Chapter 11

T/F: Birthplace seems to be a factor in whether a child develops asthma or not.
True
T/F: When comparing the growth of children from ages 6 to 11 to infants or adolescents, one notices that children grow slowly and steadily.
True
T/F: There is a clear treatment protocol for autistic spectrum disorder.
False
T/F: In the United States, the percentage of children with asthma has been stable for about the last two decades.
False
T/F: From age 6 to 11 fewer fatal diseases or serious accidents occur than at any other period in the lifespan.
True
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T/F: Children will have gotten all of their permanent teeth by age 6.
False
T/F: Children with dyscalculia have trouble reading.
False
T/F: In the response to intervention strategy, all children who perform below average receive extra assistance.
True
T/F: Reaction time is the amount of time it takes to respond to a stimulus.
True
T/F: The most commonly diagnosed learning disability is dyslexia.
True
T/F: The hygiene hypothesis states that modern children are overprotected from viruses and bacteria, which does not allow their immune systems to strengthen.
True
T/F: Children with special needs are usually educated in self-contained classrooms apart from other children so that they may receive specialized assistance.
False
T/F: Preschool children who watch TV and drink soda are more likely to be obese.
True
T/F: The Flynn effect has revealed that the average IQ of entire nations has decreased substantially over the past century.
False
T/F: Children between the ages of 6 and 11 are within the developmental stage referred to as adolescence.
False
A child can have autistic symptoms for many reasons. This reflects the developmental principle of _____.

A. psychopathology
B. comorbidity
C. multifinality
D. equifinality

D
With respect to Gardner’s multiple intelligences, a successful farmer is likely to excel in _____ intelligence.

A. linguistic
B. interpersonal
C. naturalistic
D. bodily-kinesthetic

C
A marked delay in a particular area of learning that is not caused by an apparent physical disability, by mental retardation, or by an unusually stressful home environment is referred to as _____.

A. a learning disability
B. ADHD
C. autism spectrum disorder
D. bipolar disorder

A
Treatment of childhood disorders can be difficult because _____.

A. symptoms can change with age
B. younger children have very little variability in symptoms
C. many disorders are not comorbid
D. children often hide their symptoms from caregivers

A
Seamus is very talented at drawing and obsessive about details when drawing pictures. His speech is close to normal, but he tends to shy away from other children and is awkward when trying to relate to others. Which diagnosis would BEST fit Seamus’s behavior?

A. compulsive disorder
B. Asperger syndrome
C. dyslexia
D. ADHD

B
The three signs of an autism spectrum disorder are _____.

A. inadequate social skills, impaired communication, and unusual play
B. inadequate social skills, low intelligence, and impaired communication
C. impaired communication, unusual play, and low intelligence
D. unusual play, low intelligence, and inadequate social skills

A
What allows children to master the ability to read?

A. massive interconnections in the brain
B. increased neurotransmitter activity
C. decreased myelination of the limbic system
D. selective attention

A
The ability to concentrate on some stimuli while ignoring others is referred to as _____.

A. selective attention
B. divided attention
C. automatization
D. reaction time

A
Which of the following is true of treatment for ADHD?

A. Counseling and training for the family and child have proven to be effective in some cases.
B. No treatments currently exist.
C. Medication is the only option.
D. Parents and teachers do not need to be involved.

A
There are three types of gifted and talented students. These types include all of the following EXCEPT _____.

A. students with high IQs
B. students who are divergent thinkers
C. students who are precocious in one of Gardner’s nine intelligences
D. students who are convergent thinkers

D
Seven-year-old Henry has been diagnosed with both ADHD and bipolar disorder. Which term applies to Henry having both conditions?

A. conflicting diagnoses
B. complex diagnosis
C. comorbidity
D. coexistence

C
Over the past few decades, the rates of ADHD have _____ in the United States.

A. decreased
B. increased
C. remained stable
D. have not been measured

B
Which of the following is a learning disability related to math?

A. dyslexia
B. dyscalculia
C. ADHD
D. autism

B
The health habits that children develop during the middle childhood years are _____.

A. unrelated to their health in adolescence and adulthood
B. related to their health in adolescence, but unrelated to their health in adulthood
C. unrelated to their health in adolescence, but related to their health in adulthood
D. related to their health in adolescence and adulthood

D
Payton has an IQ score of 135. According to the distribution of IQ scores, Payton’s IQ falls into what category?

