Change Management in Eabl. Essay

Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Mombasa CBD Campus Master of Business Administration HCB 3213 Change Management Lecturer: Adet N. KachiTel: 0720 365 219Email: [email protected] com Introduction JKUAT warmly welcomes you to the MBA program. The entire team is committed to make your study highly enjoyable, but also engaging enough to inculcate in you key management and leadership competences necessary for continued organizational growth. We are committed to help you enhance your corporate contribution and so propel your career to the next level.

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Change management as a course unit is designed to provide you with an understanding of the implications of the rate of change on organizations. The unit will focus on the pressures of change on organizations and will attempt to link various organizational situations to both theoretical and empirical interventions typical of the 21st century environment. Its purpose is to apply the knowledge gained through studying change management to improving the capacity of organizations to effectively manage change by putting the change process in the larger context of larger social and economic forces.

A practical approach will be given special attention to the extent of inculcating creative pragmatic problem solving orientation within the context of the module. Course Target The target group for this course includes persons holding managerial and leadership responsibilities in companies, Non-governmental Organizations and government agencies, among others, who also meet the minimum academic requirements of JKUAT for its MBA course. Course Delivery This unit will be conducted using lectures, case studies, group discussions and , academic debates among others.

The class may be structured in groups which will be expected to study given topics, prepare academic reports and present them in class for discussion as may be required of them from time to time. Learning Outcomes On successful completion of this unit, you are expected to be able to: •Understanding change in organizations- its drivers, the strategies to use when formulating change programmes. •Understanding the levers to be pulled when implementing change and managing the effects of change processes •Appreciation of change practice and how these can be influenced and managed. critically evaluate the body of knowledge on which contemporary principles of change management are based •apply theories and concepts change management in implementation and leading change in organizations 1. 1Course Content. 1. 1. 1Theoretical foundation of organizational Change 1. 1. 2Approaches and identifying need for change •Planned and emergent change •Prevalence and magnitude of change •Recognizing the levels of the problem that needs change 1. 1. 3Basics of change process •Starting the process of change •Change agents •Diagnosis of change •Strategies and management of emergent change Data and information for identification of problem 1. 1. 4Role of Management in Management of Change •Role of Management •Role of Staff/Workers in change effort 1. 1. 5Organizational Culture and its impact on Change Effort •Levels of corporate culture, visible, expressed and core values 1. 1. 6Models of Organizational Change •Kurt Lewin’s 3- Step Model of Change •Force-field model •Systems Analysis model 1. 1. 7Organizational Learning and Organizational Effectiveness in Driving Change •Leadership and Stakeholders involvement •Management of employees change meetings 1. 1. 8Implementing Change Motivating others to change efforts •Training and Development to achieve cooperation •Managing change transition •Caution during the process 1. 1. 9Tools and techniques of enforcing change •Types of interventions •Selecting appropriate intervention tools •Managing the change trauma

1. 1. 10Mechanism of maintenance and sustaining change •Management/consultant reviews for monitoring effectiveness of introduced change. Teaching and learning Approaches •Lectures/Instruction notes •Assignments/CATS •Discussions/Case study/Consultations •Individual group presentations •Research by students Marking and Evaluation Assignments 20% •CATs20% •Semester Exams60% Reference: Colin A. C. (1997). Strategic Change; Oxford, Reed Educational and Professional Publishing Ltd. John P. K (1996). Leading Change; Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication data, USA. Journals These journals are a selection of some of the major titles relevant to change management. You should become familiar with consulting journals and it is expected that you will use these references for your assignments. Academy of Management JournalJournal of Management Studies Academy of Management Review Harvard Business Review Journal of Organizational Change Management Theoretical foundations of change. 2. 1 Introduction. Change management is not a distinct discipline with rigid and clearly defined boundaries but draws on a number of social science disciplines and traditions. Change may be regarded as one of the few constants of recorded history. A successful exploitation of change situation requires: ?-knowledge of the circumstances surrounding a situation ?-understanding of the interactions ?-awareness of the potential impact of associated variables. But how can change be managed in such a fast moving environment without losing control of the organization and existing core competences?

Designing, evaluating and implementing successful strategies largely depend upon the quality of the management team, in particular the team’s ability to design organizations in such away as to facilitate the change process in a responsive and progressive manner. 2. 2 The imperative of change. Six major external changes that organizations must address in the new millennium: 2. 2. 1 A larger global marketplace made smaller by enhanced technologies and competition from abroad. 2. 2. 2 A worldwide recognition of the environment as an influencing variable and government attempts to draw back from environmental calamity.

There are legal, cultural and socio-economic implications in realizing that resource use and allocation have finite limits and that global solutions to ozone depletion, toxic waste dumping, raw material depletion, and other environmental concerns will force change on organizations, sooner rather than later. 2. 2. 3 Health consciousness as a permanent trend amongst all age groups throughout the world. Concerns have been raised about salmonella in eggs and poultry, listeria in chilled foods, BSE or ‘mad cow disease’, genetically engineered foodstuffs, and the cloning of animals.

How does the individual organization deal with the demands of a more health-conscious population. 2. 2. 4 Changes in lifestyles trends are affecting the way in which people view work, purchases, leisure time and society. 2. 2. 5 The changing workplace creates a need for non-traditional employees. Organizations are currently resorting to a core/periphery workforce, teleworking, multi-skilled workers and outsourcing. 2. 2. 6 The knowledge asset of the company, its people, is becoming increasingly crucial to its competitive wellbeing. Other possible drivers of change are as follows: The degree of uncertainty in the environment within which the organization operates. •The extent of diversity in products and markets . •Technology •Culture. Internationalization in particular has enhanced the need for change in the following ways: •Organizational solutions based simply on either centralization or decentralization will not meet the complexity of modern environment. •Processes and structure need to allow differentiation to meet the needs of various products, functions and countries. •Integrative processes are needed if diverse interests are to be balanced- i. e must work at maintaining interfaces, networks, etc. Effective information flows throughout the business are a vital source of added value. Example: -Technological change- Faster, better communication, faster better transportation, more information networks communicating people globally. -International Economic Integration- Fewer tariffs, currencies linked via floating exchange rates, more global capital inflows -Maturation of markets in developed countries- slower domestic growth, more aggressive exporters, more deregulation. -Fall of communism and socialist regimes- more countries linked to capitalist system, more privatization.

