Chapter 10: Drinking Alcohol Responsibility

Binge Drinking
A pattern of drinking alcohol that brings BAC to 0.08 gram-percent or above; corresponds to consuming five or more drinks (adult male) or four or more drinks (adult female) in 2 hours.
Ethyl Alcohol (ethanol)
Process in which yeast organisms break down plant sugars to yield ethanol.
Fermentation
process whereby yeast organisms break down
Distillation
Process in which alcohol vapors are condensed and mixed with water to make hard liquor
Proof
A measure of the percentage of alcohol in a beverage.
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Standard Drink
Amount of any beverage that contains about 14 grams of pure alcohol.
Absorption and Metabolism
-20% of alcohol diffuses through the stomach lining into the bloodstream.
-80% passes through the lining of the upper third of the small intestine.
-The concentration of the alcohol; quantity consumed; amount of food in stomach; pylorospasm (spasm of the pyloric valve in the digestive system); your metabolism, weight, and BMI; and your mood all affect the absorption of alcohol.
-Wine/beer absorbed slowly than distilled beverages.
-Champagne/ carbonated drinks absorbed rapidly.
-more alcohol you consume, the longer it takes to absorb it. Alcohol irritates digestive system.
Absorption and Metabolism 2
-pyloric valve controls the release of stomach contents into the intestine.
-Carbonated beverages cause valve to relax and empty the stomach contents more rapidly.
-High intakes of alcohol cause pyloric spasms that prevent the stomach contents from emptying.
-If the irritation continues, it can cause vomiting.
Alcohol and Energy Drinks
-Students who report mixing alcohol with energy drinks tend to drink more—8.3 drinks vs. 6.1 drinks.
-Those mixed alcohol with energy drinks (AMEDS) also report not noticing the signs of intoxication (dizziness, fatigue, headache, and trouble walking).
-more likely to experience alcohol-related consequences, which include being taken advantage of, riding with a drunk driver, being hurt or injured, or needing medical treatment
Blood Alcohol Concentration
-ratio of alcohol to total blood volume
-despite differences among individuals, alcohol produces some general behavioral effects depending on the person’s BAC
-heavier people have larger body surfaces through which to diffuse alcohol; therefore, they have lower concentrations of alcohol in their blood than thin people after drinking the same amount
Why do people feel the effects of alcohol differently?
Many factors influence how rapidly a person’s body absorbs alcohol and thus how quickly that person feels the effects of alcohol. For example, eating while drinking slows down the absorption of alcohol into your bloodstream.
Blood Alcohol Concentration and Gender
-Because women tend to have more body fat and less water in their tissues than men of the same weight, they will become more intoxicated after drinking the same amount of alcohol.
-Women have half as much alcohol dehydrogenase, the enzyme that breaks down alcohol in the stomach before it reaches the bloodstream and the brain, as men.
-In learned behavioral tolerance, a person learns to modify his or her behavior in order to appear sober despite a high BAC.
Short term effects of alcohol
-Drinking depresses the central nervous system (CNS).
-Drinking leads to dehydration and headache. Drinkers may suffer symptoms that include the “morning-after” effects.
Alcohol irritates the gastrointestinal system.
-Excessive drinking can lead to a hangover.
-Congeners play a role in the development of hangovers.
-Alcohol use plays a significant role in the types of injuries people experience.
-Alcohol influences one’s ability to make good decisions about sex because it lowers inhibitions.
-Alcohol is a key factor in many rapes and in domestic violence.
-Alcohol contributes to weight gain; the freshman 15.
=Alcohol use plays a significant role in the types of injuries people experience.
Alcohol influences one’s ability to make good decisions about sex because it lowers inhibitions.
Alcohol is a key factor in many rapes and in domestic violence.
Alcohol contributes to weight gain; the freshman 15.
Alcohol, used either alone or in combination with other drugs, can lead to alcohol poisoning (also known as acute alcohol intoxication).
-Alcohol, used either alone or in combination with other drugs, can lead to alcohol poisoning (also known as acute alcohol intoxication).
Hangover
-only cure is to abstain from excessive alcohol consumption
Long-term effects of alcohol
-Even moderate drinking can have negative effects on the nervous system.
-Alcohol affects the cardiovascular system.
-Antithrombotic effect
-One of the most common diseases related to alcohol abuse is liver disease:Cirrhosis and Alcoholic hepatitis
-Alcohol is considered a carcinogen; that is, it can lead to cancer.
-Alcohol abuse also leads to: Inflammation of the pancreas, Interference with immunity, Affects sleep, Blocked absorption of calcium
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
-associated with alcohol consumption during the first trimester, which may affect organ development; alcohol consumed during the last trimester may affect CNS development.
-FAS, partial fetal alcohol syndrome (PFAS), and alcohol-related neurodevelopment disorder (ARND) are all classified as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). An estimated 40,000 infants in the United States are affected by FASDs each year.
