Chapter 10 AP FINALS

Typical middle schools comprise grades
c. 6th to 8th
Middle school represents a challenge for adolescents because
b. rather than spending the day in a self contained classroom, students move from one class to another
Middle school represents a challenge for adolescents because
b. they are typically the youngest and least experiences and at the bottom of the status hierarchy
Junior high schools were typically comprised of grades
a. 7th to 8th
One reason for the development of junior high schools was that
c. concerns arose that students were not starting college preparation early enough and earlier and more rigorous training was needed

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Dissatisfaction with junior high schools began to increase because it was argued that
a. the developmental stage of early adolescence required a different form of education from that supplied to older adolescents
Which of the following is NOT one of the 8 principles that underlie good education for adolescents in middle schools?
c. Provide opportunities for students to learn to succeed through independent learning where students achieve a goal without the assistance from other students
Proponents of middle school suggested that schools needed to go beyond the subject matter curriculum and engage students socially and emotionally, addressing the needs of the __ child.
d. whole
Middle school advocates promoted an emphasis on __ learning, in which students are given the opportunity to participate in hands on learning experience, identifying principles on their own through experimentation.
a. discovery
Which of the following is NOT a criticism of middle schools?
b. Middle school students fare much worse than students in other school configurations, such as junior high schools
One reason for the discouraging research results about the effectiveness of middle schools may be that
d. the middle school philosophy may not have been fully implemented in many schools.
An approach to education, known as the __ model, suggests that the goal of education is to assimilate individual cultural identities into a unique, unified American culture.
a. cultural assimilation
Which model of education would discourage non-English speaking students from speaking their native tongues and totally immerse those students in English?
a. cultural assimilation
An approach to education, known as the __ model, suggests that American society is made up of diverse, coequal cultural groups that should preserve their individual cultural features
c. pluralistic society
Advocates of the __ model argued that teachers, by discouraging students’ use of their native tongues, denigrated students’ cultural heritages and lowered their self esteem.
c. pluralistic society
An approach to education, known as the __ model attempts to help minority students develop competence in the culture of the majority group while maintaining positive group identities that build on their original cultures
d. multicultural
A pluralistic society model for education is likely to promote a __ identity among students, a dual identity in which adolescents maintain their original cultural identities while also integrating themselves into the dominant culture
c. bicultural
Adolescents ho enter school with little or no English proficiency, known as ___, must learn both the standard curriculum and the language in which that curriculum is taught
a. English language learners
One approach to educating students who don’t at first speak english is ___ education, in which adolescents are initially taught in their native language
c. bilingual
The Ultimate goal of bilingual education is to
c. gradually shift instruction into English
Which of the following is NOT true about knowing more than one language?
d. knowing more than one language slows the important process of assimilation into American culture and as a result lowers adolescents’ self esteem
Knowing more than one language likely
c. is related to higher scores on tests of intelligence
The term__ refers to a major education phenomenon in which students are taught not by teachers in schools but by their parents in their own homes
a. home schooling
One drawback to homeschooling is that it may
d. limit social interaction with groups of adolescents that is inherent in classrooms in traditional schools
About __ of U.S. high school students graduate
High school students from middle- and high -SES homes are more likely than those from low SES homes to
c. score higher on achievement tests
Which of the following is NOT a reason that students from middle – and high- SES homes achieve at higher levels than those from low-SES schools
a. they may be more likely to be home schooled
Adolescents from poor families may lack __, the learned expectation that one is capable of carrying out a behavior or producing a desired outcome in a particular situation
b. self efficacy
Adolescents high in self efficacy may
d. exert more effort and show more persistence when face with challenging tasks
John Ogbu suggested that the motivation of African American adolescents to succeed may be the result of
d. involuntary immigration of their ancestors who came to the U.S. as slaves
One factor in the differential success of various ethnic and racial groups has to do with academic __– their explanations of the reasons behind academic success
a. attributions
Students are more likely to do better in school if they believe that success is the result of
a. temporary situational factors such as how hard they work
In contrast to mothers, teachers, and students in the U.S., those in Japan And Taiwan all believe strongly that
b. students in a typical class have the same amount of ability
In contrast to mothers, teachers and students in Japan and Taiwan, those in the U.S. believe strongly that
a. there are significant differences in ability among students in a typical class
According to some developmentalists, different __ orientations may explain the fact that asian students frequently outperform american students in intenternational comparisons of student achievement
a. attributional
Being pushed to attend a __ school is one type of intense pressure under which Asian children are often place
c. cram
Which of the following was NOT a finding of the study by David Crystal and colleagues?
d. Asian students experienced high levels of depression than their US counterparts
As compared to Asian students, U.S. students may
a. view academics as only one of many spheres in which they need to achieve
Males make up about __ of the college population
Boys are __ likely to be placed in special education classes
a. twice as
One factor that may contribute to declining male academic performance may be
d. curriculum reforms that that have cut back on physical education and sports
The phenomenon referred to as the __ refers to the cycle of behavior in which a teacher transmits an expectation about a student and there by actually brings about the expected behavior
c. self fulfilling prophecy
High school dropouts earn __ less than high school graduates
a. 42%
High school dropouts earn __ less than high school gradates
The unemployment rate for high school dropouts is
About __ of the school age population is considered mentally retarded
a. 1-3%
The disability __ is characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior involving conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills.
b. mental retardation
One problem with the definition of mental retardation is that
b. it included many adolescents who experts believe should not be classified as mentally retarded
People whose IQ scores range from 50 to 55 are classified as having __ retardation
d. mild
Typically, the retardation of people with __ retardation is not even identified before they reach school, other their early development is often slower than average.
d. mild
People whose IQ scores range from 35 or 40 to 50 or 55 are classified as having __ retardation
b. sever
People with __ retardation are slow to develop language skills, and their motor development is also affected, although they are capable of learning occupational and social skills and can learn to travel independently to familiar places
a. moderate
The intent of Public Law 94-124 the Education for ALL Handicapped Children Act, in the mid 1970s was to ensure students with special needs received a full education in the __ environment, the setting most similar to that of students without special needs.
d. least restrictive
The practical implication of Public Law 94-124 is that students with special needs must be
a. integrated into regular classrooms and regular activities to the greatest extence possible as long as doing so is educationally beneficial
An educational practice referred to as __ is an attempt to integrate exceptional students as much as possible into traditional educational system and provide them with a broad range of educational alternatives.
b. mainstreaming
An advantage of mainstreaming is that
c. excpetional students are __ to the greatest extent possible- provied opportunities to choose their goals on the basis of a full education
An educational practice referred to as __ integrates all students even those with the most sever disabilities into regular classes
a. full inclusion
Children who are __ give evidence of high performance capability in areas such as intellectual, creative, artistic, leadership capacity, or specific academic field
c. gifted and talented
An approach to the education of gifted and talented students is ___ which allows sutdents to move ahead at their own pace, even if this means skipping to higher grade levels
a. acceleration
One approach to the education of gifted and talented students is __, which keeps students at grade level but are enrolled in special programs and given individual activities to allow greater depth of study on a given topic
b. enrichment
Around __ of those who start college finish 4 years later with a degree
a. 40%
The national dropout rate for African American college students is about
d. 70%
In regard to gender in college classrooms
c. men are more likely than women to receive extra help from professors outside of class
Psychologists Claude Steele has argued that because women are aware of society’s sterotypes about achievement in particular domains, women
d. may be hindered as they are distracted by the worries about the failure that society predicts for them
Steele suggested that African Americas may __ with acadmic success by putting forth less effort on academic tasks and gernally downgrading the importance of academic achievement
b. disidentify
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