In general organizational change can occur at 3 levels- and since the patterns of resistance to change are different for each, the patterns in each level require different change strategies and techniques. These levels involve: (a) Changing the individuals who work in the organization- their skills, values, attitudes and eventually behaviour, but making sure that such individual behaviour change is always regarded as instrumental to organizational change. (b) Changing various structures and systems- rewarding systems, reporting relationships, work design etc. c) Directly changing the organizational climate or interpersonal style- how open people are with each other, how conflict is managed, how decisions are made, etc. The necessity of more creative change effort can be appreciated by comparing in the table below the 20th and 21st century organization. The 20th and 21st century organization 20th Century21st Century STRUCURE •Bureaucratic •Multileveled •Organized with expectation that senior management will manage •Characterized by policies and procedures that create many complicated internal interdependencies STRUCTURE •Nonbureacratic with fewer rules and employees Limited to fewer levels •Organized with the expectation that management will lead, lower-level employees will change •Characterized by policies and procedures that produce the minimal interdependence needed to serve customers SYSTEMS •Depend on few performance information systems •Distribute performance data to executives only •Offer management training support systems to senior people onlySYSTEMS •Depend on many performance information systems, providing data on customers especially. •Distribute performance data widely •Offer managerial training and support system to many people CULTURE •Inwardly focused •Centralized Slow to make decisions •Political •Risk averseCULTURE •Externally oriented •Empowering •Quick to make decisions •Open and candid •More risk tolerant 2. 3 Theoretical foundations. There are 3 schools of thought that form the central planks on which change management theory stands: ? the individual perspective school; ?the Group Dynamics school; ?the Open Systems school. 2. 3. 1 The individual Perspective School. The supporters of thus school are slit into two: the Behaviorist and the Gestalt-Field psychologists. 2. 3. 1. 1 The Behaviorist Theory -It views theory as resulting from an individual’s interaction with the environment. All behavior is learned; the individual is the passive recipient of external and objective data (recall the Pavlov dogs) -Behavior that is rewarded tends to be repeated, and behavior that is ignored tend not to be. Therefore, in order to change behavior, it is necessary to change the conditions that cause it. -Behavior modification involves the manipulation of reinforcing stimuli so as to reward the desired activity. 2. 3. 1. 2 Gestalt- Field Theory ;’ -The theory postulates that learning is a process of gaining or changing insights, outlooks, expectations or thought patterns. -According to French and Bell (1984:140), Gestalt therapy is based on the belief that persons function as a whole, total organisms. And each person possess positive and negative characteristics that must be ‘owned up to’ and permitted expression. People get into trouble when they get fragmented, when they do not accept their total selves…. basically, one must come to terms with oneself,…. must stop blocking off awareness, authenticity, and the like by dysfunctional behaviors” -Thus from Gestalt-Field perspective, behavior is not just a product of external stimuli, rather it arises from how individual uses reason to interpret these stimuli.

In conclusion, Gestalt-Field perspective seeks to help individual members of an organization change their understanding of themselves and the situation in question, which in turn, it is believed will lead to change in behavior. The behavior theory seeks to achieve organizational change solely by modifying the external stimuli acting upon the individual. 2. 3. 2 The Group Dynamics School. -This school of thought originated from the work of Kurt Lewin. -Its emphasis is on bringing about organizational change through teams or work groups rather than individuals. According to Lewin, and individual’s behavior is a function of the group environment, or ‘field’. The field produces forces, tensions, emanating from group pressures on its members. And individual’s behavior at any given time according to Lewin, is an interplay between the intensity and valence (whether force is positive or negative) of the forces impinging on the person. -According to the Group Dynamics School, the focus of change must be at a group level and should concentrate on influencing and changing the group’s norms, roles and values. -Norms are rules or standards that define what people should do, think or feel in a given situation.

The norms can either be explicit or implicit. Explicit norms are formal, written rules which are known by, and applicable to all. Implicit norms are informal and unwritten, and individuals may not even be consciously aware of them. It is the implicit norms that have been identified as playing a vital role in dictating the action of group members. -Roles are patterns of behavior to which individuals and groups are expected to conform. In organization terms, roles are formerly defined by job descriptions, and performance targets, though in practice are also strongly influenced by norms and values as well.

Unless the roles are both clearly defined and compatible, the result can be sub-optimal for the individual (in terms of stress) and for the group (in terms of lack of cohesion and poor performance). -Values are ideas and beliefs that individuals and groups hold about what is wrong and right. Values are difficult to define, because group members are not always consciously of, or easily articulate, the values that influence their behavior. Nevertheless, the concept itself is seen as very important in determining, and changing, patterns of behavior. 2. 3. 3 The Open Systems School. The Open System School sees organizations as composed of a number of interconnected sub-systems. -Its approach to change is based on a method of describing and evaluating these sub-systems, in order to determine how they need to be changed so as to improve the overall functioning of the organization. -The objective of this school is to structure the functions of a business in such a manner that, through clearly-defined lines of coordination and interdependence, the overall business objectives are collectively pursued. The emphasis is on achieving overall synergy, rather than on optimizing the performance of any individual part per se. Miller (1967) argues that there are 4 principal organizational sub-systems: •The organizational goals and values sub-system- To operate effectively, the organization has to ensure that its goals and values are compatible not only with each other, but also with its external and internal environments. •The technical sub-system- This is the specific combination of knowledge, techniques and technologies which an organization requires in order to function and its compatibility with the organization’s circumstances is a prerequisite for effectiveness. The psychosocial sub-system- This is the organizational culture, the fabric of role relationships, values and norms that binds people together and makes them the citizens of particular organizations. If the psychosocial sub-system is weak, fragmented or inappropriate, then instead of binding the organization together, it may have the opposite effect. •The Managerial sub-system- It is responsible for relating an organization to its environment, setting goals, determining values, developing comprehensive strategic and operational plans, designing structure and establishing control processes.

The Open Systems school is concerned with understanding organizations in their entirety; therefore it attempts to take a holistic rather than a particularistic perspective. 3. Approaches to Management of Organizational Change. 3. 1 Planned Approach to Organizational Change 3. 1. 1 Definition of Planned Change -Planned change involves common sense, hard work applied diligently over time, a systematic goal-oriented approach, and valid knowledge about organizational dynamics and how to change them.

Valid knowledge derives from behavioral sciences such as psychology, social psychology, sociology, anthropology, systems theory, and practice of management (French and Bell- 1195). The term, planned change was first coined by Kurt Lewin (2004). Closely associated with planned change is organizational development (OD), which is about people and organizations and people in the organizations and how they function. OD is also about planned change that is getting individuals, teams and organizations to function better. Critical set of values that underpin OD that emphasize humanistic orientation and organizational effectiveness are as follows: Empowering employees to act •Creating openness in communication •Facilitating ownership of the change process and its outcomes •The promotion of a culture of collaboration and •The promotion of continuous learning. 3. 1. 2 Phases of Planned Change Bullock and Batten (1985) developed an integrated, four phase model of planned change. The model describes planned change in terms of two major dimensions: change phases, which are distinct states an organization moves through as it undertakes planned change; and change processes, which are methods used to move an organization from one state to another.

