Chapter 1: Introduction And Research Methods
The scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
4 basic goals of psychology?
Describe, predict, explain, and control or influence
Identify the early disciplines which influenced the foundation of psychology?
Philosophy and Physiology
Identify the founder of psychology?
Identify the 2 early schools of psychology associated with E. Titchner and W. James?
Structuralism (Titchner) and functionalism (James)
Emphasized studying the most basic components, or structures, of conscious experiences (introspection).
Emphasized studying the purpose, or function, of behavior and mental processes.
Define the Scientific Method.
A set of assumptions, attitudes and procedures that guide researchers in creating questions to investigate, in generating evidence, and in drawing conclusions.
Whats the 4 basic steps of the Scientific Method?
-FORMULATE a specific question that can be tested.
-DESIGN a study to collect relevant data.
-ANALYZE the data to arrive at conclusions.
-REPORT the results.
Define Empirical Evidence.
Verifiable evidence that is based upon objective observation, measurement, and/or experimentation.
A factor that can vary, or change, in ways that can be observed, measured, and verified.
Define Operational Definition.
A precise description of how the variables in a study will be manipulated or measured.
Define Statistical Significance.
A mathematical indication that research results are not very likely to have occurred by chance.
A tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables; a testable prediction or question.
A tentative explanation that tries to integrate and account for the relationship of various findings and observations.
Fake or False science that makes claims based on little or no scientific evidence.
Explain why we use Descriptive Research.
Used to systematically observe and describe behavior.
Whats the 4 types of descriptive research methods?
Define Naturalistic Observation.
The systematic observation and recording of behaviors as they occur in their natural setting.
Define Case Study.
An intensive study of a single individual or small group of individuals.
A questionnaire or interview designed to investigate the opinions, behaviors, or characteristics of a particular group.
Define Correlational Study.
A research strategy that allows the precise calculation of how strongly related two factors are to each other.
Explain why we use Correlational Studies.
Used to analyze the data gathered by any type of descriptive method, and are also used to analyze the results of experiments.
Define Correlation Coefficient.
Is a numerical indicator of the strength of the relationship between two factors.
Define Positive Correlation.
Is one in which the two factors vary in the same direction.
(the two factors increase and decrease together)
Define Negative Correlation.
Is one in which the two variable move in opposite directions. (as one factor decreases the other increases)
Explain why we use Experimental Research Methods?
Used to demonstrate a cause and effect relationship between two variables.
Define Independent Variable.
The purposely manipulated factor thought to produce change in an experiment; also called the treatment variable.
Define Dependent Variable.
The factor that is observed and measured for change in an experiment, thought to be influenced by the independent variable; also called the outcome variable.
Define Random Assignment.
The process of assigning participants to experimental conditions so that all participants have an equal chance of change of being assigned to any of the conditions or groups in the study.
A fake substance, treatment, or procedure that has no known direct effects.
Define Placebo Effect.
Any change attributed to a person’s beliefs and expectations rather than to an actual drug, treatment, or procedure.
Define Confounding Variable.
A factor or variable other than the ones being studied that, if not controlled, could affect the outcome of an experiment; also called an extraneous variable.
Identify the organization responsible for developing ethical guidelines under which human and animal research is conducted.
The American Psychological Association (APA)
Explain the concept of informed consent.
The psychologist must inform the participants of the purpose of the research and must also explain that participants are free to decline to participate or to withdraw from the research at any time.