A. average
B. slow learner
C. superior
D. gifted

D
T/F: The percentage of overweight children has not increased in the past 20 years in North America.
False
T/F: One method of educating gifted and talented students that has become popular in the United States is acceleration.
False
T/F: Once a child has been identified as having special needs, educators and other professionals consult with the child’s parents to devise an individual education plan for the child.
True
T/F: The high rate of childhood obesity in the United States is primarily due to heredity.
False
T/F: About 1 out of every 500 children shows signs of autism.
False
T/F: Asthma is associated with environmental conditions.
True
T/F: Obesity is more common among children who were not breast-fed.
True
T/F: Children are overweight if their body mass index (BMI) is above the 85th percentile on the growth chart.
True
Physical activity can benefit children in all of the following ways EXCEPT by improving _____.

A. overall physical health
B. academic achievement
C. problem solving ability
D. oral health practices

D
Most children with autism spectrum disorder show signs in _____.

A. infancy
B. middle childhood
C. adolescence
D. adulthood

A
Each state in the U.S. selects and educates gifted and talented students. Across the country _____.

A. the selection and education process is the same
B. the selection process is the same, but the education process can be different
C. the selection process can be different, but the education process is the same
D. the selection and education process can be different

D
Children who are diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder can vary in the type and range of symptoms they display, but all children with an autism spectrum disorder have _____.

A. difficulty speaking
B. a lack of eye contact
C. difficulty understanding others’ speech
D. difficulty understanding emotions

D
Which factor contributes to the decline in neighborhood play among children?

A. people no longer want to know their neighbors
B. parental obesity
C. the high incidence of juvenile diabetes
D. a scarcity of vacant lot and empty fields

D
Research suggests that children from families that _____ are less likely to see a dentist.

A. have low incomes
B. eat out regularly
C. are highly educated
D. regularly eat dessert

A
How long it takes to respond to a stimulus is referred to as _____.

A. stimulus response
B. waiting period
C. reaction time
D. response time

C
At Devon’s recent check-up, her doctor told her that she is obese. Devon’s BMI is most likely in the _____ percentile.

A. 17th
B. 37th
C. 71st
D. 97th

D
With respect to asthma, the hygiene hypothesis is supported by data showing all of the following EXCEPT _____.

A. children born by cesarean delivery (very sterile) have more asthma
B. farm children have less asthma and other allergies
C. first-born children develop asthma more often than later-born children
D. city children have less asthma and fewer allergies

D
Asthma is a disorder caused by _____ the airways.

A. inflammation
B. enlargement
C. destruction of
D. holes in

A
During middle childhood, children themselves contribute to weight gain by getting adults to do what they want, such as buying them candy or junk food. The ability of children to get adults to do what they want has been referred to as _____ power.

A. influence
B. demanding
C. child
D. pester

D
David is excitable, impulsive, and very active. He also has great difficulty concentrating. He MOST likely has _____.

A. mental retardation
B. a sensory deficit
C. attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
D. childhood schizophrenia

C
Hannah’s BMI is in the 79th percentile, which is associated with being _____.

A. underweight
B. normal weight
C. overweight
D. obese

B
Tina is just learning to read. It takes a lot of work for her to read even one sentence because she needs to sound out every word. After a while Tina will be able to read without thinking about the words. She will then be able to concentrate on the concepts of the text. _____ allows Tina to become a more skilled reader.

A. Selective attention
B. Divided attention
C. Automatization
D. Reaction time

C
T/F: The health habits that children develop during the middle childhood years are related to their health in adolescence and adulthood.
True
T/F: The presence of two or more unrelated disease conditions at the same time in the same person is referred to as comorbidity.
True
T/F: Massive interconnections in the brain allow children to master the ability to read.
True
T/F: The field that uses insights into typical development to understand and remediate developmental disorders is developmental psychology.
False
T/F: Gardner has identified nine types of intelligence.
True
Which statement about treatment for autism is TRUE?

A. Hyperbaric treatments have been found to be harmful to children with autism spectrum disorders.
B. Risperidone has been found to cure autism.
C. Some vaccinations can cause autism.
D. No biochemical treatment has been found to be completely successful for treating autism.

D
Obesity has increased because it is common for _____.