The focus of this model is change at the individual and group level. 3. 1. 2. 1 Exploration Phase. – The organization has to explore and decide whether it wants to make specific changes in its operations and, if so, commit resources to planning the changes -The changes processes involved in this phase are becoming aware of the need for change; searching for outside assistance (a consultant/facilitator) to assist with planning and implementing the changes and establishing a contract with the consultant which defines each part’s responsibilities. 3. 1. 2. 2 Planning Phase Involves the understanding of the organization’s problem or concern. This involves collection of information in order to establish the correct diagnosis of the problem. -Establishing change goals and designing appropriate actions to achieve these goals; and persuading key decision makers to approve and support the proposed changes. 3. 1. 2. 3 Action Phase -An organization implements the changes derived from the planning. -The change process involved are designed to move the organization from its current state to a desired future state, and include establishing ppropriate arrangements to manage the change process and gaining support for the actions to be taken; and evaluating the implementation activities and feeding back the results so that any necessary adjustments or refinements can be made. 3. 1. 2. 4 Integration Phase -This phase is concerned with consolidating and stabilizing the changes so that they become part of an organization’s normal, everyday operation and do not require special arrangements or encouragement to maintain them. The change process involved are reinforcing new behaviors through feedback and reward systems and gradually decreasing reliance on the consultant; diffusing the successful aspects of the change process throughout the organization; and training managers and employees to monitor the changes constantly and to seek to improve upon them. 3. 1. 3 Planned Change and Criticisms The main criticisms of planned change are as follows: 3. 1. 3. 1 Much of the existing OD technology was developed specifically for, and in response to, top-down, autocratic, rigid, rule based organizations operating in a somewhat predictable and controlled environment.

However, in a turbulent and chaotic world today, such assumptions are increasingly tenuous and that organizational change is more continuous and open ended process as opposed to a set of discrete and self-contained event. 3. 1. 3. 2 Planned change has been criticized for its emphasis on incremental and isolated change and its inability to incorporate radical, transformational change. 3. 1. 3. 3 Planned change is seen as being based on the assumption that common agreement can be reached, and that all parties involved in a particular hange have a willingness and interest in doing so. This assumption ignores organizational conflicts and politics. In reality planned change may be less applicable to situations where more directive approaches may be required, such as a crisis, requiring rapid and major change and may not allow for widespread involvement or consultation. 3. 1. 3. 4 Planned change assumes that one type of approach to change is suitable for all organizations, all situations and all times. In reality, turbulent times demand responses in varied circumstances.

So managers and consultants need a model that is essentially a ‘situational’ or ‘contingency model’, one that indicates how to vary change strategies to achieve ‘optimum fit’ with the changing environment. 3. 2 Emergent Approach to Change Management The proponents of the Emergent approach to change consider change as a continuous, dynamic and contested process that emerges in an unpredictable and unplanned fashion. 3. 2. 1 Definition and Meaning of Emergent Approach to Change Management – Emergent change consists of ongoing accommodations, adaptations and alterations that produce fundamental change without a prior intentions to do so.

Emergent change occurs when people reaccomplish routines and when they deal with contingencies, breakdowns, and opportunities in everyday work. Much of this change goes unnoticed, because small alterations are lumped together as noise in otherwise uneventful inertia, Weick (2000:37) The rationale for the emergent approach stems from the belief that: The key decisions about matching the organization’s resources with opportunities, constraints and demands in the environment evolve, over time and are outcome of cultural and political processes in organizations.

Creation of a climate receptive to change may be dependent on four conditioning factors: •The extent to which key players in the organization are prepared to champion methods of gathering and assessing information on the organization’s position that increases openness •The degree to which such information-gathering occurs and how effectively it is integrated with central business operations •The extent to which environmental pressures are recognized •The structural and cultural characteristics of the organization. 3. 2. 2 The Emergent Approach to Successful Change.

The proponents of Emergent approach suggest five features of organizations that either promote or obstruct success in change: Structures, cultures, organizational learning, managerial behaviour, and power and politics.. 3. 2. 2. 1 Organizational structure An appropriate organizational structure, in both its formal and informal elements can be an important facilitator to change. An organization with more delegation, which means a flat hierarchy, is in a far superior position to maneuver than one with a big, change- resistant lump in the middle.

Such structures are essential for ensuring organizational survival in a highly-competitive environments because they facilitate continuous innovation and improvisation and allow intensive, real-time communication within a structure of a few, very specific rules. A common aspect of these new structures is the move to create customer-centered organizations with structures that reflect, and responsive to, different markets rather than functions.

One result to attempts to respond rapidly to changing conditions by breaking down internal and external barriers, disseminating knowledge and developing synergy across functions is the emergence of network organizations- virtual organizations due to internet connectivity. The purpose of a network- based structure is that it: manages diverse, complex dynamic relationships among multiple organizations or units, each specializing in particular business function or task. Strong structural silos undermine the teams in many ways making the timely delivery of new services virtually impossible.

Structure could undermine acceptance of a vision in the following ways: The visionThe structure Focus on the customerBut the organization fragments resources and responsibility for products and services Give more responsibility to lower-level employeesBut there are layers of middle-level managers who second guess and criticize employees Increase Productivity to become the low cost producerBut huge staff groups at corporate headquarters are expensive and constantly initiate costly procedures and programs Speed everything upBut independent silos don’t communicate and thus slow down everything. . 2. 2. 2 Organizational culture Culture plays an important role in the life of an organization. If proposed changes contradict cultural biases and traditions, it is inevitable that they will be difficult to embed in the organization. Attempts to realign internal behaviors with external conditions require change strategies that are culturally sensitive. Organizations must be aware that the process is lengthy. Potentially dangerous and demands considerable reinforcement if culture change is to be sustained against the inevitable tendency to regress to old behaviors.

A relatively effective way of influencing organizational behavior or culture is to do it indirectly by restructuring the organization in order to place people in a new organizational context which imposes new roles, relationships and responsibilities upon them. This forces new attitudes and behaviors upon people. An illustration of how culture can affect a change effort if given below: Old organizational CultureNew organizational Culture •Hierarchies •Boundaries •Internal focus•Teams •Connections •External focus •Paternalistic •Second guessing •Controlling•Empowerment •Trusting •Supportive •Analysis Risk aversion•Action •Calculated risk-taking or innovation 3. 2. 2. 3 Organizational Learning Learning plays a key role in preparing people for, and allowing them to cope with, change. Learning means, “the capacity of members of organization to detect errors and to seek new insights that would enable them to make choices that better produce outcomes that they seek”. A willingness to change often only stems from the feeling that there is no option. Change can therefore be precipitated by encouraging dissatisfaction with current systems and procedures or making impending crises real to everyone in the organization.

Whatever the spur of change, staff are unlikely to recognize the need for change unless managers create mechanisms which allow them to become familiar with the organization’s performance, market place, customers, competitors, legal requirements etc. Collective learning is one of the main preconditions of change. The effective organization is one which encourages and supports learning from change. This means that an open management style, encouraging initiative and risk, is needed. 3. 2. 2. 4 Managerial Behavior

The traditional role of managers is that of directing and controlling staff, resources and information. Managers are seen as the ones with the expertise, knowledge and legitimate authority to decide how and when change takes place. Under emergent change approach, instead of directing change from the top, managers are expected to operate as facilitators and coaches who, through their ability to span hierarchical, functional and organizational boundaries, can bring together and empower teams and groups to identify the need for , and achieve change.

Promoting openness, reducing uncertainty and encouraging experimentation can be powerful mechanisms for over-coming resistance and promoting change. 3. 2. 2. 5 Power and Politics The central argument is that it is important to try and gain the support of senior management, local management, supervisors, trade unions and workplace employees to enhance change according to Emergent approach. Managing the political dynamics of change may include: •Ensuring or developing the support of key power groups Use leader behavior to generate support for the proposed change •Use symbols and language to encourage and show support for the change •Build in stability by using power to ensure that some things remain the same. Carnall (2003) identifies 3 basic types of political skill: the ability to utilize resources, such as formal authority and information; the aptitude to understand and manage political processes, such as negotiation and mobilizing support; and the capacity to recognize and engage in various forms of political activity, such as battles over budgets and organizational structures.

