Chapter 11 Efferent Division: Autonomic and Somatic Motor Control

Neurons in the parasympathetic pathway use which of the following neurotransmitters?
Acetylcholine
Which of the following is the type of adrenergic receptor found in most sympathetic target tissues?
alpha 1
Which of these characteristics is the same in both the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches for the vast majority of neurons?
Preganglionic neurotransmitter
Which of the following is a modified sympathetic ganglion?
Adrenal medulla
Which of these is an effect of the parasympathetic nervous system?
Airway constriction
The diameter of blood vessels varies under the control of ______ neurons, which cause the diameter to ______.

sympathetic; either increase or decrease, depending upon the type of receptor present
The division of the efferent nervous system that controls smooth and cardiac muscles and many glands is the ____ division.
Autonomic
The motor neurons primarily associated with the fight-or-flight response are the _____ neurons.
sympathetic
These neurons secrete the neurotransmitter aceltycholine onto their targets
somatic motor and parasympathetic motor
The two main types of acetylcholine receptor are known as
nicotinic and muscarinic
The neurotransmitter that controls skeletal muscle causes which of the following?
muscle contraction
The target tissue(s) of somatic motor neurons is/are ______.
skeletal muscle
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor administration is a common treatment for myasthenia gravis. Why would this help alleviate some of the symptoms of this autoimmune disease?
AChE inhibition would delay the removal of ACh from the synaptic cleft
Nicotine is thought to cause approximately ______ deaths per year, worldwide.
5,000,000
The two division of the efferent side of the peripheral nervous system are
somatic motor neurons and autonomic neurons
The division of the autonomic nervous system that prepares the body for intense levels of activity and stress is the
sympathetic division
Which statements apply to the parasympathetic division of the nervous system?
It is dominant during “resting and digesting” and its ganglia are nearby, on or near the target organs.
Nicotine enhances the release of _______ in the brain.
dopamine
Which area is NOT normally considered to be an autonomic control center?
amygdala
Antagonistic control of efferent output is the typical of the ____ divison
autonomic
The presence of two peripheral efferent neurons in a pathway is typical of the _____ division.
autonomic
The adrenal medulla is important to the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system because
it is a source of catecholamines, it is considered a modified sympathetic ganglion, and it releases apinephrine and norepinephrine directly into the blood.
Each of these statements is true except one, Identify the exception.
Activation of a receptors opens Na+ channels in the membrane
Which of the following has its cell body in the ganglion?
postganglionic neuron
Which area(s) of the brain exerts control over the autonomic nervous system?
cerebrum, hypothalumus, pons, medulla
Which functions are controlled through the autonomic nervous system?
blood pressure, heart rate, water balance, temperature regulation
Sweat glands contain
cholinergic receptors
Increased parasympathetic stimulation
increase gastric motility
“Dual innervation” refers to an organ receiving
both sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves
Parasympathetic tissue receptor
cholinergic muscarinic receptor
Target receptor for preganglionic neurons
cholinergic nicotinic receptor
Released by all autonomic preganglionic neurons
acetylcholine
Primary sympathetic neurotransmiter
norepinephrine
Sympathetic tissue receptor
adrenergic receptor
The neural pathway from the spinal cord to the target tissue has two neurons, the preganglionic neuron and the postganglionic neuron
true for both divisons; sympathetic and parasympathetic division
Most preganglionic neurons originate in the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord.
True only for the sympathetic division
The cell bodies of preganglionic neurons are found either in the brain stem or in the sacral region of the spinal cord.
True for only the parasympathetic division
Inside the ganglia are interneurons, which modulate messages.
True for both divisions
The neurotransmitter acetycholine is released by neurons at the neurotransmitter synapse.
True only for the the parasympathetic division
The ganglia are found in a chain that runs close to the spinal cord or along the descending aorta.
True only for the sympathetic division.
It releases nonepinephrine at the neuroeffector synapse.
True for the sympathetic division
It contains cholinergic neurons.
True for both divisions
The adrenal medulla is closely allied with this system.
True only for the sympathetic division
On average, one preganglionic neuron synapses with eight or nine postganglionic neurons, each innervating a different target.
True for both divisions
It is important during stress or emergencies (fight-or-flight)
True only for the sympathetic division.
It dominates during resting-and-digesting activities.
True only for parsympathetic division
The two types of cholinergic receptors are
nicotinic and muscarinic
Cholinergic receptors respond to the neurotransmitter
acetylcholine
Cholinergic nicotinic receptors are found in the _____ of the ANS.
autonomic ganglia
Cholinergic muscarinic receptors are found at the _____ in the ANS.
parasympathetic neuroeffector junctions
The ______ is the major source of parasympathetic output.
vagus nerve
_____ are swelling that contain vesicles filled with neurotransmitters.
Varicosities
Autonomic neurotransmitters are synthesized in the
axon
The two varieties of adrenergic receptors are
alpha and beta
The signal molecule ____ elicits the stronger response from alpha receptors.
norepinephrine
_______ postganglionic sympathetic neurons secrete ______ onto their target cells.
Most, norepinephrine
The drug Chantix, which treats nicotinic addiction, is an ____ for the nicotinic receptor.
agonist
Pupil dilation
sympathetic agonist
Salivation
parasympathetic agonist
Decreased activity in digestive tract
sympathetic agonist
Fat breakdown
sympathetic agonist
Blocks secretion of pancreatic enzymes
parasympathetic antagonist
The motor end plate is
A folded area of muscle cell membrane with ACh receptors clustered at the top of each fold.
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