Nerve (CNX).
Which nerve(s) carries the most parasympathetic fibers?
vagus nerve (cn x)
The parasympathetic division arises from the ___ region of the spinal cord
brain and sacral
Damage to the ___ may affect near vision accomodation
oculomotor nerve (cn III)
White rami carry ___ neurons, while gray rami carry ___ neurons
myelinated preganglionic; unmyelinated postganglionic
This is NOT a characteristic of the enteric nervous system
reflex arcs are associated with the spinal cord
If a cell has x1 adrenergic receptors, it is sensitive to
What is NOT under dual control of the ANS
adrenal medulla activity
Propanolol, a beta blocker, is typically used to
decrease heart rate
What is more effective in producing bronchodilation?
Muscarinic receptors bind
The binding of ___ to a nicotinic receptor of a muscle fiber will ___ it
Atropine is sometimes used to dialte the pupil for eye examination. Which receptor would atropine block?
Drugs that are monoamine oxidase (mao) inhibitors would most likely
decrease the amount of NE destroyed and may be used as an antidepressant
A possible explanation for the effect of caffeine is that it blocks the receptor for a neuromodulatior in the brain called ___, which inhibits ACh release by cholinergic nuerons
What is made up of primarily adrenergic fibers?
postganglionic neurons of the sympathetic division
What is associated with the “flight or fight” reaction?
reduced urinary output