Pettigrew and Whipp (1993) propose a model for successful managing strategic change and operational change that involves five interrelated factors: •Environmental assessment- Organizations at all levels, need to develop the ability to collect and utilize information about their external and internal environments. Leading Change- this requires the creation of positive climate for change, the identification of direction of future directions and the linking together of action by people at all levels •Linking strategic and operational change- just as a two-way process of ensuring that strategic decisions lead to operational changes and that operational changes influence strategic decisions •Human resources as assets and liabilities- Just as the pool of knowledge, skills and attitudes possessed by an organization is crucial to success, it can also be a threat to the organization’s success if the combination is inappropriate or managed poorly. Coherence purpose- this concerns the need to ensure that the decisions and actions that flow from the above 4 factors complement and reinforce each other. Key principles for executing Change •Analyse the organization and its need for change •Create a shared vision and a common direction •Separate from the past •Create a sense of urgency •Support a strong leader role •Line up political sponsorship •Craft and implementation plan •Develop enabling structures •Communicate, involve people and be honest Reinforce and institutionalize change Change may however fail under the following conditions or environment (Kotter, 1996); – Allowing too much complacency – failing to create a sufficiently powerful guiding coalition -Underestimating the power of vision -Permitting obstacles to block the new vision -Failing to create short-term wins -Declaring victory too soon -Neglecting to anchor changes firmly in the corporate culture -When new strategies aren’t implemented well Acquisitions don’t achieve expected synergies -Reengineering takes too long and costs too much -Downsizing doesn’t get costs under control -Quality programmes don’t deliver hoped-for results. 3. 2. 3 Summary and Criticisms of Emergent Change 3. 2. 3. 1 Summary of Emergent Change •Organizational change is a continuous process of experiment and adaptation aimed at matching an organization’s capabilities to the needs and dictates of a dynamic and uncertain environment. Though this is best achieved through multitude of (mainly) small to medium scale incremental changes, over time these can lead to a major re-configuration and transformation of an organization •Change is a multi-level, cross-organization process that unfolds in an iterative and messy fashion over a period of years and compromises a series of interlocking projects •Change is a political-social process and not an analytical-rational one •The role of managers is not plan or implement change per se, but to create of foster an organizational structure and climate which encourages and sustains experimentation, learning and risk-taking, and to develop a workforce that will take responsibility for identifying the need for change and implementing it. Though managers are expected to become facilitators rather doers, they also have the prime responsibility for developing a collective vision or common purpose that gives direction to their organization, and within which appropriateness of any proposed change can be judged. •The key organizational activities that allow these elements to operate successfully are information gathering- about external environment and internal objectives and capabilities; communication-the transmission, analysis and discussion of information; and learning-the ability to develop new skills, identify appropriate responses and draw knowledge from their own and other’s past and present actions. 3. 2. 3. 2 Criticisms for Emergent Change. The danger of the purely ‘learning approach’ to change is that managers (and others) may actually recognize the need for change, yet still refuse to ‘learn’ because they understand perfectly well the implications for their power an status. Resistance to change may not be ‘stupid’ but based on a very shrewd appreciation of the personal consequences. Thus experience, especially where it is based on success, may actually be a barrier to learning, in that it shapes cognitive structures by which managers and others interpret the world. •The emergent approach is specifically founded on the assumption that organizations operate in a dynamic environment where they have to transform themselves continuously in order to survive. It is then by its own definition, not applicable to organizations operating in nvironments which require disjointed incremental, or perhaps punctuated equilibrium change programmes. •The focus of Emergent change tends to be the organization and its major sub-systems and, consequently, it less suitable for situations requiring change at the individual and/or group levels. •In both implicitly and explicitly, Emergent approach advocates cooperative change rather than coercive or confrontational change though it sees political manipulation and the deployment of power as essential to achieving this. But in many situations, managers may need to push change through a rapid and confrontational manner. 4. Models of Organizational Change 4. 1 Kurt Lewin’s 3-Step Model of Change. 4. 1. 1 Unfreezing

Lewin believed that the stability of human behavior was based on quasi-stationery equilibrium supported by a complex field of driving and restraining forces. And that equilibrium needs to be destabilized (unfrozen) before old behavior can be discarded (unlearnt) and new behavior successfully adopted. Unfreezing, it is argued involves three processes: disconfirmation of the validity of the status quo, the induction of guilt or survival anxiety, and creating psychological safety. It is further argued that unless sufficient psychological safety is created, the disconfirming information will be denied or in other ways defended against, no survival anxiety will be felt, and consequently, no change will take place.

The concerned have to feel safe from loss and humiliation before they can accept new information and reject old behavior. 4. 1. 2 Moving Unfreezing is not an end in itself, it creates motivation to learn but does not necessarily control or predict the direction. One should seek to take into account all the forces at work and identify and evaluate in a trial and error basis, all the available options. This is learning approach promoted by Action Research. It is this iterative approach of research, action and more research that enables groups and individuals to move from a less acceptable to a more acceptable set of behaviors. In other words, moving to a new state through participation and involvement. 4. 1. Refreezing Refreezing seeks to stabilize the group at a new quasi-stationery equilibrium in order to ensure new behaviors are relatively safe from regression. Refreezing emphasizes that the new behavior must be, to some degree, congruent with the rest of the behavior personality and environment of the learner or it will simply lead to a new round of disconfirmation. In organizational terms, refreezing often requires changes to organizational culture, norms, policies and practices. Lewin’s three-step model uses the organism metaphor of organizations. This is the tendency of an organization to maintain its equilibrium in response to disrupting changes.

This means that any organization has a natural tendency to adjust itself back to its original steady state. Lewin argued that a new state of equilibrium has to be intentionally moved towards, and then strongly established, so that a change will ‘stick’. 4. 2 Force Field Model. This is an approach to understanding group behavior by trying to map out the totality and complexity of the field in which behavior takes place. Lewin postulated that group behavior is an intricate set of symbolic interactions and forces that not only affect group structures, but also modify individual behavior. Thus, individual behavior is a function of the group environment or “field”.