A. preschoolers to attend preschool
B. preschoolers to watch TV and drink soda
C. babies to be breast-fed
D. children to walk to school

B
Since 1980 the rate of childhood asthma in the United States has _____.

A. doubled
B. tripled
C. decreased
D. stayed the same

B
Jane is in the third grade but reads at the level of a preschooler. Jane’s teacher thinks that she reverses letters and may have _____.

A. dyslexia
B. dyscalculia
C. ADHD
D. autism spectrum disorder

A
Ten-year-old Wilson experiences extreme mood swings that do not seem to be influenced by life circumstances. At times he has told his parents that his teachers are idiots and he is smarter than all of them, and at other times he has so little energy he cannot get out of bed. Wilson may be diagnosed with _____.

A. autism spectrum disorder
B. learning disability
C. childhood schizophrenia
D. attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

D
The belief that children’s immune systems need to be exposed to viruses and bacteria in order to strengthen them, but that children are overprotected from this exposure, is called the _____.

A. sterile environment theory
B. hygiene hypothesis
C. spore theory
D. immunity hypothesis

B
Monica brought her 10-year-old son to see the doctor because he was having problems breathing. The doctor informed Monica that her son had inflammation of the airways. Monica’s son was diagnosed with _____.

A. asthma
B. obesity
C. sleep apnea
D. diabetes

A
April is tested on her mastery of college chemistry. She is taking a(n) _____.

A. achievement test
B. IQ test
C. field test
D. aptitude test

A
According to the DSM-5, in order for ADHD to be diagnosed _____.

A. several symptoms have to begin before age 12
B. there must be signs of other disorders, such as bipolar disorder, present
C. symptoms must occur for at least 6 weeks
D. symptoms must occur in only one context, such as at school or at home

A
_____ is considered to be a specific type of autism spectrum disorder.

A. Dyscalculia
B. Mental retardation
C. Asperger syndrome
D. Comorbid

C
Austin is in the grocery store with his mom and he sees the candy-like cereal he saw advertised on television. He asks his mom to purchase it and she says no. He continues to beg, bargain, and pout until she concedes. Austin demonstrated _____ power.

A. influence
B. demanding
C. child
D. pester

D
All of the following have been identified as problems with diagnosing ADHD EXCEPT _____.

A. it has no biological marker
B. it can be comorbid with other biological problems
C. it has symptoms that are only apparent in severe cases
D. it can be comorbid with other psychological disorders

C
Jennica experienced neglect as an infant while her mother suffered from severe depression. The outcome on Jennica’s development could manifest itself in many different ways. This reflects the developmental principle of _____.

A. psychopathology
B. comorbidity
C. multifinality
D. equifinality

C
Many psychoactive drugs are prescribed to children to treat numerous mental health conditions such as ADHD, depression, and anxiety even though they have not been thoroughly tested on children. Therefore, the use of these drugs for children is referred to as _____.

A. psychotherapy
B. psychostimulating
C. off-label
D. inappropriate

C
T/F: Obesity during childhood is not associated with adult development, such as marriage and work.
False
T/F: Each state in the U.S. selects and educates gifted and talented students. Across the country the selection and education process can be different.
True
Research suggests that classrooms deprived of _____ are often considered harder to manage.

A. city life
B. tests
C. screen time
D. recess

D
Aptitude tests are designed to measure one’s _____.

A. potential for learning a skill or body of knowledge
B. achievement in a particular subject
C. capacity for divergent thinking
D. verbal abilities only

A
IQ tests _____.

A. reflect mutlticultural understanding
B. are influenced by culture
C. do not accurately reflect aptitude
D. accurately reflect achievement

B
Ricky’s aggressive behavior could be due to genetic inheritance, exposure to violent media, or living in a violent neighborhood. This reflects the developmental principle of _____.

A. psychopathology
B. comorbidity
C. multifinality
D. equifinality

D
Mariangela has dyslexia. Mariangela is taught in the regular classroom, where she has her own reading tutor for part of the day. This is an example of _____.

A. autism spectrum disorder
B. a resource room
C. inclusion
D. indoctrination

C
Which of the following is most often seen in children who are obese?

A. low blood pressure
B. increased psychopathology
C. high levels of cholesterol
D. increased chance of becoming a bully

C
For a class project, Casey is asked to identify why there has been a decrease in the number of deaths among children in recent decades. His research discovered that all of these factors were related to a lower death rate among children EXCEPT _____.

