Ch. 9 and 10 AP Gov. PHS

blanket primary
a primary election in which each voter may vote for candidates from both parties
McGovern-Fraser Commission
formed as a means to make the Democratic party more democratic by including more minorities and women at the national convention
lame duck
an outgoing official serving out the remainder of a term, after retiring or being defeated for re-election; If Obama loses in 2012, He will be a lame duck president until new president is sworn in.
primary
a preliminary election where delegates or nominees are chosen
General Election
the election for national, state, and local offices held in November of even-numbered years on the Tuesday after the first Monday

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coattail effect
The boost that candidates may get in an election because of the popularity of candidates above them on the ballot, especially the president.
“winner takes all”
candidate who wins the states popular vote wins that state’s electoral votes. Contributes to the popular vote winner in a presidential election possibly losing the electoral college
electoral college
a body of individuals which elect the President and Vice President of the United States. The Constitution created this body, which consists of gatherings of state electors in each state to formally cast their ballots for a candidate for whom they have pledged to vote. Today, the Electoral College is basically a formality. In the past, however, on four occasions, a president was elected based on the electoral college, even though he lost the popular vote.
single member district
based on the principle of having only one member selected from each electoral district
at large district
election of an office holder by the voters of an entire govt unit rather than by the voters of a district
closed primary
a primary in which only registered members of a particular political party can vote
proportional representation
A system in which several officials are elected to represent the same area in proportion to the votes each party’s candidate recieves; used in presidential primaries to elect delegates in proportion to their popular vote.
safe seat
An elected office that is predictably won by one party or the other, so the success of that party’s candidate is almost taken for granted.
New Hampshire primary
traditionally, these are the first of the public votes for the new presidential election. it occurs in Jan. of the election year.
Federal Election Campaign Act of 1974
1974 legislation designed to regulate campaign contributions and limit campaign expenditures
open primary
a primary in which any registered voter can vote (but must vote for candidates of only one party)
national party convention
A national meeting of delegates elected in primaries, caucuses, or state conventions who assemble once every four years to nominate candidates for president and vice president, ratify the party platform, elect officers, and adopt rules.
candidate centered elections
election in which the focus is on the candidate not the political party or the issues of the day. Influenced by the candidates and the media through various means. For example: Candidate? negative ads. Media? Focuses on the personal life of the candidate
FEC
A six-member bipartisan agency which enforces campaign finance laws.
Iowa caucus
first caucus in the U.S. presidential election.
Buckley v. Valeo
a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States upheld federal limits on campaign contributions and ruled that spending money to influence elections is a form of constitutionally protected free speech. The court also stated candidates can give unlimited amounts of money to their own campaigns.
soft money
Money raised in unlimited amounts by political parties for party-building purposes. Now largely illegal except for limited contributions to state or local parties for voter registration and get-out-the-vote efforts.
issue ads
commercial ads on the radio and T.V. for a particular position on an issue, paid by interest groups to influence voters
Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act
aka McCain-Feingold Act; replaced the Federal Election Campaign Act; outlawed soft money; tried to impose limits on issue advocacy and independent expenditures before elections
office group ballot
one that lists the candidates together by the office for which they are running
electors
people elected by the voters in a presidential election as members of the electoral college
party column ballot
Type of ballot that encourages party-line voting by listing all of a party’s candidates in a column under the party name.
superdelegates
National party leaders who automatically get a delegate slot at the Democratic national party convention.
australian ballot
A government printed ballot of uniform size and shape to be cast in secret that was adopted by many states around 1890 in order to reduce the voting fraud associated with party printed ballots cast in public.
Super PACs
political organizations that use contributions from individuals, corporations, and labor unions to spend unlimited sums independent from the campaigns, yet influencing the outcomes of elections (must be uncoordinated with campaign)
precinct
the smallest unit of election administration; a voting district
Citizens United v. FEC
A 2010 decision by the United States Supreme Court holding that independent expenditures are free speech protected by the 1st Amendment and so cannot be limited by federal law. Leads to creation of SuperPACs & massive rise in amount of third party electioneering
by non profits, for-profit corporations, labor unions and other associations.
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