Thus if one plots and establishes the potency of these forces, then it is possible not only to understand why individuals, groups and organizations act as they do, but also what forces need to be diminished or strengthened in order to bring about change. 4. 3 Change Framework Framework for change (see figure below) (Burnes,2004) provides for an overview of the range of change situations organizations face, and the approaches they are offered and the types of situations in which they can best be applied. Turbulent Environment (Large- Scale Transformation) Slow Transformation Slow ChangeQ1Q2Rapid Transformation Rapid Change Q4Q3 Stable Environment (Small Scale Transformation) Generally, Q1 & Q2 represents situations where organizations are operating in a turbulent environment and need to make large-scale wide changes to either culture or structure. -Q3 and Q4, represents situations where organizations operating in a stable organization need to make small-scale, piece-meal and localized adjustments to attitudes and behaviors or tasks and procedures. -Q1 and Q4 represents situations where the main focus of change is the human side of the organization, i. e. cultural and attitudinal/behavioral change. As indicated, these type of changes are likely to be best achieved through a relatively slow, participative approach rather than a rapid and directive or coercive. 4. 3. 1 Emergent Change (Q1) Identifies situations where the culture of the organization operating in a turbulent environment is no longer appropriate. -In this case, an emerge approach is recommended, because relatively large initiatives will be required with the main focus on culture change at the entire or large parts of the organization. -It emphasizes both the collaborative and political dimensions of change. -Should be noted that attempts to change culture through top-down, directive or coercive initiatives are bound to fail. -Thus, though the organization may be operating in a turbulent environment and thus individual elements of the cultural change may be rapid, the overall cultural transformation is likely to be a slow process. 4. 3. 2 Bold Stroke (Q2). Relates to situations where the focus is on achieving major changes in structures and processes at the level of the entire organization. -Because it involves the entire organization or major components, the change is likely to be driven by the center and to the focus of a political struggle, given the major structural changes are usually accompanied by major shifts in the distribution of power. -Changes are therefore likely to be imposed from the top in a directive or even coercive way, depending on the balance between winners and losers. 4. 3. 3 Kaizen (Q3) -Represents organizations operating in a relatively stable environment where changes to the technical side of the organization tend to be relatively mall-scale and piece-meal and with few implications for behavior and attitudes. -Changes occur at the individual and group level rather than at the entire organizational level -In a more participative culture, a more collaborative approach (Kaizen) initiative that brings together a team comprising workers and specialists. 4. 3. 4 Planned Change (Q4). -Represents relatively small-scale initiatives whose main objectives is performance improvement through attitudinal and behavioral change at individual and group level. -Because of the stable environment, the planned approach, with its emphasis on collaboration and participation is considered most appropriate. The changes focus on behavioral and attitudinal attributes thus tend to be relatively slow. In conclusion, the concept of framework for change that allows approaches to change to be matched to environmental conditions and organizational constraints is clearly attractive, its potential weaknesses not withstanding. 5. The Change Process. 5. 1 Introduction to change process. Change in an organization can either be viewed as a –one-off event, an exception to the normal running of an organization or it can be viewed as a continuous process that forms part of the organization’s day today activities. 5. 1. 1 Change as a one-off-event Organizations with this mental model may show the following signs or characteristics: Have no particular approach to change -Are no structures for change -No formal procedure for capturing lessons from one change project to another one. -Each change is seen as a unique event -Each change involves the reinventing of the wheel. 5. 1. 2 Change as a continuous Process. Organizations with this perspective will exhibit the following. -Treat each project as a learning opportunity -Have a system in place to pass on lessons learned to other related projects -Change is seen as an every day event -Management view change as a core capability that needs to be developed and in which all staff need to become competent. 5. 2 Elements of Change 5. 2. 1 Objectives and Outcomes

It has largely been noted that a high proportion of change efforts end in failure. The reasons motivated for this failure may include: -Inconsistency or ill-thought out original objectives or desired outcomes. -Sectional interests in the organization because change often affects the distribution of power and resources other than been driven purely by organizational needs. The inherent political problem in the change problem could be mitigated by ensuring that the process of establishing objectives and outcomes is more rigorous and open. Burnes (2004) has suggested an approach that entails 4 elements in establishing objectives and outcomes: (a)The trigger.

Organizations to investigate change for one of the following reasons: •The organization’s vision/strategy highlights the need for change or improved performance •Current performance or process procedure indicates that severe problems or concerns exist •Suggestions or opportunities arise. (b). The Remit The remit/proposition for change must: •State clearly the reasons for the assessment, its objectives and timescale and who should be involved and consulted. •It should stress the need to focus on as much on the people aspects as the technical considerations involved •All options and considerations must be explored (c) The Assessment Team and the Assessment. This team assesses the need for change and should be as inclusive (multidisciplinary ) as possible.

Representatives may come from the area affected (both managers and staff), specialist staff (e. g. finance, technical and personnel) and where appropriate, a change specialist in organizational change. The assessment covers the following areas: -Clarification of the problem or opportunity. -Investigation of alternative solutions -Feedback to all the affected and interested parties- this is important as the response can provide an important source of information on the advantages and disadvantages of the possible solutions on offer and, thus, it helps to establish the criteria for selecting the preferred solution or solutions. -Recommendation and decision. Recommendations are made in a form that clearly defines the problem/opportunity, identifies the range of solutions, establishes the criteria for selection and makes recommendations. 5. 2. 2 Planning the Change. If the changes are to be large, the success will depend on the involvement and commitment of all those who are concerned with and affected by the change. The following 6 interrelated activities may constitute the planning and change process: (a) Establishing a change management team: The change managing team should be representative just like the assessment team. In some instances, the assessment team can be converted into the change management team. The role of the change management is not just a technical one concerned with establishing plans and ordering their implementation.

Change agents will need a number of skills and with the ability to deal with the unexpected and the “backstage” capabilities. (Backstaging is concerned with the exercise of “power” skills, with “intervening in political and cultural systems”, with influencing and negotiating and selling and with “managing meaning”) Thus in choosing members of the change management team, it is necessary to have the right blend of skills for the change being undertaken, including the ability to deal with the unexpected. (b) Management Structures Depending on the change required, which might be wide-ranging, have multiple projects involving some degree of uncertainty, existing control and reporting systems are unlikely to be adequate for managing the change.

For instance, the more that a change project challenges existing power relations and resource allocation procedures, the more it is likely to encounter managerial resistance. Thus structures that allow the team a direct line, and the public support of, senior managers of CEO, may enhance the success of the project. Therefore, where senior are less directly involved, effective reporting and management structures need to be put in advance in order to provide direction, support, resources, and where necessary decisive interventions. (c) Activity Planning. Activity plan is the road map for the change effort, so it is critical that it is realistic, effective and clear.

It involves constructing a schedule for the change programme, citing the main activities and events that must occur if the transition is to be successful. In order to stay on course, activity planning activity planning should clearly identify and integrate key change events and stages and ensure they are linked to the organization’s change goals and priorities, gain top management approval, be cost-effective and be adaptable as feedback is received during the change process. Thus the 5 key characteristics of an effective plan are as follows: •Relevance- Activities are clearly linked to the change goals and priorities •Specificity- Activities are clearly identified rather than broadly generalized •Integration- The parts are closely connected •Chronology- There is a logical sequence of events There are contingency plans for adjusting to the unexpected forces. (d) Commitment Planning It is a strategy, described in a series of action steps, devised to secure the support of those (individuals and groups) which are vital to the change effort. The steps could be as follows: •Identify target individuals or groups whose commitment is necessary •Define the critical mass needed to ensure the effectiveness of the change •Develop a plan for getting the commitment of critical mass •Develop a monitoring system to assess the progress. (e) Audits and post-audits This is a means of monitoring progress so as to allow opportunities to improve on the original objective to be identified or created.