Alcohol Use in college
-Large numbers of college students report having consumed alcohol in the past 30 days.
-About 40% of all college students engage in heavy episodic (binge) drinking.
-A significant number of students experience negative consequences as a result of their alcohol consumption.
-35% of students report having done something they regret after drinking.
High-risk drinking and college students
-According to a recent study, 1,825 college students die each year due to alcohol-related unintentional injuries.
-Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death among 18- to 24-year-olds, and alcohol is the leading contributor to those deaths.
-Consumption of alcohol is the number one cause of preventable death among college students.
Why do college students drink so much?
-Most students are likely to drink in college, especially if drinking is approved of by parents and if they drank in high school.
-Many college functions support the use of alcohol.
-Alcohol advertising and promotion target students.
-College students are vulnerable to peer influence.
-Drink specials enable students to consume large amounts of alcohol cheaply.
-College administrators often deny that alcohol problems exist on their campus.
-Students believe that alcohol will make them feel better, less stressed, more sociable, and less self-conscious.
-More than 80 percent of students drink alcohol to celebrate their twenty-first birthday, and they consume an average of nearly 13 drinks
College student drinking behavior
-Pre-gaming is a strategy of drinking heavily at home before going out to an event or other location; it has become increasingly common on college campuses.
-Recent studies confirm that drinkers and binge drinkers cause problems not only for themselves but also for those around them.
-There is significant evidence that campus rape is linked to binge drinking as well as sleep disruptions, vandalism, negative academic consequences, etc.
Efforts to Reduce Student Drinking
-Most fraternities have elected to have “dry” houses.
-Programs that include cognitive behavior skills training and motivational interviewing have proven to be effective.
-(BASICS) as an effective program for students who drink heavily and have experienced or are at risk for alcohol-related problems.
-E-Interventions and web interventions also show promise
-Schools are trying a “social norms” approach in an effort to reduce alcohol consumption.
Drinking and Driving
-Traffic accidents are the leading cause of accidental death for all age groups from 5 to 65 years old.
-Approximately 1 of 3 crash deaths, or nearly 11,000 fatalities each year, are alcohol-related.
-A recent survey showed that 23% of college students reported that they had driven under the influence of alcohol.
Native American populations
Their rates of alcoholism are two to three times higher than the national average
African American populations
Their rates of drinking are lower than those of white Americans, but those who do drink tend to drink heavily.
Latino populations
The rates of alcohol abuse and alcoholism among men are high, though many Latinas abstain.
Asian American populations
Their rates of alcoholism are lower than those of the other groups.
Alcohol abuse
drinking that interferes with work, school, social and family relationships, or entails violation of the law.
Alcoholism
alcohol dependence, is the condition that results when personal and health problems related to alcohol use are severe and stopping alcohol use causes withdrawal symptoms.
Alcoholics
-can be found at all socioeconomic levels and in all professions, ethnic groups, geographical locations, religions, and races.
-Data indicates that about 15 percent of people in the United States are problem drinkers.
-Recognizing and admitting the existence of an alcohol problem is often difficult
alcohol and prescription drug abuse
Recent studies have shown that men and women with alcohol use disorders are 18 times more likely to report nonmedical use of prescription drugs than people who do not drink at all.
Cause of alcohol abuse and alcoholism
-Biological and family factors:
Alcoholism is 4 to 8 times more common among individuals who have a family history of alcoholism.
-Social and cultural factors: Social pressure, Family attitude toward drinking
Women and alcoholism
-trend is for women, especially college-age women, to drink more heavily at a later age than males do.
-Women become addicted faster with less alcohol.
-Women alcoholics have greater risks for cirrhosis; excessive memory loss and shrinkage of the brain; heart disease; and cancers of the mouth, throat, esophagus, liver, and colon than do male alcoholics
Effects of alcoholism on family and friends
-Alcohol abusers and alcoholics hurt more than just themselves.
-Children in alcoholic dysfunctional families generally assume at least one of the following roles:
Family hero
Scapegoat
Lost child
Mascot
Costs to Society
-Alcohol-related costs to society are estimated to be well over $223.5 billion annually when health insurance costs, criminal justice costs, treatment costs, and lost productivity are factored in.
-Most people with alcohol problems are employed. It is estimated that alcohol problems contribute to 500 million lost workdays annually.
-A recent study suggests that underage drinking costs society $62 billion annually or $2,070 per underage person.
Treatment and Recovery
-Alcohol withdrawal can result in a severe syndrome known as delirium tremens (DTs), which is characterized by confusion, delusions, agitated behavior, and hallucinations.
-Family members sometimes take action before the alcoholic does. Intervention is an effective method of helping an alcoholic to confront the disease.
Relapse
-Over half of alcoholics relapse within the first 3 months of treatment.
-Treating an addiction requires more than getting the addict to stop using a substance; it also requires getting the person to break a pattern of behavior that has dominated his or her life.
-Many alcoholics refer to themselves as “recovering” throughout their lifetime rather than “cured.”
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