A. more physical activity
B. fewer serious accidents
C. more effective immunizations
D. fewer fatal illnesses

A
A document for children with special needs that specifies their educational goals is known as a(n) _____.

A. IEP
B. IFSP
C. LRE
D. RTI

A
Jim has struggled with reading throughout his school experience, and has fallen far behind his peers. Based on this, his teacher recommends that Jim be evaluated for _____.

A. a learning disability
B. ADHD
C. autism spectrum disorder
D. bipolar disorder

A
A 3-year-old has a harder time catching a ball, whereas a 9-year-old has an easier time catching a ball. One contributing factor for why the 9-year-old has an easier time catching the ball in contrast to the 3-year-old is _____.

A. increased reaction time
B. decreased reaction time
C. increased stimulus response
D. decreased stimulus response

B
In one study highlighting the role of culture in relation to IQ, Sudanese children averaged 40 points lower when IQ tests required children to _____.

A. use pencils, which they had not used before
B. solve complex problems, which they could not solve
C. sit still, which is not practiced in their culture
D. recall knowledge that they already forgot

A
T/F: An intelligence test is an example of an achievement test.
False
In the United States, about ____ percent of children saw a dentist for preventive care in the previous year.

A. 25
B. 50
C. 75
D. 100

C
With respect to Gardner’s multiple intelligences, a successful professional athlete is likely to excel in _____ intelligence.

A. linguistic
B. interpersonal
C. naturalistic
D. bodily-kinesthetic

D
Madeline is 9 years old and considered obese. While her parents acknowledge that they could adopt a healthier lifestyle, they blame genetics for her weight problem. How many genes are estimated to influence Madeline’s weight?

A. 25
B. 50
C. 100
D. 200

D
In the United States, more than _____ children and adolescents under the age of 18 take prescription drugs to regulate their emotions and behavior.

A. 1 million
B. 2 million
C. 3 million
D. 4 million

B
What is the latest educational strategy in the United States for children who are below average in achievement to receive special help?

A. mainstreaming
B. inclusion
C. resource rooms
D. response to intervention

D
Krista seemed to be struggling academically in her fourth-grade class. After a battery of tests it was determined that Krista had special needs. School professionals met with Krista’s parents to discuss specific educational goals for Krista. What the school professionals and Krista’s parents created was Krista’s _____.

A. IEP
B. IFSP
C. LRE
D. RTI

A
The process by which a sequence of thoughts and action makes the sequence routine, so that it no longer requires conscious thought, is referred to as _____.

A. selective attention
B. divided attention
C. automatization
D. reaction time

C
Achievement tests are designed to measure one’s _____.

A. knowledge about a subject
B. potential for accomplishment
C. capacity for divergent thinking
D. verbal abilities

A
Callie asks Jenna if she wants to play tag with a group of her friends. Jenna joins the group of children. The children decide on the rules for tag and as they play they make sure that each child is following the rules. This informal, child-initiated game of tag is likely taking place _____.

A. in a neighborhood
B. in school
C. under the direction of a parent
D. in a sports league

A
A cause can have many final manifestations. This is referred to as _____.

A. psychopathology
B. comorbidity
C. multifinality
D. equifinality

C
T/F: David is excitable, impulsive, and very active. He also has great difficulty concentrating. He MOST likely has a sensory deficit.
False
Which learning disability is characterized by unusual difficulty with reading?

A. dyslexia
B. ADHD
C. autism
D. bipolar disorder

A
Originally, a person’s mental age and chronological age were factors used to determine his or her _____.

A. achievement on the WAIS
B. intelligence quotient
C. multiple intelligences
D. achievement on the WPPSI

B
What is a sign of autism spectrum disorder?

A. impaired social responses
B. cooperative play
C. low intelligence
D. early proficiency in language

A
William was doing a class report on asthma and learned that several factors may contribute to its development, including all of the following EXCEPT _____.

A. alleles
B. airtight windows
C. sunlight
D. carpets

C
The ratio between a person’s height and weight is expressed as _____.

A. HWP
B. BMW
C. APGAR
D. BMI

D
Achievement tests are to aptitude tests as _____ is to _____.

A. long; short
B. intelligence; creativity
C. knowledge; potential
D. fruit; apple

C
The average IQ is a score of _____.

A. 70
B. 85
C. 100
D. 115

C
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