Post audits are done are carried out to establish that the objectives have really been met and to ascertain what lessons have been learned for future projects. (f) Training and Development -Involves the development of new skills -Aim is to give staff the skills to undertake the change themselves. It may also be the intention to leave them with the ability to pursue continuous improvement, once the change has substantially been achieved, or training and development may be intended to make them aware of the need for change and win them over. 5. 2. 3 People Increasingly, the objective of change is to modify the attitudes and behaviours of individuals and groups.

Thus people are being required to reconsider their attitudes towards how work is performed, how they behave towards their colleagues internally, and their attitudes to their counterparts externally. The 3 people-related activities that need to be undertaken are: creating a willingness to change, involving people, and sustaining momentum. (a) Creating a willingness to change. It all begins by desiring to win ‘critical mass’ of individuals or groups whose active commitment is necessary to provide the energy for change to occur. Lewin (1947a) argued that the status quo needs to be destabilized before old behaviour can be discarded (unlearnt) and new behaviour successfully adopted- the unfreezing process. Establishing a sense of urgency is crucial to gaining needed cooperation.

Thus to create willingness for change, a sense of urgency, a feeling of dissatisfaction with the present, 4 steps can be considered: •Make people aware of the pressures of change- organization should inform employees on a continuous basis of its plans for the future, the competitiveness/market pressures it faces, customer requirements and the performance of its key competitors. This ought to be a participative process. The company may also encourage staff at all levels to spend time meeting and working with customers. •Give regular feedback on the performance of individual process and areas of activity within the organization-This allows the company to draw attention to any discrepancy between actual performance and desired present and future performance. Also iving people the skills and authority to undertake improvement activities is likely to make people more receptive to feedback because they can do something to improve the situation. Feedback can encourage those concerned to begin to think about how their performance can be improved, and prepare them for the need for change. •Understand people’s fears and concerns- Organizations need to recognize that change does create uncertainty and that some individuals and groups may resist, or may not fully cooperate with it, if they fear the consequences. In this respect, resistance can be seen as signal that there is something wrong with the change process or its objectives rather than with those who are opposing or questioning it.

It follows that those championing for change need to pay special attention to the potential for resistance, both in terms of the adverse consequences it can bring and the underlying problems it may indicate. They also need to pay close attention to the organization’s past history of change and the extent to which this reduces or enhances people’s fears and concerns. •Publicize successful change-In order to reduce fears and create a positive attitude towards change, companies should publicize the projects that are seen as models of how to undertake change, and the positive effects change can have for employees. The staff should also be encouraged to expect and set credible and positive outcomes for change programmes. (b) Involving people.

The more a change challenges a person or group’s existing norms of behaviour, beliefs or assumptions, the more resistance it is likely to meet. It follows from this that the appropriateness of an involvement strategy needs to be judged less by the type of change being considered and more by how people will react to it. Organizations need to gain the active support of the critical people necessary to bring about change. The involvement strategy needs to take account also of the size and duration of the proposed change project. Two main activities needed to help secure and maintain a level of involvement throughout the project completion are: •Communication- Need to establish regular and effective communication process to significantly reduce people’s level of uncertainty.

The purpose of communication is not just to inform staff that change is being considered, but by drawing them into the discussions and debates about the need for and form of the change, and allowing the freedom to discuss the issues involved openly, to get them to convince themselves of the need to change. Communication should also be pursued through various channels. As a rule of thumb, it should be recognized that, whilst people are often willing to believe the wildest rumor from unofficial sources, anything from management has to be stated at least six times different ways before people start giving it credence. •Getting people involved- Where large-scale projects are concerned, not everyone can be involved in all aspects of planning and execution. It is therefore important to identify and enroll those whose assistance is necessary and those who are essential to make change happen.

And where possible, responsibility for aspects of the change project should be given to those who will be directly affected by the result. (c) Sustaining the Momentum Even in the best-run organizations, it sometimes happens that initial enthusiasm for change wanes and, in the face of the normal day-to-day pressures to meet customer needs, progress becomes slower and can grind to halt. Thus to sustain momentum, organizations should: •Provide resources for change- Nothing is guaranteed to be more demoralizing than having to make changes without some additional resources or support. This could be provision of temporary staff, the training of existing staff, senior management time, extra computers etc. Give support to the change agents- This could be done by offering them financial rewards, promise of future advancement and public recognition. •Develop new competences and skills- Change frequently demands new knowledge, skills and competences. Increasingly, managers are having to learn new leadership styles, staff are having to learn to work as teams, and all are expected to be innovators and improvers. This requires more than just training and re-training. It may also include on-the-job counseling and couching. •Reinforce desired behaviour- One of the most effective ways of sustaining the momentum of change is to reinforce the kinds of behaviour required to make successful change.

In conclusion, the three interlinked elements that make up the change process- objectives and outcomes, planning the change, and people, one can see that change is complex and so many change initiatives fail. Establishing objectives involves testing assumptions and challenging preconceived ideas. It also involves gathering both fact and opinion, and making judgments about which is the most important. Planning change often involves an impressive and daunting array challenges and activities some of which are amenable to straightaway techniques of analysis and decisions, many of which are not. The last element is most complex, the people. People are not just important because they are often the ‘object’ of change, but also because they are the ones who have to carry it out.

They are the glue that hold it together. 6 Roles and Responsibilities of Management in Change Management. 6. 1 Globalization and the Challenge to Change. The challenge posed by globalization in terms of sustainability, workforce diversity and business ethics demonstrates the need for managers not to acquire appropriate skills and competences but also to adopt appropriate behaviours. 6. 1. 1 Sustainability Managers cannot divorce their actions from the wider impact they have on society, nor can they ignore the fact that a sustainable future for their organizations requires a sustainable future for the world. Hence the need for change management skills.

Sustainability according to Dochery (2002) is not just about relationship of organizations to their environment, or depletion of natural resources: It encompasses three levels- the individual, the organizational and the societal. Sustainability at one level cannot be built on the exploitation of the others. These levels are intimately related to the organization’s key stakeholders: personnel, customers, owners, and society. An organization cannot be sustainable by prioritizing the goals and needs of some stakeholders at the expense of others. Sustainability has a value basis in the due considerations and balancing of different stakeholders’ legitimate needs and goals. 6. 1. 2 Workforce Diversity.

Diversity is dissimilarities – differences- among people due to age, gender, race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, socioeconomic background, and capabilities/disabilities. Diversity raises important ethical issues and social responsibility issues as well. It is also a critical issue for organizations, one that if not handled well can bring an organization to its knees, especially in our increasing global environment. Globalization is intensifying workforce diversity in 3 key areas: •Growth of the transnational corporations means companies are being owned and managed by people from different countries and cultures. •The migration and recruitment of workers from other countries. Increase in participation of women and minority groups in the workforce- There are more women and minorities- including people with disabilities and gays and lesbians- in the workforce than ever before, and most experts agree diversity is steadily increasing. Employees represent every ethnic background and colour; range from highly educated to illiterate; vary in age from eighteen to eighty; may appear perfectly healthy or may have terminal illness; may be single parents or part of dual-income, divorced, same sex or traditional families and may be physically or mentally challenged. Diversity results from people who bring different resources and perspectives to the workplace and who have distinctive needs, preferences, expectations and life styles.

Organizations must design human resource systems that account for these differences if they are to attract and retain a productive workforce and if they want to turn diversity into a competitive advantage. 6. 1. 3 Business Ethics Ethics are moral principles or beliefs about what is right or wrong. These beliefs guide people in their dealings with other individuals and groups (stakeholders) and provide a basis for deciding whether behaviour is right or proper. Managers today are usually quite sensitive to issues of social responsibility and ethical behaviour because of pressure from the public, from interest groups, from legal and government concerns, and from media coverage.

It is less clear where to draw the line between socially responsible behaviour and the organization’s concerns, or between the conflicting expectations of ethical behaviour among different countries. In public at least, there are two aspects of business ethics that business leaders agree upon: all businesses should have them, and all businesses have difficulty abiding by them. The gap between ethical and rhetoric and the reality of unethical behaviour seems to be getting wider rather than narrower. The real challenge for organizations is to change managerial behaviour so that business ethics becomes business practices. Policies, skills and good intentions are clearly not good enough. 6. 2 Management and Leadership and roles. 6. 2. 1 The Manager’s role.

The manager plans, organizes, directs and controls, on proprietor’s or own behalf, an industrial, commercial, or other undertaking, establishment or organization, and co-ordinates the work of departmental managers or other immediate subordinates. The Manager has the task of creating a true whole that is larger than the sum of its parts, a productive entity that turns out more than the sum of the resources put into it. Yukl (2002), in reviewing the literature on management came to a conclusion on management that: •The content of managerial work is varied and fragmented •Many activities are reactive •Interactions often involve peers and outsiders •Many interaction involve oral communications •Decision processes are disorderly and political •Most planning is informal and adaptive

He also found that the pace of managerial work was hectic and unrelenting and during a typical workday there is seldom a break in the workload. Managers receive almost continuous requests for information, assistance, direction, and authorization from a large number of people, such as subordinates, peers, superiors and people outside organizations. Managers according to Henry Mintzberg (1973) serve in 10 different but closely related roles. Interpersonal Roles. Figurehead Role- For instance Official launching of a new product. Leadership role- Involves directing and co-coordinating the activities of subordinates. Liaison role- involves managers in interpersonal relationship outside of their area of command.

Informational Role This role establishes the manager as the central point for receiving and sending non-routine information. The Monitor role-Involves examining the environment in order to gather information, changes, and opportunities and problems that may affect the unit. The disseminator role- Involves providing important or privileged information to subordinates. Spokesperson role-The manager represents the unit to other people. Decisional Role. Entrepreneur Role-The objective of this role is to change the unit for better. Disturbance handler role-This role involves taking decisions or corrective actions in response to unusual circumstances.

Resource Allocator Role-Involves decisions on how the resources of the unit will be distributed for optimal results. The negotiator Role-Involves bargaining with other units to obtain advantages of his/her unit in terms of effectively discharging its mandate. An effective manager is one who achieves what is required of them, whether to transform an organization, or merely to ensure that services continue to be delivered on time, at the right cost and to the right quality. Hence the next important question would be what determines managerial effectiveness? 6. 2. 2 Characteristics of good management and leadership for Change. The Campbell Leadership Descriptor provides 9 leadership components which may effectively drive change. 6. 2. 2. –Visionary- Ability to establish the general tone and direction of the organization. Adjectives that describe leaders who are successful visionaries in today’s global economy are as follows: •Far-sighted- sees the bigger picture in developing a vision for the future. •Enterprising- Likes to take on new projects and programs •Persuasive- presents new ideas that create “buy-in” from necessary constituents. •Resourceful – Uses exciting resources to create successful new ventures •Has a good global view- Thinks beyond national and cultural boundaries. 6. 2. 2. 2 Management- Set specific goals and focus resources on achieving them Descriptions of this characteristic include: Dedicated- Determined to succeed; will make personal sacrifices for the vision •Delegating- Effectively assigns responsibility and the necessary authority to others •Dependable- Performs as promised- meets established deadlines •Focused- Sets clear work priorities for self and others •Systematic- Develops systems and procedures for efficiently organizing people and material resources 6. 2. 2. 3 Empowerment- Select and Develops subordinates who are committed to the organizational goals. Appropriate descriptions for such leaders include: •Encouraging – Helps others to achieve more than they thought they were capable of. •Mentoring- Provides challenging assignments and related couching •Perceptive- Recognizes talent early and provides growth opportunities •Supportive- Helps others deal with difficult personal situations •Trusting- Sees the best in others- not suspicious of differences. 6. 2. 2. Diplomacy- Forge coalitions with important internal and external constituencies: Peers, superiors, subordinates, potential organizational allies and other important outside decision makers. Adjectives describing such leaders include: •Diplomatic- understands the political nuances of important decisions; reality involves individuals and groups who will be affected. •Tactful- Gains goodwill by not being offensive, even when disagreeing •Trusted- Is trusted by individuals and groups in conflict to be fair mediator •Well-connected- knows a wide range of people who can help get things done •Culturally sensitive- develops teamwork among individuals of different cultures, races, religions and nations. 6. 2. 2. Feedback-Observe and listen carefully to clients, customers, voters, students, team members and then share with the resulting information in a manner those affected can accept as beneficial. Those who are excellent in creating and delivering good feedback to their colleagues and organizations are as follows: •A good couch- Gives constructive feedback in a way that benefits individuals. •A good teacher- communicates critical information needed by groups to perform well. •Candid and honest- Does not suppress information that may be personally embarrassing •Listens well- Open and responsive when receiving ideas from others. •Numerically astute- organizes data in informative ways to show trends in individual and organizational performance. 6. 2. 2. Entrepreneurialism- Find future opportunities including increased revenues, expanded markets, or a higher probability of desirable outcomes through mechanisms such as new projects, programs or policies. This trait is characterized as follows: •Adventuresome- is willing to take risks on promising but unproven methods •Creative- Thinks independently and comes up with many novel ideas. •Durable- persists in the face of criticism or failure; hard to discourage •Good fund raiser- adept at securing funds for new projects Globally innovative- enjoys the challenge of creating new programs and projects that go beyond regional and national boundaries- thinks and acts out of the box. The above wide leadership tasks that are instrumental in driving change need to be carried out continuously throughout the organization.

Those who take leadership position however must also have individual characteristics that are categorized below into 3 personal components: 6. 2. 2. 7- Personal style- set an overall organizational or leadership tone of competence, optimism, integrity and inspiration. Such leadership is characterized with an effective personal style as follows: •Credible- Believable, ethical, trustworthy, has few hidden motives •Experienced- Skilled in and knowledgeable about the organization’s core activities. •Visible role model- Understands the symbolic value of personal visibility in both daily and ceremonial settings •Optimistic- Sees many positive possibilities; is constantly upbeat. •Provides an effective global leadership image across cultural categories. 6. 2. 2. Personal Energy- Live a disciplined, wholesome lifestyle that provides the necessary energy and durability to handle demands of leadership- long hours, stressful decisions, conflict and resolution etc. Typical specific characteristics will include; •Balanced- Adapts well to conflicting personal and work demands •Energetic- Active, constantly on the go, radiates energy •Physically fit- in good health, physically durable, seldom sick and has no troublesome addictions. •Publicly impressive- presents an appealing, energizing leadership image; good speaker 6. 2. 2. 9 Multicultural Awareness- Be experienced and comfortable working with individuals and managing organizations across different geographic, demographic and cultural borders.

This component recognizes that, with the increasing cultural diversity found in most contemporary organizations and the concurrent expansion of many organizational activities across international borders, leaders at all levels need to be more knowledgeable and sensitive about cross-cultural concerns to be effective agents of change. One needs to be culturally sensitive who can develop teamwork among individuals of different cultures, races, religions and even nations. 6. 2. 3 Team Leadership Roles (Belbin Model of Team Roles). Effective change needs a certain balance mix characteristics among team members. Belbin developed a model that identified 9 different roles that individuals frequently play in a team as outlined below: 6. 2. 3. 1 Co-coordinator- Controls and organizes the activities of the team, making the best use of resources. Clarifies goals, promotes decision-making and delegates well. Calm and self-confident. Can be manipulative. 6. 2. 3. Shaper- Gives shape and form to activities. Dynamic, seeking ways to overcome problems with drive and courage. Sometimes unpopular due to their bullying tactics and irritability. 6. 2. 3. 3 Plant- Prime source of ideas and creativity for the team. Inventive, imaginative, and unorthodox. Sometimes distant, uncommunicative and impractical. 6. 2. 3. 4 Resource Investigator- Investigates and attracts resources-the fixer. Extrovert net worker, good under pressure. Loses interest rapidly so can have poor follow-through. 6. 2. 3. 5 Implementer- Translates concepts into practical actions-the workhorse. Conservative and disciplined, but can be inflexible and unresponsive to new ideas. 6. 2. 3. – Monitor evaluator- Analyses and evaluates ideas in relation to team objectives. Introverts who are rarely wrong. Lacks drive and charisma. Can be overly critical and cynical. 6. 2. 3. 7 Team worker- Supports individual members and fosters team spirit. Adept at counseling and conciliation. Social perceptive but indecisive. Avoids pressure and may compete for status with ostentatious behaviour. 6. 2. 3. 8 Completer/Finisher- Makes sure everything gets finished. Conscientious sticklers who keep deadlines and follow-through relentlessly. Perfectionists who worry too much and can be obsessive, non-delegators. 6. 2. 3. 9 The specialist- Repository of technical knowledge or skills. Single-minded dedicated self-starters.

Only contribute in their area of specialism. It is recommended that typically, a balanced team should constitute the following roles: •One Coordinator or Shaper, (not both) as a leader •A plant to stimulate ideas •A monitor –Evaluator to maintain honesty and clarity •One or more implementers, Team-workers, Resource investigators or complete-finishers to make things happen! (it is unlikely that one person can have more than 3 roles). 6. 3 Effective Leadership for Change 6. 3. 1 Effective management defined. Important as it is to understand the manager’s role, it is just as important if not more so, to understand what constitutes effectiveness.

An effective manager is one who achieves what is required of them, whether that be to transform an organization or merely to ensure that services continue to be delivered on time, at the right cost and to the right quality 6. 3. 2 Management and Leadership The major factor which distinguishes successful organizations from their less successful counterparts is the presence of dynamic and effective leadership. Nahavandi (2000) comments that whereas leaders have long-term and future-oriented perspectives and provide a vision for their followers that looks beyond their immediate surroundings, managers have short-term perspectives and focus on routine issues within their own immediate departments or groups. The differences between management and leadership can be summarized in the table below: ManagersLeaders •Focus on the present Maintain status quo and stability •Implement policies and procedures •Remain aloof to maintain objectivity •Use the power of their position •Focus on the future •Create change •Create a culture based on shared values •Establish and emotional link with followers •Use personal power. However, managers can and do possess both managerial and leadership skills, which they swap between depending on the situation. 6. 3. 2. 1 The Personal Characteristics- Trait Approach to Effective Leadership The emerging approach has been to shift on personal qualities (intelligence, age , experience) or personality traits (extroversion, dominance) to viewing leadership as a process.

In this respect, the focus of leadership has moved to examining the interaction between leaders and followers, and how these leaders influence individuals and groups to pursue the achievement of a given goal. The view that leadership behaviour rather than attributes may be more effective in leadership success has resulted into two main separate classes of behavior: Consideration : The quality of the interpersonal relationship between the leader and his or her subordinates, and in particular the degree in which the leader shows trust of subordinates, respect for their ideas and consideration for their feelings. Initiating Structure: The degree in which leaders define and structure their subordinates’ roles towards achieving set goals.

It also covers the extent to which a leader directs group activities through planning, communication, scheduling, trying out new ideas, and praise and criticism. Blake and Mouton(1985) managerial grid building on these two dimensions (concern for people similar to consideration and concern for production- similar to initiating structure) has identified 5 different styles of management as follows: (a)Team Management- Arises from high concern for people and high concern for production. The objectives are to achieve high levels of both performance and job satisfaction by gaining subordinate’s willing commitment to achieving their assigned tasks. (b)Relationship oriented management- Occurs when the concern for production is low but concern for people is high.

The main concern of this approach is to achieve the harmony and well-being of the group in question by satisfying people’s social and relationship needs. (c)Practical management- This situation comes about where there is moderate concern for production and moderate concern for people. Managers pursuing this philosophy of management tend to avoid difficult or contentious issues. (d)Task management-Concern here is for high production but low concern for people. The objective is to achieve high productivity by planning, organizing and directing work in such a way that human considerations are kept at minimum. (e)Impoverished management- This ensues from a low concern for production and people.

This form of managerial behaviour centers on exacting the minimum effort from subordinates in order to achieve the required result. 6. 3. 2. 2 The leader-Follower Situation Approach to effective Leadership The leader-follower approach is concerned with how the two parties develop an interpersonal relationship with time. The basic premise of the theory is that a leader develops a different relationship with each subordinate. Relationships take two kinds of forms: -The leader will develop a close and trusting relationship with a small number of people, hence both parties have high expectations of each other. The leader expects loyalty and commitment and the follower expects preferment and advancement -The leader will develop a more distant and formal relationship.

In this case, both parties have relatively low expectations. The leader expects the subordinate to comply with rules and perform their allocated duties. In turn, the subordinate expects to receive the rate for the job and be treated fairly. 6. 3. 2. 3 The contextual approach to effective leadership. One of the weaknesses of the leadership literature is it tends to concentrate on the traits of individual managers and their relations with their subordinates. The assumption, both explicit and implicit, is that effectiveness is an attribute of the individual manager, moderated by the leader-subordinate situation; a good manager in one organization will be a good manager in all organizations.

The contextual approach t leadership is a variant of the leader- follower approach to leadership; however, instead of concentrating on leadership behaviour, it focuses on leadership style, and instead of the narrow leader-follower situation, it focuses on the overall organization context and climate. In addition, it is the only one of the three approaches to leadership that incorporates change as a variable. James MacGregor Burns (1978), primarily identifies two basic organization states or contexts, convergent and divergent and two matching management-leadership styles, transactional management and transformational management leadership. Transactional management focuses on maintaining status quo while transformational leadership focuses on overthrowing status quo. (a) Convergent and transactional management.

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